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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623456/use-of-5-azacytidine-in-a-proof-of-concept-study-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-pre-natal-and-post-natal-exposures-as-well-as-within-generation-persistent-dna-methylation-changes-in-daphnia
#1
Camila Gonçalves Athanasio, Ulf Sommer, Mark R Viant, James Kevin Chipman, Leda Mirbahai
Short-term exposures at critical stages of development can lead to delayed adverse effects long after the initial stressor has been removed, a concept referred to as developmental origin of adult disease. This indicates that organisms' phenotypes may epigenetically reflect their past exposure history as well as reflecting chemicals currently present in their environment. This concept has significant implications for environmental monitoring. However, there is as yet little or no implementation of epigenetics in environmental risk assessment...
April 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604222/biliary-atresia-clinical-and-research-challenges-for-the-21-st-century
#2
Jorge A Bezerra, Rebecca G Wells, Cara L Mack, Saul J Karpen, Jay H Hoofnagle, Edward Doo, Ronald J Sokol
Biliary atresia (BA) is a fibroinflammatory disease of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. Without medical treatment, surgical hepatic portoenterosmy (HPE) may restore bile drainage, but progression of the intrahepatic disease results in complications of portal hypertension and advanced cirrhosis in most children. Recognizing that further progress in the field is unlikely without a better understanding of the underlying cause(s) and pathogenesis of the disease, the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases sponsored a research workshop focused on innovative and promising approaches and on identifying future areas of research...
March 31, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553408/factors-related-to-high-dental-caries-experience-in-palestinian-pregnant-women-in-the-jerusalem-governorate-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Elham Kateeb, Elizabeth Momany
BACKGROUND: Beliefs about oral health during pregnancy demographic factors, such as level of education and socioeconomic status, are associated with an increased risk of oral diseases during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of pregnant women and the relation to the women's oral health knowledge, beliefs, behaviour, and access to dental care. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, pregnant women visiting pre-natal care clinics at the Palestinian Ministry of Health centres in the Jerusalem governorate were invited to complete a structured interview with questions about beliefs about oral health care and their oral hygiene practices...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543129/a-pilot-study-of-maternal-exposure-to-organophosphate-pesticides-and-newborn-neurodevelopment-in-thailand
#4
Susan Woskie, Pornpimol Kongtip, Wiroj Thanasanpaiboon, Napaporn Kiatdamrong, Nantha Charoonrungsirikul, Noppanun Nankongnab, Anu Surach, Akkarat Phamonphon
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether prenatal exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides from maternal agricultural use are associated with neonatal neurobehavioral effects. A pilot study conducted in three provinces in Thailand measured maternal urinary metabolites of OP pesticides in pregnant women at 7 months gestation and at birth. Within 3 days of birth, 82 newborns underwent neurobehavioral testing using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Comparison of the NBAS test results with maternal OP metabolite levels found the neonates NBAS Habituation cluster score increased with maternal dimethylphosphate (DMP) levels (p = 0...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540524/experimental-demonstration-that-offspring-fathered-by-old-males-have-shorter-telomeres-and-reduced-lifespans
#5
José C Noguera, Neil B Metcalfe, Pat Monaghan
Offspring of older parents frequently show reduced longevity, but the mechanisms driving this so-called 'Lansing effect' are unknown. While inheritance of short telomeres from older parents could underlie this effect, studies to date in different species have found mixed results, reporting positive, negative or no association between parental age and offspring telomere length (TL). However, most of the existing evidence is from non-experimental studies in which it is difficult to exclude alternative explanations such as differential survival of parents with different telomere lengths...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516447/an-agenda-for-21st-century-neurodevelopmental-medicine-lessons-from-autism
#6
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513856/measurement-of-social-inequalities-in-health-concepts-and-methodological-approaches-in-the-brazilian-context
#7
Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva, Maria Clara Restrepo-Mendez, Janaína Calu Costa, Fernanda Ewerling, Franciele Hellwig, Leonardo Zanini Ferreira, Luis Paulo Vidaletti Ruas, Gary Joseph, Aluísio J D Barros
This study aims to describe methodological approaches to measure and monitor health inequalities and to illustrate their applicability. The measures most frequently used in the literature were reviewed. Data on coverage and quality of pre-natal care in Brazil, from the Demographic and Maternal and Child Health Survey (PNDS-2006) and the National Health Survey (PNS-2013) were used to illustrate their applicability. Absolute and relative measures of inequalities were presented, highlighting their complementary character...
March 5, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485239/egg-laying-environment-modulates-offspring-responses-to-predation-risk-in-an-amphibian
#8
Zoltán Tóth, Attila Hettyey
Predator-induced plasticity has been in the focus of evolutionary ecological research in the last decades, but the consequences of temporal variation in the presence of cues predicting offspring environment have remained controversial. This is partly due to the fact that the role of early environmental effects has scarcely been scrutinized in this context while also controlling for potential maternal effects. In this study we investigated how past environmental conditions, i.e. different combinations of risky or safe adult (pre-natal) and oviposition (early post-natal) environments affected offspring's plastic responses in hatching time and locomotor activity to predation risk during development in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361675/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-fixed-dose-combination-antiretroviral-drugs-adherence-among-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-on-option-b-treatment-in-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#9
Shandir Ramlagan, Karl Peltzer, Robert A C Ruiter, Nicole A Barylski, Stephen M Weiss, Sibusiso Sifunda
The possibility for all babies to be born and remain HIV-negative for the first year of life is achievable in South Africa. HIV-positive mothers' adherence to their antiretroviral medication is one of the crucial factors to achieve this target. Cross-sectional data were collected at 12 community health centres, over 12 months (2014-2015), from 673 HIV-positive women, less than 6 months pregnant, attending antenatal care, and on Option B treatment. Adherence measures included the Adults AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG) four-day measure, as well as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) seven-day measure...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324879/localized-zinc-distribution-in-shark-vertebrae-suggests-differential-deposition-during-ontogeny-and-across-vertebral-structures
#10
Vincent Raoult, Nicholas Howell, David Zahra, Victor M Peddemors, Daryl L Howard, Martin D de Jonge, Benjamin L Buchan, Jane E Williamson
The development of shark vertebrae and the possible drivers of inter- and intra-specific differences in vertebral structure are poorly understood. Shark vertebrae are used to examine life-history traits related to trophic ecology, movement patterns, and the management of fisheries; a better understanding of their development would be beneficial to many fields of research that rely on these calcified structures. This study used Scanning X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy to observe zinc distribution within vertebrae of ten shark species from five different orders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314159/severe-fetal-hydronephrosis-the-added-value-of-associated-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidneys-and-urinary-tract-cakut-in-the-prediction-of-postnatal-outcome
#11
Sharon Perlman, Lucia Roitman, Danny Lotan, Zvi Kivilevitch, Naomi Pode-Shakked, Ben Pode-Shakked, Reuven Achiron, Benjamin Dekel, Yinon Gilboa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to focus on fetuses diagnosed with severe hydronephrosis and correlate prenatal sonographic characteristics with postnatal outcome. METHODS: Cases presenting prenatally with severe hydronephrosis (anterior-posterior renal pelvic diameter >15 mm) were collected retrospectively over a period of 11 years and divided into 2 groups: (1) isolated hydronephrosis and (2) those associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT)...
February 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235189/predictors-of-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Muhammad Riaz, Sarah Lewis, Felix Naughton, Michael Ussher
AIM: To identify factors found in the research literature to be associated with smoking cessation in pregnancy. METHODS: Electronic searches of the bibliographic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Elsevier, Scopus and ISI Web of Science were conducted to April 2017. All studies reporting factors associated with smoking cessation or continuing smoking during pregnancy were included and reviewed systematically, irrespective of study design. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to assess the study quality...
April 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229514/how-obstetricians-and-pregnant-women-decide-mode-of-birth-in-light-of-a-recent-regulation-in-brazil
#13
Rachel Galvao, Nicola L Hawley, Carolina Silveira da Silva, Mariângela F Silveira
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, 88% of births among women with private insurance are caesarean sections, even though a caesarean rate above 15% is associated with greater maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Aiming to reduce unnecessary caesarean sections in the private sector, in July 2015 the Brazilian government enacted Resolução Normativa 368, a regulation requiring the use of partograms, pre-natal cards to document pregnancies, and consent forms for elective caesareans, and recommending that obstetricians provide women with an informational letter about birth...
December 8, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225350/maternal-by-environment-but-not-genotype-by-environment-interactions-in-a-fish-without-parental-care
#14
Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L Head, Michael D Jennions, Loeske E B Kruuk
The impact of environmental conditions on the expression of genetic variance and on maternal effects variance remains an important question in evolutionary quantitative genetics. We investigate here the effects of early environment on variation in seven adult life history, morphological, and secondary sexual traits (including sperm characteristics) in a viviparous poeciliid fish, the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki. Specifically, we manipulated food availability during early development and then assessed additive genetic and maternal effects contributions to the overall phenotypic variance in adults...
January 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207944/incidence-of-breast-cancer-in-chinese-women-exposed-to-the-1959-1961-great-chinese-famine
#15
Dandan He, Yuan Fang, Marc J Gunter, Dongli Xu, Yanping Zhao, Jie Zhou, Hong Fang, Wang Hong Xu
BACKGROUND: The association of malnutrition in early life with breast cancer risk has been studied in Europe by investigating survivors of the Dutch Hunger Winter Famine, but not in China. We evaluated the effect of exposure to the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward famine on subsequent breast cancer risk in Chinese women. METHODS: A total of 59,060 women born in 1955~1966 were recruited from Minhang district, Shanghai, China, during the period 2008 to 2012. A baseline survey was conducted to collect demographic characteristics and known risk factors for breast cancer...
December 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195628/family-planning-decisions-for-parents-of-children-with-a-rare-genetic-condition-a-scoping-review
#16
REVIEW
Melanie Gee, Hilary Piercy, Katarzyna Machaczek
Expansion of newborn screening programmes increases the complexity around reproductive choices, both in terms of the increased number of parents faced with making reproductive decisions from the earliest days of their affected child's life, and the number of conditions for which such decisions have to be made. We conducted a scoping review to explore: (i) reproductive decision-making among parents of children with recessive genetic conditions; and, (ii) the involvement of healthcare services in facilitating and supporting those decisions...
December 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188141/the-relationship-between-egg-size-and-helper-number-in-cooperative-breeders-a-meta-analysis-across-species
#17
Tanmay Dixit, Sinead English, Dieter Lukas
Background: Life history theory predicts that mothers should adjust reproductive investment depending on benefits of current reproduction and costs of reduced future reproductive success. These costs and benefits may in turn depend on the breeding female's social environment. Cooperative breeders provide an ideal system to test whether changes in maternal investment are associated with the social conditions mothers experience. As alloparental helpers assist in offspring care, larger groups might reduce reproductive costs for mothers or alternatively indicate attractive conditions for reproduction...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175484/effects-of-hypoxia-at-different-life-stages-on-locomotory-muscle-phenotype-in-deer-mice-native-to-high-altitudes
#18
Kirsten E Nikel, Naman K Shanishchara, Catherine M Ivy, Neal J Dawson, Graham R Scott
Animals native to high altitude must overcome the constraining effects of hypoxia on tissue O2 supply to support routine metabolism, thermoregulation in the cold, and exercise. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) native to high altitude have evolved an enhanced aerobic capacity in hypoxia, along with increased capillarity and oxidative capacity of locomotory muscle. Here, we examined whether exposure to chronic hypoxia during development or adulthood affects muscle phenotype. Deer mice from a highland population were bred in captivity at sea level, and exposed to normoxia or one of four treatments of hypobaric hypoxia (12kPa O2 , simulating hypoxia at ~4300m): adult hypoxia (6-8weeks), post-natal hypoxia (birth to adulthood), pre-natal hypoxia (before conception to adulthood), and parental hypoxia (in which mice were conceived and raised in normoxia, but their parents were previously exposed to hypoxia)...
November 22, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170197/-the-more-we-change-the-more-we-remain-the-same-female-feticide-continues-unabated-in-india
#19
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
In North India, preference for sons has been blamed for repeated incidents of female feticide, despite the legislation in the form of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 2002. We describe how a team of local private doctors offer package deals to pregnant women and their families in rural areas. The fetal sex is determined at night using a portable ultrasonography machine.If the fetus is a girl, an immediate induced abortion is offered in the clients' home. If complications arise, women are advised to attend hospital...
November 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110827/long-term-outcomes-of-congenital-lung-malformations
#20
Nigel J Hall, Michael P Stanton
Congenital lung malformations comprise a group of anatomical abnormalities of the respiratory tree including congenital cystic malformations, bronchopulmonary sequestrations, bronchogenic cyst, bronchial atresia, and congenital lobar emphysema. These anomalies are detected with increasing frequency by pre-natal sonography, but may also present for the first time with symptoms in childhood or later life. When symptomatic, there is little controversy that resection is indicated, which is usually curative. When a lesion is asymptomatic there is greater debate regarding the benefit of resection versus continued observation...
October 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
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