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Marina Parca Cavelagna Teixeira, Tatiana Peloso Reis Queiroga, Maria Dos Anjos Mesquita
Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio...
July 2016: Einstein
Rachel Denholm, Bianca De Stavola, John H Hipwell, Simon J Doran, Marta C Busana, Amanda Eng, Mona Jeffreys, Martin O Leach, David Hawkes, Isabel Dos Santos Silva
BACKGROUND: Breast density, the amount of fibroglandular tissue in the adult breast for a women's age and body mass index, is a strong biomarker of susceptibility to breast cancer, which may, like breast cancer risk itself, be influenced by events early in life. In the present study, we investigated the association between pre-natal exposures and breast tissue composition. METHODS: A sample of 500 young, nulliparous women (aged approximately 21 years) from a U...
October 12, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Rocío N Villar-Quiles, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Gloria Ortega, Inés González-Suárez, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested an association between the month of birth and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), related to environmental factors, mainly sun exposure and maternal vitamin D levels. Few studies have been conducted in Southern Europe countries. Madrid has a continental climate with considerable variation of sun hours between winter and summer, so it may be relevant to study this relationship. METHODS: MS patients, born between 1932 and 2003, 1,335 of them from our database between 2004 and 2015, were analysed...
October 8, 2016: European Neurology
Abdul Razak Nurliyana, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan
BACKGROUND: The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Eitan N Berezin, Claudia C Lopes, Maria Regina A Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level and the persistence of maternal antibodies in infants after maternal immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pn23V). METHODS: Pregnant women were assigned to two groups, during routine low-risk pre-natal visits. The first Group (VAC) received the Pn23V vaccine shortly after enrolment at 28 weeks or later, and the second Group (NO_VAC) received no vaccine. To investigate the antibody persistence, we collected blood samples from the mothers after 1 month of delivery and from the infants at 1 and 6 months of age...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Sachini K Jayaratne, Paul J Donaldson, Mark H Vickers, Julie C Lim
PURPOSE: A poor early life nutrition environment is well established to result in a range of cardiometabolic disorders in offspring in later life. These effects can be exacerbated via exposure to an obesogenic dietary environment. To date, the effect of maternal diet and/or a post-natal obesogenic nutritional environment on key characteristics related to lens growth and oxidative stress has not been undertaken. The present study, therefore, examined the characteristics and oxidative status of the lens...
September 9, 2016: Current Eye Research
Savit B Prabhu, Deepak K Rathore, Deepa Nair, Anita Chaudhary, Saimah Raza, Parna Kanodia, Shailaja Sopory, Anna George, Satyajit Rath, Vineeta Bal, Reva Tripathi, Siddharth Ramji, Aruna Batra, Kailash C Aggarwal, Harish K Chellani, Sugandha Arya, Nidhi Agarwal, Umesh Mehta, Uma Chandra Mouli Natchu, Nitya Wadhwa, Shinjini Bhatnagar
The human peripheral leukocyte subset composition depends on genotype variation and pre-natal and post-natal environmental influence diversity. We quantified this composition in adults and neonates, and compared the median values and dispersal ranges of various subsets in them. We confirmed higher frequencies of monocytes and regulatory T cells (Tregs), similar frequencies of neutrophils, and lower frequencies of CD8 T cells, NKT cells, B1 B cells and gamma-delta T cells in neonatal umbilical cord blood. Unlike previous reports, we found higher frequencies of eosinophils and B cells, higher CD4:CD8 ratios, lower frequencies of T cells and iNKT cells, and similar frequencies of CD4 T cells and NK cells in neonates...
2016: PloS One
Kyle J Beauchemin, Julie M Wells, Alvin T Kho, Vivek M Philip, Daniela Kamir, Isaac S Kohane, Joel H Graber, Carol J Bult
To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS)...
2016: PeerJ
Sinead English, Tobias Uller
Life-history theory predicts that nutrition influences lifespan owing to trade-offs between allocating resources to reproduction, growth and repair. Despite occasional reports that early diet has strong effects on lifespan, it is unclear whether this prediction is generally supported by empirical studies. We conducted a meta-analysis across experimental studies manipulating pre- or post-natal diet and measuring longevity. We found no overall effect of early diet on lifespan. We used meta-regression, considering moderator variables based on experimental and life-history traits, to test predictions regarding the strength and direction of effects that could lead to positive or negative effects...
September 2016: Biology Letters
Myriam Bensemlali, Julien Stirnemann, Jérôme Le Bidois, Marilyne Lévy, Francesca Raimondi, Eric Hery, Bertrand Stos, Bettina Bessières, Younes Boudjemline, Damien Bonnet
BACKGROUND: Pre-natal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) allows anticipation of urgent neonatal treatment and provides adequate information to the parents on cardiac outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the discordances between expert fetal cardiac diagnosis and final diagnosis of CHD and their impact on neonatal and long-term care strategies. METHODS: We included 1,258 neonates with a pre-natally diagnosed CHD and 189 fetopsies following termination of pregnancy at our tertiary center over a 10-year period...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Laura Leismann de Oliveira, Annelise de Carvalho Gonçalves, Juvenal Soares Dias da Costa, Ana Lucia de Lourenzi Bonilha
OBJECTIVE: To identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with prematurity in the municipality of Porto Alegre. METHOD: This was a population-based case-control study. The cases were newborns under 37 weeks of gestation and the controls were newborns over 37 weeks. The data came from the records of 19,457 births in the city of Porto Alegre in the year 2012 from the Information System on Live Births of the Municipal Health Department. The analysis was carried outand adjusted by a Logistic Regression according to a hierarchical model...
May 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Bo Yang, Bo Xu Ren, Feng Ru Tang
Embryo/fetus is much more radiosensitive than neonatal and adult human being. The main potential effects of pre-natal radiation exposure on the human brain include growth retardation, small head/brain size, mental retardation, neocortical ectopias, callosal agenesis and brain tumor which may result in a lifetime poor quality of life. The patterns of prenatal radiation-induced effects are dependent not only on the stages of fetal development, the sensitivity of tissues and organs, but also on radiation sources, doses, dose rates...
August 12, 2016: Brain & Development
Ivy Kiemle Trindade-Suedam, Lília Maria von Kostrisch, Luiz André Freire Pimenta, Carlos Antônio Negrato, Solange Braga Franzolin, Alceu Sergio Trindade
OBJECTIVE: to assessed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and drug abuse in mothers of children with orofacial clefts (OFC). METHODS: 325 women who had children (0-3y) with clefts were interviewed. Data regarding type of diabetes, use of legal/illegal drugs during pregnancy, waist girth and fasting blood sugar at the first prenatal consult were collected. RESULTS: twenty seven percent of the women had DM, out of these, 89% had gestational DM, 5,5% type 1 DM and 5,5% type 2 DM...
August 8, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Steven Hardee, Lea Tuzovic, Cicero T Silva, Robert A Cowles, Joshua Copel, Raffaella A Morotti
Congenital cystic lung lesions (CCLL) are a group of rare pathologies that are usually diagnosed in the pre-natal period. The majority of these lesions are diagnosed at pathology examination as congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) and bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS). These lesions are typically managed by surgical intervention within the first year of life and have an excellent prognosis. We examined the evolution of imaging appearances from prenatal diagnosis to postnatal work-up of these lesions and correlate imaging and pathological findings...
August 4, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Sadia Mariam Malik, Nabila Ashraf
BACKGROUND: Poor maternal and infant health indicators are mostly concentrated among low income households in Pakistan and health care expenditures - especially on medical emergencies - are the most common income shocks experienced by the poor. Public investments in health are therefore considered as pro-poor interventions by the government of Pakistan. This study employs nationally representative household data for Pakistan for 2007-08 and 2010-11 to investigate whether benefits from publicly financed services on Mother and Newborn Child Health (MNCH) are effectively captured by the poor in terms of service utilization...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Alessandro Ricardo Caruso da Cunha, Edgar Merchan-Hamann
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and investigate the factors associated with syphilis in parturient women in Brazil. METHOD: This nationwide cross-sectional population-based study, with regional representativeness, was carried out with parturient women aged 15 to 49 years delivering babies in public healthcare system/partner maternity facilities between January 2010 and December 2011. Syphilis screening was based on a rapid treponemal test. Diagnostic confirmation was based on the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and additional treponemal tests...
December 2015: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Flávio César Bezerra da Silva, Rosineide Santana de Brito, Jovanka Bittencourt Leite de Carvalho, Thaís Rosental Gabriel Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To describe responses issued by pregnant women, and the improvement of the gravidic discomforts after the use of the acupressure technique. METHOD: Qualitative and descriptive study conducted with 15 pregnant women between November 2013 and February 2014 in a Basic Health Unit in Natal, RN, Brazil. The data were collected through unstructured interviews and depositions that were then transcribed and treated according to Minayo's operative proposal, carefully read, compared and organized into two groups...
June 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Peter Berger, Adrian Lapthorn
hCG and its variants are markers for pregnancy tests, pregnancy-related complications, trophoblastic diseases, pre-natal screening of Down's syndrome and doping controls. Strong demands are imposed on diagnostic methods by the dynamic changes in the absolute and relative levels of hCG protein backbone variants and glycosylation isoforms in serum and urine during development of pregnancy or the progression/remission of tumors. Observed differences in the results between commercial diagnostic immunoassays reflect the unequal molar recognition of the different metabolic hCG variants, in particular the hCG beta core fragment (hCGβcf), by the diagnostic antibodies (Abs), as their epitopes are not standardized, and the fact that suboptimal hCG standards are used...
May 30, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Lon V Kendall, Celeste Allaband, Kenneth S Henderson
Parvoviruses have a predilection for rapidly dividing cells such as occurs during embryonic development. Potentially, in utero exposure could lead to immune tolerance in progeny mice. To determine if MPV infection in utero results in immune tolerance, pregnant mice were inoculated by oral gavage with 50 ID50 MPV1e or sham inoculated with phosphate buffered saline at day 5 and 12 gestation. Offspring were fostered to MPV-negative recipient dams prior to development of a milk spot. After confirming the offspring were seronegative for MPV by serology and not shedding by fecal PCR, they were challenged with 50 ID50 MPV1e by oral gavage at weaning or sham inoculated...
2016: PloS One
Pauline Quach, Reem El Sherif, James Gomes, Daniel Krewksi
The overall aim of this systematic review was to identify risk factors for onset and natural progression, which were shown to increase, decrease, or have a null association with risk of primary brain tumour. For onset, the project was separated into two phases. The first phase consisted of a systematic search of existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Moderate to high methodological quality reviews were incorporated and summarized with relevant observational studies published since 2010, identified from a systematic search performed in phase 2...
May 17, 2016: Neurotoxicology
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