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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538663/the-cytokine-flt3-ligand-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoiesis
#1
REVIEW
Panagiotis Tsapogas, Ciaran James Mooney, Geoffrey Brown, Antonius Rolink
The cytokine Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL) is an important regulator of hematopoiesis. Its receptor, Flt3, is expressed on myeloid, lymphoid and dendritic cell progenitors and is considered an important growth and differentiation factor for several hematopoietic lineages. Activating mutations of Flt3 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In the present review we provide an overview of our current knowledge on the role of FL in the generation of blood cell lineages...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535664/characterization-of-alphax-i-domain-binding-to-receptors-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-rage
#2
Dolgorsuren Buyannemekh, Sang-Uk Nham
The b2 integrins are cell surface transmembrane proteins regulating leukocyte functions, such as adhesion and migration. Two members of b2 integrin, aMb2 and aXb2, share the leukocyte distribution profile and integrin aXb2 is involved in antigen presentation in dendritic cells and transendothelial migration of monocytes and macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of cell adhesion molecules, plays an important role in chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis...
May 24, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535663/up-regulation-of-rank-expression-via-erk1-2-by-insulin-contributes-to-the-enhancement-of-osteoclast-differentiation
#3
Ju Hee Oh, Na Kyung Lee
Despite the importance of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signaling mechanisms on osteoclast differentiation, little has been studied on how RANK expression is regulated or what regulates its expression during osteoclastogenesis. We show here that insulin signaling increases RANK expression, thus enhancing osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Insulin stimulation induced RANK gene expression in time- and dose-dependent manners and insulin receptor shRNA completely abolished RANK expression induced by insulin in bone marrow-derived monocyte/ macrophage cells (BMMs)...
May 22, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535636/-characteristics-of-distribution-and-quantity-of-dendritic-cells-subtypes-in-hyperplastic-thymus-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis
#4
H Huang, P Chen, C Y Ou, L Qiu, Z Z Lin, Z D Huang, W B Liu
Objective: To investigate the characteristics of the distribution and amount of different subtypes of dendritic cell (DC) in myasthenia gravis(MG). Methods: We collected the thymic specimens from 32 patients who received thymoctomy because of cardiac surgery from January 2016 to December 2016 and selected 14 of them as normal control. Meantime, 61 MG patients who combined with thymic hyperplasia and received extended thymectomy were collected and selected 8 of them as experiment group.Immunohistochemical methods were used to label the two subtype DCs: plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) and classical/conventional dendritic cell (cDC), to observe the distribution of these two DC subtypes in thymus and also quantify them in different thymus structures by image analysis software...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535259/altered-organisation-of-the-intermediate-filament-cytoskeleton-and-relocalisation-of-proteostasis-modulators-in-cells-lacking-the-ataxia-protein-sacsin
#5
Emma J Duncan, Roxanne Larivière, Teisha Y Bradshaw, Fabiana Longo, Nicolas Sgarioto, Matthew J Hayes, Lisa E L Romano, Suran Nethisinghe, Paola Giunti, Michaela B Bruntraeger, Heather D Durham, Bernard Brais, Francesca Maltecca, Benoit J Gentil, J Paul Chapple
Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is caused by mutations in the gene SACS, encoding the 520 kDa protein sacsin. Although sacsin's physiological role is largely unknown, its sequence domains suggest a molecular chaperone or protein quality control function. Consequences of its loss include neurofilament network abnormalities, specifically accumulation and bundling of perikaryal and dendritic neurofilaments.To investigate if loss of sacsin affects intermediate filaments more generally, the distribution of vimentin was analysed in ARSACS patient fibroblasts and in cells where sacsin expression was reduced...
May 23, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534191/tgf-%C3%AE-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-key-regulator-of-immune-cells-epithelium-and-the-intestinal-microbiota
#6
REVIEW
Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Kazuhiko Koike
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as chronic intestinal inflammation, and includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, and the condition is characterized by aberrant mucosal immune reactions to intestinal microbes in genetically susceptible hosts. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an immune-suppressive cytokine produced by many cell types and activated by integrins. Active TGF-β binds to its receptor and regulates mucosal immune reactions through the TGF-β signaling pathway...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533400/the-pentameric-complex-drives-immunologically-covert-cell-cell-transmission-of-wild-type-human-cytomegalovirus
#7
Isa Murrell, Carmen Bedford, Kristin Ladell, Kelly L Miners, David A Price, Peter Tomasec, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Richard J Stanton
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains that have been passaged in vitro rapidly acquire mutations that impact viral growth. These laboratory-adapted strains of HCMV generally exhibit restricted tropism, produce high levels of cell-free virus, and develop susceptibility to natural killer cells. To permit experimentation with a virus that retained a clinically relevant phenotype, we reconstructed a wild-type (WT) HCMV genome using bacterial artificial chromosome technology. Like clinical virus, this genome proved to be unstable in cell culture; however, propagation of intact virus was achieved by placing the RL13 and UL128 genes under conditional expression...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533281/pillars-article-differentiation-of-monocytes-into-dendritic-cells-in-a-model-of-transendothelial-trafficking-science-1998-282-480-483
#8
Gwendalyn J Randolph, Sylvie Beaulieu, Serge Lebecque, Ralph M Steinman, William A Muller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533280/monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-a-transendothelial-trip-launches-the-quest-to-understand-heterogeneity-in-the-apc-family
#9
Gabrielle T Belz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533221/cd9-regulates-mhc-ii-trafficking-in-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#10
Vera Rocha-Perugini, Gloria Martínez Del Hoyo, José Maria González-Granado, Marta Ramírez-Huesca, Virginia Zorita, Eric Rubinstein, Claude Boucheix, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) stimulates naïve CD4(+) T cells, triggering T cell activation and the adaptive arm of the immune response. Newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC-II) accumulate at MHC-II-enriched endosomal compartments, and are transported to the plasma membrane of DCs after binding to antigenic peptides to enable antigen presentation. In DCs, MHC-II molecules are included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). However, the role of tetraspanin CD9 in these processes remains largely undefined...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532492/innate-immune-responses-induced-by-the-saponin-adjuvant-matrix-m-in-specific-pathogen-free-pigs
#11
Viktor Ahlberg, Bernt Hjertner, Per Wallgren, Stina Hellman, Karin Lövgren Bengtsson, Caroline Fossum
Saponin-based adjuvants have been widely used to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses in many species, but their mode of action is not fully understood. A characterization of the porcine transcriptional response to Matrix-M was performed in vitro using lymphocytes, monocytes or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and in vivo. The effect of Matrix-M was also evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs exposed to conventionally reared pigs. The pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL1B and CXCL8 were up-regulated in monocytes and lymphocytes after Matrix-M exposure...
May 22, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531845/artesunate-and-erythropoietin-synergistically-improve-the-outcome-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#12
Yunting Du, Guang Chen, Xuexing Zhang, Chunyun Yu, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological syndrome in humans and the main fatal cause of malaria. In malaria epidemic regions, despite appropriate anti-malarial treatment, 10-20% of deaths still occur during the acute phase. This is largely attributable to poor treatment access, therapeutic complexity and drug resistance; thus, developing additional clinical adjunctive therapies is an urgent necessity. In this study, we investigated the effect of artesunate (AST) and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) using an experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model-C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)...
May 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530403/propitious-dendritic-cu2o%C3%AF-pt-nanostructured-anodes-for-direct-formic-acid-fuel-cells
#13
Gumaa A El-Nagar, Ahmad M Mohammad, Mohamed S El-Deab, Bahgat E El-Anadouli
This study introduces a novel competent dendritic copper oxide-platinum nanocatalyst (nano-Cu2O-Pt) immobilized onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate for formic acid (FA) electrooxidation (FAO); the prime reaction in the anodic compartment of direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). Interestingly, the proposed catalyst exhibited an outstanding improvement for FAO compared to the traditional platinum nanoparticles (nano-Pt) modified GC (nano-Pt/GC) catalyst. This was evaluated from steering the reaction mechanism towards the desired direct route producing carbon dioxide (CO2); consistently with mitigating the other undesired indirect pathway producing carbon monoxide (CO); the potential poison deteriorating the catalytic activity of typical Pt-based catalysts...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530155/an-oncolytic-adenovirus-encoding-decorin-and-gm-csf-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-a-colorectal-tumor-model-by-targeting-pro-tumorigenic-signals-and-via-immune-activation
#14
Zhao Liu, Yuefeng Yang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hao Wang, Weidong Xu, Hua Wang, FengJun Xiao, Zhigang Bai, Hongwei Yao, Xuemei Ma, Lan Jin, Chu-Tse Wu, Prem Seth, Zhongtao Zhang, Lisheng Wang
In advanced and metastatic stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), reduced sensitivity to conventional strategies is still a major obstacle to successful treatments. Decorin is an important regulator in the development and progression of various cancers. To examine if CRC patients have altered decorin levels, expression of decorin and its target genes, Met and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were analyzed in their tumors. Compared to normal tissues, decorin expression was reduced in CRC patients' tumors, while, there were increased Met and VEGFA levels...
May 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#15
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529626/cancer-derived-circulating-micrornas-promote-tumor-angiogenesis-by-entering-dendritic-cells-to-degrade-highly-complementary-micrornas
#16
Jiaqi Wang, Huamao Ye, Dandan Zhang, Kai Cheng, Yijun Hu, Xiya Yu, Lei Lu, Jingjing Hu, Changjing Zuo, Baohua Qian, Yongwei Yu, Shupeng Liu, Geng Liu, Chuanbin Mao, Shanrong Liu
Understanding the interaction between cancer cells and immunocytes will inspire new cancer therapy strategies. However, how cancer-derived circulating miRNAs modulate such interaction remains unclear. Here we discovered that circulating miR-410-5p, secreted by prostate cancer cells, entered dendritic cells (DCs), with the aid of argonaute-2 protein. The cancer cell antigens stimulated the DCs to produce miR-410-3p, a highly complementary counterpart of miR-410-5p derived from pre-miR-410. The DC-internalized miR-410-5p degraded the miR-410-3p by base pairing and thus inhibited its function in suppressing tumor angiogenesis, promoting tumor growth...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529511/characterization-of-cd4-t-cell-epitopes-of-infliximab-and-rituximab-identified-from-healthy-donors
#17
Moustafa Hamze, Sylvain Meunier, Anette Karle, Abdelaziz Gdoura, Amélie Goudet, Natacha Szely, Marc Pallardy, Franck Carbonnel, Sebastian Spindeldreher, Xavier Mariette, Corinne Miceli-Richard, Bernard Maillère
The chimeric antibodies anti-CD20 rituximab (Rtx) and anti-TNFα infliximab (Ifx) induce antidrug antibodies (ADAs) in many patients with inflammatory diseases. Because of the key role of CD4 T lymphocytes in the initiation of antibody responses, we localized the CD4 T cell epitopes of Rtx and Ifx. With the perspective to anticipate immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies, identification of the CD4 T cell epitopes was performed using cells collected in healthy donors. Nine T cell epitopes were identified in the variable chains of both antibodies by deriving CD4 T cell lines raised against either Rtx or Ifx...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529069/cholinergic-modulation-of-the-immune-system-presents-new-approaches-for-treating-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Donald B Hoover
The nervous system and immune system have broad and overlapping distributions in the body, and interactions of these ubiquitous systems are central to the field of neuroimmunology. Over the past two decades, there has been explosive growth in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that mediate central modulation of immune functions through the autonomic nervous system. A major catalyst for growth in this field was the discovery that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) caused a prominent attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response evoked by endotoxin in experimental animals...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528967/chronic-fluoxetine-rescues-changes-in-plasma-membrane-density-of-5-ht1a-autoreceptors-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-olfactory-bulbectomy-rodent-model-of-depression
#19
Mustapha Riad, Antonia Kobert, Laurent Descarries, Sandra Boye, Pierre-Paul Rompré, Jean-Claude Lacaille
Reduced serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of depression. The serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A auto-receptors act in concert to ensure homeostasis of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission and regulation of their cell surface expression represent efficient mechanisms to maintain this homeostasis. Thus, we investigated the changes in the subcellular distribution of SERT and 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) in the rat olfactory bulbectomy model of depression using immuno-gold labelling and electron microscopy, and examined the effect of chronic treatment with the antidepressant, fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the subcellular distribution of SERT and 5-HT1AR...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528849/extracellular-low-n-oligomers-of-tau-cause-selective-synaptotoxicity-without-affecting-cell-viability
#20
Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Ram Reddy Chandupatla, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow
INTRODUCTION: Tau-mediated toxicity in Alzheimer's disease is thought to operate through low-n oligomers, rather than filamentous aggregates. However, the nature of oligomers and pathways of toxicity are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated structural and functional aspects of highly purified oligomers of a pro-aggregant tau species. METHODS: Purified oligomers of the tau repeat domain were characterized by biophysical and structural methods. Functional aspects were investigated by cellular assays ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) bromide assay of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release assay [for cell toxicity], reactive oxygen species production, and calcium assay), combined with analysis of neuronal dendritic spines exposed to oligomers...
May 18, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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