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Yao Ning, Zeng Qing, Wang Qing, Li Li
BACKGROUND: Ordinal severity scales illustrated by photographs have been widely developed to help dermatologists evaluating skin problems or improvements. Numerous scales have been published and none of them were used for assessing facial pores. METHODS: A five-point photographic scale of facial pores was formulated and photographs of pores on nasal ala from 128 female volunteers were acquired. Five dermatologists with similar experiences rated the 128 photographs independently using the reference photographs...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Thaís da Silva Ferreira, Priscila Mansur Leal, Vanessa Parada Antunes, Antonio Felipe Sanjuliani, Márcia Regina Simas Torres Klein
Recent studies suggest that supplemental Ca (SC) increases the risk of cardiovascular events, whereas dietary Ca (DC) decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. Although frequently consumed with meals, it remains unclear whether Ca can mitigate or aggravate the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal on cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SC or DC on blood pressure (BP) and microvascular function (MVF) in the postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
M C Lardone, F Argandoña, M Flórez, A Parada-Bustamante, M Ebensperger, C Palma, A Piottante, A Castro
Several observational studies have showed a combination of lower testosterone (T) to LH ratio and higher estradiol (E2 ) to T ratio in secretory infertile men compared to men with normal spermatogenesis, suggesting a steroidogenic dysfunction of Leydig cells (Lc) that may involve increased aromatase activity. Low T/LH ratio is associated with Lc hyperplasia, which together with LH hyperstimulation may represent compensation for impaired T production. Aromatase expression and oestrogen production are mainly detected in Lc of the testis, although Sertoli and germ cells also contribute to testicular aromatase activity...
October 21, 2016: Andrology
Uma Sriram, Beth L Hill, Jonathan M Cenna, Larisa Gofman, Nicole C Fernandes, Bijayesh Haldar, Raghava Potula
Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used psychostimulant that severely impacts the host's innate and adaptive immune systems and has profound immunological implications. T cells play a critical role in orchestrating immune responses. We have shown recently how chronic exposure to METH affects T cell activation using a murine model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Using the TriCOM (trinary state combinations) feature of GemStone™ to study the polyfunctionality of T cells, we have analyzed how METH affected the cytokine production pattern over the course of chronic LCMV infection...
2016: PloS One
Wimonrat Panpetch, Jennifer K Spinler, James Versalovic, Somying Tumwasorn
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-8 is the key agent for initiating an inflammatory response to infection with Helicobacter pylori. Some strains of Lactobacillus spp. are known to colonize the stomach and suppress inflammation caused by H. pylori. In this study, we characterized two gastric-derived lactobacilli, Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) strains B37 and B60, capable of inhibiting H. pylori-induced IL-8 production by gastric epithelial cells. RESULTS: Conditioned media from LS-B37 and LS-B60 suppressed H...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Catherine Dold, Carles Rodriguez Urbiola, Guido Wollmann, Lisa Egerer, Alexander Muik, Lydia Bellmann, Heidelinde Fiegl, Christian Marth, Janine Kimpel, Dorothee von Laer
Previously, we described an oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus variant pseudotyped with the nonneurotropic glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, VSV-GP, which was highly effective in glioblastoma. Here, we tested its potency for the treatment of ovarian cancer, a leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Effective oncolytic activity of VSV-GP could be demonstrated in ovarian cancer cell lines and xenografts in mice; however, remission was temporary in most mice. Analysis of the innate immune response revealed that ovarian cancer cell lines were able to respond to and produce type I interferon, inducing an antiviral state upon virus infection...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
Achire N Mbanwi, Chao Wang, Kaoru Geddes, Dana J Philpott, Tania H Watts
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV13) infection of mice is a widely used model for investigating the mechanisms driving persistent viral infection in humans. LCMV13 disrupts splenic architecture early during infection, but this returns to normal within a few weeks. However, the long-term effects of LCMV13 infection on splenic structure have not been reported. Here we report that persistent infection with LCMV13 results in sustained splenic atrophy that persists for at least 500 days following infection, whereas infection with the acutely infecting LCMV Armstrong is associated with a return to pre-infection spleen weights...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Tatiana Jofra, Roberta Di Fonte, Tarun Edgar Hutchinson, Farhad Dastmalchi, Giuseppe Galvani, Manuela Battaglia, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, Georgia Fousteri
PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase non receptor 22) encodes a tyrosine phosphatase that functions as a key regulator of immune homeostasis. In particular, PTPN22 inhibits T-cell receptor signaling and selectively promotes type I interferon responses in myeloid cells. To date, there is little information on the CD8 T-cell-intrinsic role of PTPN22 in response to a viral pathogen. We unexpectedly found that PTPN22-deficient virus-specific CD8 T cells failed to accumulate in wild-type hosts after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection...
October 11, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Rachel Waller, M Nicola Woodroofe, Stephen B Wharton, Paul G Ince, Simona Francese, Paul R Heath, Alex Cudzich-Madry, Ruth H Thomas, Natalie Rounding, Basil Sharrack, Julie E Simpson
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). White matter lesions in MS are surrounded by areas of non-demyelinated normal appearing white matter (NAWM) with complex pathology, including blood brain barrier dysfunction, axonal damage and glial activation. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type within the CNS, may respond and/or contribute to lesion pathogenesis. We aimed to characterise the transcriptomic profile of astrocytes in NAWM to determine whether specific glial changes exist in the NAWM which contribute to lesion development or prevent disease progression...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Cristina Fevola, Kristian M Forbes, Satu Mäkelä, Niina Putkuri, Heidi C Hauffe, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Jukka Mustonen, Anne J Jääskeläinen, Antti Vaheri
BACKGROUND: The emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases are increasing in Europe. Prominent rodent-borne zoonotic viruses include Puumala hantavirus (PUUV; the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, NE), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and orthopoxviruses (OPV). In addition, Ljungan virus (LV) is considered a potentially zoonotic virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare clinical picture between acute PUUV patients with and without additional rodent-borne viral infections, to investigate if concurrent infections influence disease severity...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
M Baulac, W Byrnes, P Williams, S Borghs, E Webster, M De Backer, P Dedeken
OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the effectiveness of lacosamide (LCM) added to levetiracetam (LEV) after down-titration of a concomitant sodium channel blocker (SCB) among patients with focal epilepsy not adequately controlled on LEV and SCB. METHODS: In this open-label trial, LCM was initiated at 100 mg/day and up-titrated to 200-600 mg/day over 9 weeks; SCB down-titration started when LCM dose reached 200 mg/day. Patients remained on stable LCM/LEV doses for 12 weeks' maintenance (21-week treatment period)...
October 6, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Francesco Brigo, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Trinka
BACKGROUND: Brivaracetam (BRV), eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), lacosamide (LCM), and perampanel (PER) have been recently marketed as adjunctive treatments for focal onset seizures. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has directly compared BRV with ESL, LCM, or PER. PURPOSE: To compare BRV with the other add-on AEDs in patients with uncontrolled focal epilepsy, estimating their efficacy and tolerability through an adjusted, common-reference based indirect comparison meta-analysis...
September 24, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Giuseppe d'Orsi, Maria Grazia Pascarella, Tommaso Martino, Elena Carapelle, Francesca Pacillo, Maria Teresa Di Claudio, Daniela Mancini, Marina Trivisano, Carlo Avolio, Luigi M Specchio
PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) lacosamide (LCM) in the treatment of seizure clusters (SC) and status epilepticus (SE) in hospitalized adult patients. METHODS: we prospectively analyzed treatment response, seizure outcome, and adverse effects of IV LCM in 38 patients with seizure emergencies (15 with SC, 23 with SE) during a hospital stay. The loading dose of IV LCM was 200-400mg and the maintenance dose was 200-400mg daily. Response to IV LCM was evaluated within 20min, 4h and 24h of LCM infusion...
September 22, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Sylvie Chabot, Fernando Alvarez, Abdelaziz Amrani, Idriss Djilali-Saiah
Identifying the type of diabetogenic CD8(+) T cells that initiate autoimmune diabetes (AID) is a critical step in designing appropriate strategies for the early detection of beta cell-directed autoimmunity and its progression to diabetes. We generated a novel double transgenic (Tg) mouse model on the naturally diabetes resistant C57Bl/6 background, co-expressing two transgenes including a specific TCR anti-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus nucleoprotein (LCMV-NP) carried by CD8(+) T cells and LCMV-NP (as neo-self antigen) expressed by pancreatic beta cells...
August 11, 2016: Autoimmunity
Laura F Su, Daniel Del Alcazar, Erietta Stelekati, E John Wherry, Mark M Davis
The T-cell receptor (TCR) is required for maturation and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the ligand specificities of Tregs outside the context of transgenic TCRs are largely unknown. Using peptide-MHC tetramers, we isolated rare specific Foxp3(+) cells directly ex vivo from adult peripheral blood and defined their frequency and phenotype. We find that a proportion of circulating Tregs recognize foreign antigens and the frequency of these cells are similar to that of self-reactive Tregs in the absence of cognate infection...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Divya Mohan, Amy Lewis, Mehul S Patel, Katrina J Curtis, Jen Y Lee, Nicholas S Hopkinson, Ian B Wilkinson, Paul R Kemp, Michael I Polkey
INTRODUCTION: Quadriceps dysfunction is important in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with an associated increased proportion of type II fibers. Investigation of protein synthesis and degradation has yielded conflicting results, possibly due to study of whole biopsy samples, whereas signalling may be fiber-specific. Our objective was to develop a method for fiber-specific gene expression analysis. METHODS: 12 COPD and 6 healthy subjects underwent quadriceps biopsy...
September 28, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Hannah Klein, Glenda K Rabe, Bahri Karacay, Daniel J Bonthius
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection during pregnancy injures the human fetal brain. Neonatal rats inoculated with LCMV are an excellent model of congenital LCMV infection because they develop cerebellar injuries similar to those in humans. To evaluate the role of T-lymphocytes in LCMV-induced cerebellar pathology, congenitally athymic rats, deficient in T-lymphocytes were compared with euthymic rats. Peak viral titers and cellular targets of infection were similar, but viral clearance from astrocytes was impaired in the athymic rats...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Chia-Yi Lin, Shih-Chuan Huang, Chun-Che Tung, Chih-Hsuan Chou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Hsien-Sung Huang
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism causing monoallelic expression in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. Disruption of imprinted genes causes various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the role of imprinted genes in the brain is largely unknown. Different cell types within distinct brain regions can influence the genomic imprinting status, but imprinted genes in single cell types within distinct brain regions have not been characterized on a genome-wide scale. To address this critical question, we used a multi-stage approach, which combined genetically engineered mice with fluorescence-based laser capture microdissection (LCM) to capture excitatory neurons, inhibitory neurons and astrocytes as single cells in layer 2/3 of mouse visual cortex...
2016: PloS One
Yanbin Zhang, Yue Liu, Yingjiang Ye, Danhua Shen, Hui Zhang, Hongyan Huang, Sha Li, Shan Wang, Jun Ren
PURPOSE: To evaluate a new strategy for profiling proteomic changes in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODES: We used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to obtain cells from 20 CRC and paired normal mucosal tissues. The differential proteins between the microdissected tumor cells and normal mucosa epithelia were analyzed by acetylation stable isotopic labeling coupled with L linear ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LTQ-FT MS). Western blotting was used to assess the differential expression of proteins...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Jos Hendrikx, Marieke J de Jonge, Jaap Fransen, Wietske Kievit, Piet Lcm van Riel
Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA...
2016: RMD Open
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