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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361675/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-fixed-dose-combination-antiretroviral-drugs-adherence-among-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-on-option-b-treatment-in-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#1
Shandir Ramlagan, Karl Peltzer, Robert A C Ruiter, Nicole A Barylski, Stephen M Weiss, Sibusiso Sifunda
The possibility for all babies to be born and remain HIV-negative for the first year of life is achievable in South Africa. HIV-positive mothers' adherence to their antiretroviral medication is one of the crucial factors to achieve this target. Cross-sectional data were collected at 12 community health centres, over 12 months (2014-2015), from 673 HIV-positive women, less than 6 months pregnant, attending antenatal care, and on Option B treatment. Adherence measures included the Adults AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG) four-day measure, as well as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) seven-day measure...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324879/localized-zinc-distribution-in-shark-vertebrae-suggests-differential-deposition-during-ontogeny-and-across-vertebral-structures
#2
Vincent Raoult, Nicholas Howell, David Zahra, Victor M Peddemors, Daryl L Howard, Martin D de Jonge, Benjamin L Buchan, Jane E Williamson
The development of shark vertebrae and the possible drivers of inter- and intra-specific differences in vertebral structure are poorly understood. Shark vertebrae are used to examine life-history traits related to trophic ecology, movement patterns, and the management of fisheries; a better understanding of their development would be beneficial to many fields of research that rely on these calcified structures. This study used Scanning X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy to observe zinc distribution within vertebrae of ten shark species from five different orders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314159/severe-fetal-hydronephrosis-the-added-value-of-associated-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidneys-and-urinary-tract-cakut-in-the-prediction-of-postnatal-outcome
#3
Sharon Perlman, Lucia Roitman, Danny Lotan, Zvi Kivilevitch, Benjamin Dekel, Naomi Pode-Shakked, Ben Pode-Shakked, Reuven Achiron, Yinon Gilboa
OBJECTIVE: To focus on fetuses diagnosed with severe hydronephrosis and correlate pre-natal sonographic characteristics with post-natal outcome. METHODS: Cases presenting prenatally with severe hydronephrosis (APRPD) >15 mm) were collected retrospectively over a period of 11 years and divided into two groups: (1) isolated hydronephrosis and (2) those associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). RESULTS: 83 fetuses comprised the study group: 35 fetuses had isolated severe hydronephrosis and 48 had associated CAKUT...
January 5, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235189/predictors-of-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Riaz, Sarah Lewis, Felix Naughton, Michael Ussher
AIM: To identify factors found in the research literature to be associated with smoking cessation in pregnancy. METHODS: Electronic searches of the bibliographic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Elsevier, Scopus and ISI Web of Science were conducted to April 2017. All studies reporting factors associated with smoking cessation or continuing smoking during pregnancy were included and systematically reviewed, irrespective of study design. The Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to assess the study quality...
December 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229514/how-obstetricians-and-pregnant-women-decide-mode-of-birth-in-light-of-a-recent-regulation-in-brazil
#5
Rachel Galvao, Nicola L Hawley, Carolina Silveira da Silva, Mariângela F Silveira
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, 88% of births among women with private insurance are caesarean sections, even though a caesarean rate above 15% is associated with greater maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Aiming to reduce unnecessary caesarean sections in the private sector, in July 2015 the Brazilian government enacted Resolução Normativa 368, a regulation requiring the use of partograms, pre-natal cards to document pregnancies, and consent forms for elective caesareans, and recommending that obstetricians provide women with an informational letter about birth...
December 8, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225350/maternal-by-environment-but-not-genotype-by-environment-interactions-in-a-fish-without-parental-care
#6
Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L Head, Michael D Jennions, Loeske E B Kruuk
The impact of environmental conditions on the expression of genetic variance and on maternal effects variance remains an important question in evolutionary quantitative genetics. We investigate here the effects of early environment on variation in seven adult life history, morphological, and secondary sexual traits (including sperm characteristics) in a viviparous poeciliid fish, the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki. Specifically, we manipulated food availability during early development and then assessed additive genetic and maternal effects contributions to the overall phenotypic variance in adults...
December 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207944/incidence-of-breast-cancer-in-chinese-women-exposed-to-the-1959-1961-great-chinese-famine
#7
Dandan He, Yuan Fang, Marc J Gunter, Dongli Xu, Yanping Zhao, Jie Zhou, Hong Fang, Wang Hong Xu
BACKGROUND: The association of malnutrition in early life with breast cancer risk has been studied in Europe by investigating survivors of the Dutch Hunger Winter Famine, but not in China. We evaluated the effect of exposure to the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward famine on subsequent breast cancer risk in Chinese women. METHODS: A total of 59,060 women born in 1955~1966 were recruited from Minhang district, Shanghai, China, during the period 2008 to 2012. A baseline survey was conducted to collect demographic characteristics and known risk factors for breast cancer...
December 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195628/family-planning-decisions-for-parents-of-children-with-a-rare-genetic-condition-a-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
Melanie Gee, Hilary Piercy, Katarzyna Machaczek
Expansion of newborn screening programmes increases the complexity around reproductive choices, both in terms of the increased number of parents faced with making reproductive decisions from the earliest days of their affected child's life, and the number of conditions for which such decisions have to be made. We conducted a scoping review to explore: (i) reproductive decision-making among parents of children with recessive genetic conditions; and, (ii) the involvement of healthcare services in facilitating and supporting those decisions...
December 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188141/the-relationship-between-egg-size-and-helper-number-in-cooperative-breeders-a-meta-analysis-across-species
#9
Tanmay Dixit, Sinead English, Dieter Lukas
Background: Life history theory predicts that mothers should adjust reproductive investment depending on benefits of current reproduction and costs of reduced future reproductive success. These costs and benefits may in turn depend on the breeding female's social environment. Cooperative breeders provide an ideal system to test whether changes in maternal investment are associated with the social conditions mothers experience. As alloparental helpers assist in offspring care, larger groups might reduce reproductive costs for mothers or alternatively indicate attractive conditions for reproduction...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175484/effects-of-hypoxia-at-different-life-stages-on-locomotory-muscle-phenotype-in-deer-mice-native-to-high-altitudes
#10
Kirsten E Nikel, Naman K Shanishchara, Catherine M Ivy, Neal J Dawson, Graham R Scott
Animals native to high altitude must overcome the constraining effects of hypoxia on tissue O2 supply to support routine metabolism, thermoregulation in the cold, and exercise. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) native to high altitude have evolved an enhanced aerobic capacity in hypoxia, along with increased capillarity and oxidative capacity of locomotory muscle. Here, we examined whether exposure to chronic hypoxia during development or adulthood affects muscle phenotype. Deer mice from a highland population were bred in captivity at sea level, and exposed to normoxia or one of four treatments of hypobaric hypoxia (12kPa O2, simulating hypoxia at ~4300m): adult hypoxia (6-8weeks), post-natal hypoxia (birth to adulthood), pre-natal hypoxia (before conception to adulthood), and parental hypoxia (in which mice were conceived and raised in normoxia, but their parents were previously exposed to hypoxia)...
November 22, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170197/-the-more-we-change-the-more-we-remain-the-same-female-feticide-continues-unabated-in-india
#11
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
In North India, preference for sons has been blamed for repeated incidents of female feticide, despite the legislation in the form of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 2002. We describe how a team of local private doctors offer package deals to pregnant women and their families in rural areas. The fetal sex is determined at night using a portable ultrasonography machine.If the fetus is a girl, an immediate induced abortion is offered in the clients' home. If complications arise, women are advised to attend hospital...
November 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110827/long-term-outcomes-of-congenital-lung-malformations
#12
Nigel J Hall, Michael P Stanton
Congenital lung malformations comprise a group of anatomical abnormalities of the respiratory tree including congenital cystic malformations, bronchopulmonary sequestrations, bronchogenic cyst, bronchial atresia, and congenital lobar emphysema. These anomalies are detected with increasing frequency by pre-natal sonography, but may also present for the first time with symptoms in childhood or later life. When symptomatic, there is little controversy that resection is indicated, which is usually curative. When a lesion is asymptomatic there is greater debate regarding the benefit of resection versus continued observation...
October 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037529/the-relationship-between-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-airflow-obstruction-in-us-children-analysis-of-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2007-2012
#13
Stacey-Ann Whittaker Brown, Bian Liu, Emanuela Taioli
BACKGROUND: It has been difficult to determine the individual impact of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) on childhood lung function, as children are often exposed to both. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the association between current TSE and airflow obstruction while adjusting for self-reported prenatal TSE. METHODS: Children aged 6 to 11 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012) who had serum cotinine levels measured and spirometry performed were included...
October 14, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987842/post-natal-management-of-myelomeningocele-outcome-with-a-multidisciplinary-team-experience
#14
P A Beuriat, I Poirot, F Hameury, A Szathmari, C Rousselle, I Sabatier, F Di Rocco, C Mottolese
INTRODUCTION: Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a complex neural tube defect. Few studies report the results of modern post-natal management. The goal of this study was to report the long term outcome of a multidisciplinary approach of MMC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six MMC were included. Clinical status was evaluated prospectively. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 8,1 years. The level of the malformation was sacral or lower lumbar (≤ L4) in 27 cases, higher lumbar (between L1 and L3) in 5 cases and thoracic in 14 cases...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972670/ultrasonographic-aspects-of-the-leontopithecus-gestation-lesson-1840-callitrichidae-primates
#15
Marcelline Santos Luz, Fabrício Delgado Vidal, Carlos Henrique Freitas Burity, Denise de Mello Bobány, Alcides Pissinatti
BACKGROUND: There is a concern about conservation of endangered species today. Among this species, the Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840) is outstanding. Its population has been whirling reduced. So far the reproductive physiology of Leontopithecus has few studies, it is fundamental requisite to preserve this species. Obstetric sonography has become an essential method in reproductive management of primates. METHOD: This method is very helpful to detect early pregnancy and evaluate some deficiency of fetal growth...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954035/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-associated-to-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#16
Bianca Bianco, Denise Maria Christofolini, Gabriel Seixas Conceição, Caio Parente Barbosa
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common muscle disease found in male children. Currently, there is no effective therapy available for Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Therefore, it is essential to make a prenatal diagnosis and provide genetic counseling to reduce the birth of such boys. We report a case of preimplantation genetic diagnosis associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The couple E.P.R., 38-year-old, symptomatic patient heterozygous for a 2 to 47 exon deletion mutation in DMD gene and G...
September 21, 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953269/small-for-gestational-age-prevalence-risk-factors-in-central-appalachian-states-with-mountain-top-mining
#17
Hamid Ferdosi, Steve H Lamm, Nana Ama Afari-Dwamena, Elisabeth Dissen, Rusan Chen, Ji Li, Manning Feinleib
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for small-for-gestational age (SGA) for counties in central Appalachian states (Kentucky (KY), Tennessee (TN), Virginia (VA), and West Virginia (WV)) with varied coal mining activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Live birth certificate files (1990-2002) were used for obtaining SGA prevalence rates for mothers based on the coal mining activities of their counties of residence, mountain-top mining (MTM) activities, underground mining activities but no mountain-top mining activity (non-MTM), or having no mining activities (non-mining)...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946647/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-pregnant-women-towards-varicella-and-their-children-s-varicella-vaccination-evidence-from-three-distrcits-in-zhejiang-province-china
#18
Yu Hu, Yaping Chen, Ying Wang, Hui Liang
Background: The objectives of this study were to examine the knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) towards varicella and varicella vaccine (VarV) vaccination among pregnant women in three distrcits in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods: From 1 January to 31 March 2014, pregnant women with ≥12 gestational weeks were recruited and received a self-administrated questionnaire. The first dose of VarV (VarV1) vaccination status of children from present pregnancy was extracted at 24 months of age from Zhejiang provincial immunization information system (ZJIIS)...
September 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902327/anxiety-in-pregnancy-prevalence-and-associated-factors
#19
Mônica Maria de Jesus Silva, Denismar Alves Nogueira, Maria José Clapis, Eliana Peres Rocha Carvalho Leite
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the occurrence of anxiety in pregnant women and the factors associated with its occurrence; comparing the presence of anxiety in each gestational trimester. METHOD: A descriptive, correlational cross-sectional study. Data were collected from January to May 2013 using the Hospital Anxiety Subscale and a form composed of socioeconomic characterization; gestational anamnesis; life-changing habits and events; preexisting conditions and interpersonal relationships...
August 28, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853439/u-s-epidemiology-of-cannabis-use-and-associated-problems
#20
Deborah S Hasin
This review provides an overview of the changing U.S. epidemiology of cannabis use and associated problems. Adults and adolescents increasingly view cannabis as harmless, and some can use cannabis without harm. However, potential problems include harms from pre-natal exposure and unintentional childhood exposure; decline in educational or occupational functioning after early adolescent use, and in adulthood, impaired driving and vehicle crashes; cannabis use disorders (CUD), cannabis withdrawal, and psychiatric comorbidity...
August 30, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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