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Cuiwei Ai, Ivan Todorov, Marilyn L Slovak, David Digiusto, Stephen J Forman, Chu-Chih Shih
Transplantation of pancreatic islet cells is the only known potential cure for diabetes mellitus. However, the difficulty in obtaining sufficient numbers of purified islets for transplantation severely limits its use. A renewable and clinically accessible source of stem cells capable of differentiating into insulin-secreting beta-cells might circumvent this limitation. Here, we report that human fetal bone marrow (BM)-derived mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs) possess the potential to generate insulinsecreting islet-like clusters (ISILCs) when injected into human fetal pancreatic tissues implanted in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice...
October 2007: Stem Cells and Development
Mary F Carroll, David S Schade
OBJECTIVE: To summarize current data on the magnitude, prevalence, variability, pathogenesis, and management of the dawn phenomenon in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: On the basis of the pertinent available literature and clinical experience, we propose a quantitative definition of the dawn phenomenon, discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms, and suggest management options. RESULTS: The "dawn phenomenon" is a term used to describe hyperglycemia or an increase in the amount of insulin needed to maintain normoglycemia, occurring in the absence of antecedent hypoglycemia or waning insulin levels, during the early morning hours...
January 2005: Endocrine Practice
J F Blicklé, R Sapin, E Andrès
The recent development of specific radioimmunoassays of insulin (Ins) and proinsulin (PI) led some authors to question the classical data on insulinosecretion in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. The aim of this work was to determine the participation of intact proinsulin (iPI) and its split fragments to total insulinsecretion in obese subjects and in various stages of glucose intolerance determined by an oral glucose load according to the WHO recommendations. Five groups were constituted: non obese controls (C), obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance (O), non obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (I), obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (OI) and diabetic patients (D)...
September 2000: Diabetes & Metabolism
R P Königstein
The most important forms of diabetes mellitus are the juvenile onset diabetes (JOD) with primary lack of insulinsecretion and the maturity onset diabetes (MOD) with a progressive lack of insulinsecretion. In the higher age groups one can also find diabetesforms, which need high daily insulin doses, such as cases with insulin-antibodies, with insulin antagonistic hormons and with insulin allergy. Another form of diabetes mellitus in the old age group needing high daily amounts of insulin is due to the reduction of insulin receptors in the peripheric cells...
March 1980: Aktuelle Gerontologie
D Bartko, M Zúzi, J Danisová, M Brezná
The purpose of the work was to assess the insulin secretion after a glucose load in a group of patients with cerebral infarction and in a group of arteriosclerotic and hypertonic patients, i.e. potential candidates of cerebral infarction. The material comprised 46 patients, incl. 29 with focal cerebral ischaemia and 17 with arteriosclerosis and hypertension. After oral glucose administration plasma insulin was assessed by radiooimmuncassay (IRI). It was revealed that insulinsecretion in the group of hypertonic and arteriosclerotic patients follows the rise of the blood sugar level, the rise is somewhat lower than in the control group but persists longer and returns later to baseline values...
March 1989: Ceskoslovenská Neurologie a Neurochirurgie
L G Heding, S M Rasmussen
Concentrations of human C-peptide, IRI (immunoreactive insulin) and glucose were determined during oral glucose tolerance test (1.75 g glucose/kg ideal body weight) in 14 normal persons (N), 9 maturity-onset diabetics (DI) and 10 insulin-requiring diabetics (DII) never treated with insulin and in 3 formerly insulin treated diabetics. The mean fasting levels of C-peptide and IRI in the first three groups were: N: 0.37 +/- 0.02 nM and 0.048 +/- 0.009 nM, DI: 0.86 +/- 0.17 nM and 0.11 +/- 0.029 nM, DH: 0.37 +/- 0...
June 1975: Diabetologia
A Pollak, L Havelee
Alterations of carbohydrate metabolism were studied in infants of insulin dependent diabetic mothers and in small for date babies with and without prenatal dystrophy. Glucose assimilation (Kt-value) and insulin secretion after i. v. glucose load were examinated on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day of life. Infants of diabetic mothers showed the highest Kt-values, fasting insulin levels and insulin peaks of all patients examinated. Hyperinsulinism and Kt-values decreased from the 1st to the 3rd day and from the 3rd to the 5th day...
1977: Pädiatrie und Pädologie
J Mirouze, J L Selam, T C Pham, E Mendoza
12 recent acute-onset ketotic juvenile diabetics were optimally treated during 5 +/- days by means of an external artificial pancreas. Remission of diabetes occurred in 9 patients (75%). In a comparative group of 28 patients treated by conventional subcutaneous insulin, only 3 (11%) steady remissions were obtained. In a third group of 6 patients treated by insulin infusion without feed-back control, only 1 remission (17%) was obtained. The difference between these two groups and the first group (patients treated by the artificial pancreas) is significant (p less than 0...
February 18, 1979: La Semaine des Hôpitaux: Organe Fondé Par L'Association D'enseignement Médical des Hôpitaux de Paris
H Wagner, E Zierden, F Wessels, H Möllmann
In 81 healthy male volunteers with normal blood pressure, normal body weight of different age (18-58 years) an intravenous glucose tolerance test with determination of blood sugar and serum insulin levels was done. Furthermore triglycerids and total cholesterol serum levels were measured. The investigations have shown: 1. With increasing age - independent from relative body weight - a highly significant decrease of glucose tolerance controlled by means of k-value according to Conard is to be measured. 2. With increasing age significant decrease of insulinsecretion after intravenous application of glucose is to be measured...
August 1977: Aktuelle Gerontologie
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