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Mike Blum, Kimberly Rogers, James Gleason, Yani Najman, Jarrett Cruz, Lyndsey Fox
The Himalayan-sourced Ganges-Brahmaputra river system and the deep-sea Bengal Fan represent Earth's largest sediment-dispersal system. Here we present detrital zircon U-Pb provenance data from Miocene to middle Pleistocene Bengal Fan turbidites, and evaluate the influence of allogenic forcing vs. autogenic processes on signal propagation from the Himalaya to the deep sea. Our data record the strong tectonic and climatic forcing characteristic of the Himalayan system: after up to 2500 km of river transport, and >1400 km of transport by turbidity currents, the U-Pb record faithfully represents Himalayan sources...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohamad Adawi, Nina Pastuck, Golan Saaida, Rizak Sirchan, Abdalla Watad, Arnon Blum
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients may suffer cardiovascular (CV) events much more than the general population, and CV disease is the leading cause of death in patients with RA. Our hypothesis was that impaired function of endothelial progenitor cells may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and the clinical CV events of patients with RA. Methods: 27 RA patients (9 males and 18 females) with an active disease and 13 healthy subjects who served as the control group (9 males and 4 females) were enrolled to this prospective study...
May 16, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Tolulope Adebanjo, Emily Mosites, Chris A Van Beneden, Jennifer Onukwube, Matthew Blum, Michael Harper, Karen Rudolph, Anna Frick, Louisa Castrodale, Joseph McLaughlin, Michael G Bruce, Prabhu Gounder
We identified risk factors for any emm-type group A streptococcal (GAS) colonization while investigating an invasive emm26.3 GAS outbreak among people experiencing homelessness in Alaska. Risk factors included upper extremity skin breakdown, sleeping outdoors, sharing blankets, and infrequent tooth brushing. Our results may help guide control efforts in future outbreaks.
May 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jared Rovny, Robert L Blum, Sean E Barrett
A discrete time crystal (DTC) is a robust phase of driven systems that breaks the discrete time translation symmetry of the driving Hamiltonian. Recent experiments have observed DTC signatures in two distinct systems. Here we show nuclear magnetic resonance observations of DTC signatures in a third, strikingly different system: an ordered spatial crystal. We use a novel DTC echo experiment to probe the coherence of the driven system. Finally, we show that interactions during the pulse of the DTC sequence contribute to the decay of the signal, complicating attempts to measure the intrinsic lifetime of the DTC...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Gwen Lomberk, Yuna Blum, Rémy Nicolle, Asha Nair, Krutika Satish Gaonkar, Laetitia Marisa, Angela Mathison, Zhifu Sun, Huihuang Yan, Nabila Elarouci, Lucile Armenoult, Mira Ayadi, Tamas Ordog, Jeong-Heon Lee, Gavin Oliver, Eric Klee, Vincent Moutardier, Odile Gayet, Benjamin Bian, Pauline Duconseil, Marine Gilabert, Martin Bigonnet, Stephane Garcia, Olivier Turrini, Jean-Robert Delpero, Marc Giovannini, Philippe Grandval, Mohamed Gasmi, Veronique Secq, Aurélien De Reyniès, Nelson Dusetti, Juan Iovanna, Raul Urrutia
Recent studies have offered ample insight into genome-wide expression patterns to define pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) subtypes, although there remains a lack of knowledge regarding the underlying epigenomics of PDAC. Here we perform multi-parametric integrative analyses of chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) on multiple histone modifications, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), and DNA methylation to define epigenomic landscapes for PDAC subtypes, which can predict their relative aggressiveness and survival...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Rajeswaran Mani, Swagata Goswami, Bhavani Gopalakrishnan, Rahul Ramaswamy, Ronni Wasmuth, Minh Tranh, Xiaokui Mo, Amber Gordon, Donna Bucci, David M Lucas, Alice Mims, Christopher Brooks, Adrienne Dorrance, Alison Walker, William Blum, John C Byrd, Gerard Lozanski, Sumithira Vasu, Natarajan Muthusamy
Diseases with clonal hematopoiesis such as myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia have high rates of relapse. Only a small subset of acute myeloid leukemia patients are cured with chemotherapy alone. Relapse in these diseases occurs at least in part due to the failure to eradicate leukemic stem cells or hematopoietic stem cells in myelodysplastic syndrome. CD123, the alpha chain of the interleukin-3 receptor heterodimer, is expressed on the majority of leukemic stem cells and myelodysplastic syndrome hematopoietic stem cells and in 80% of acute myeloid leukemia...
May 17, 2018: Haematologica
Eva Marina Schmidt, Sebastian Lamprecht, Cristina Blaj, Christian Schaaf, Stefan Krebs, Helmut Blum, Heiko Hermeking, Andreas Jung, Thomas Kirchner, David Horst
In colorectal cancer, signaling pathways driving tumor progression are promising targets for systemic therapy. Besides WNT and MAPK signaling, activation of NOTCH signaling is found in most tumors. Here, we demonstrate that high NOTCH activity marks a distinct colon cancer cell subpopulation with low levels of WNT and MAPK activity and with a pronounced epithelial phenotype. Therapeutic targeting of MAPK signaling had limited effects on tumor growth and caused expansion of tumor cells with high NOTCH activity, whereas upon targeting NOTCH signaling, tumor cells with high MAPK activity prevailed...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Susanne Mayer-Wagner, Florian Hammerschmid, Helmut Blum, Stefan Krebs, Julia I Redeker, Boris M Holzapfel, Volkmar Jansson, Peter E Müller
Introduction: Low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF-EMF) and simulated microgravity (SMG) have been observed to affect chondrogenesis. A controlled bioreactor system was developed to apply LF-EMF and SMG singly or combined during chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in 3D culture. Material and methods: An external motor gear SMG bioreactor was combined with magnetic Helmholtz coils for EMF (5 mT; 15 Hz). Pellets of hMSCs (±TGF-β3) were cultured (P5) under SMG, LF-EMF, LF-EMF/SMG and control (1 g) conditions for 3 weeks...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Ann M Starrs, Alex C Ezeh, Gary Barker, Alaka Basu, Jane T Bertrand, Robert Blum, Awa M Coll-Seck, Anand Grover, Laura Laski, Monica Roa, Zeba A Sathar, Lale Say, Gamal I Serour, Susheela Singh, Karin Stenberg, Marleen Temmerman, Ann Biddlecom, Anna Popinchalk, Cynthia Summers, Lori S Ashford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Lancet
S S Virdee, C D Lynch, L Sadaghiani, L D Addy, A S M Gilmour, I R Blum, N H F Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: British Dental Journal
Tomas Lazauskas, Alexey A Sokol, John Buckeridge, C Richard A Catlow, Susanne G E T Escher, Matthew R Farrow, David Mora-Fonz, Volker W Blum, Tshegofatso M Phaahla, Hasani R Chauke, Phuti E Ngoepe, Scott M Woodley
We have performed a genetic algorithm search on the tight-binding interatomic potential energy surface (PES) for small TiN (N = 2-32) clusters. The low energy candidate clusters were further refined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the PBEsol exchange-correlation functional and evaluated with the PBEsol0 hybrid functional. The resulting clusters were analysed in terms of their structural features, growth mechanism and surface area. The results suggest a growth mechanism that is based on forming coordination centres by interpenetrating icosahedra, icositetrahedra and Frank-Kasper polyhedra...
May 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Valdis Blūms, Marcin Piotrowski, Mahmood I Hussain, Benjamin G Norton, Steven C Connell, Stephen Gensemer, Mirko Lobino, Erik W Streed
Forces drive all physical interactions. High-sensitivity measurement of the effect of forces enables the quantitative investigation of physical phenomena. Laser-cooled trapped atomic ions are a well-controlled quantum system whose low mass, strong Coulomb interaction, and readily detectable fluorescence signal make them a favorable platform for precision metrology. We demonstrate a three-dimensional sub-attonewton sensitivity force sensor based on a super-resolution imaging of a single trapped ion. The force is detected by measuring the ion's displacement in three dimensions with nanometer precision...
March 2018: Science Advances
Jennifer M Gilbert, Barak Blum
Immature β cells secrete insulin at a lower glucose threshold compared to mature β cells. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Huang et al. (2018) show that the increase in glucose threshold during β cell maturation is achieved through balance between the Ca2+ -sensitive synaptotagmin 7 and the Ca2+ -insensitive synaptotagmin 4.
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
Martin Blum, Tim Ott
Left-right organizers require motile and polarized cilia to break symmetry. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Chien et al. (2018) demonstrate that gastrulation-derived mechanical strain of the precursor tissue orients cilia and is required for cilia lengthening and motility.
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
B E Gidal, M P Jacobson, E Ben-Menachem, M Carreño, D Blum, P Soares-da-Silva, A Falcão, F Rocha, J Moreira, T Grinnell, E Ludwig, J Fiedler-Kelly, J Passarell, S Sunkaraneni
OBJECTIVES: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily (QD) oral antiepileptic drug (AED) for focal-onset seizures (FOS). Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models were developed to assess dose selection, identify significant AED drug interactions, and quantitate relationships between exposure and safety and efficacy outcomes from Phase 3 trials of adjunctive ESL. METHODS: Eslicarbazepine (the primary active metabolite of ESL) population PK was evaluated using data from 1351 subjects enrolled in 14 studies (11 Phase 1 and three Phase 3 studies) after multiple oral doses ranging from 400 to 1200 mg...
May 6, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Jennifer M Yost, Patrick W Sweeney, Ed Gilbert, Gil Nelson, Robert Guralnick, Amanda S Gallinat, Elizabeth R Ellwood, Natalie Rossington, Charles G Willis, Stanley D Blum, Ramona L Walls, Elspeth M Haston, Michael W Denslow, Constantin M Zohner, Ashley B Morris, Brian J Stucky, J Richard Carter, David G Baxter, Kjell Bolmgren, Ellen G Denny, Ellen Dean, Katelin D Pearson, Charles C Davis, Brent D Mishler, Pamela S Soltis, Susan J Mazer
Premise of the Study: Herbarium specimens provide a robust record of historical plant phenology (the timing of seasonal events such as flowering or fruiting). However, the difficulty of aggregating phenological data from specimens arises from a lack of standardized scoring methods and definitions for phenological states across the collections community. Methods and Results: To address this problem, we report on a consensus reached by an iDigBio working group of curators, researchers, and data standards experts regarding an efficient scoring protocol and a data-sharing protocol for reproductive traits available from herbarium specimens of seed plants...
February 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
A Blum, P Maltagliati-Holzner, T Deinlein, R Hofmann-Wellenhof
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Werner Blum, Abdullah Alherbish, Afaf Alsagheir, Ahmed El Awwa, Walid Kaplan, Ekaterina Koledova, Martin O Savage
The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis is a key endocrine mechanism regulating linear growth in children. While paediatricians have a good knowledge of GH secretion and assessment, understanding and use of measurements of the components of the IGF system are less current in clinical practice. The physiological function of this axis is to increase the anabolic cellular processes of protein synthesis and mitosis, and reduction of apoptosis, with each being regulated in the appropriate target tissue...
May 3, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Waled Abou Arab, Aymeric Rauch, Mohammad B Chawki, Francois Dap, Gilles Dautel, Alain Blum, Pedro Augusto Gondim Teixeira
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of radioulnar deviation (RUD) and clenching fist (CF) maneuvers for the evaluation of scapholunate dissociation (SLD) using quantitative kinematic CT. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with suspected scapholunate instability were prospectively evaluated with kinematic CT. Two radiologists independently evaluated the SLD during RUD and CF maneuvers. Various dynamic parameters describing SLD were compared (maximal value, variation coefficient and range) in patients with and without scapholunate ligament ruptures confirmed by CT arthrography...
April 30, 2018: European Radiology
Michael R Wilson, Brian D O'Donovan, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Hannah A Sample, Felicia C Chow, John P Betjemann, Maulik P Shah, Megan B Richie, Mark P Gorman, Rula A Hajj-Ali, Leonard H Calabrese, Kelsey C Zorn, Eric D Chow, John E Greenlee, Jonathan H Blum, Gary Green, Lillian M Khan, Debarko Banerji, Charles Langelier, Chloe Bryson-Cahn, Whitney Harrington, Jairam R Lingappa, Niraj M Shanbhag, Ari J Green, Bruce J Brew, Ariane Soldatos, Luke Strnad, Sarah B Doernberg, Cheryl A Jay, Vanja Douglas, S Andrew Josephson, Joseph L DeRisi
Importance: Identifying infectious causes of subacute or chronic meningitis can be challenging. Enhanced, unbiased diagnostic approaches are needed. Objective: To present a case series of patients with diagnostically challenging subacute or chronic meningitis using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) supported by a statistical framework generated from mNGS of control samples from the environment and from patients who were noninfectious...
April 16, 2018: JAMA Neurology
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