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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140111/purging-exhausted-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-phenotypes-by-somatic-cell-reprogramming
#1
Joshua Chan, Patrick Y Kim, Emiko Kranz, Yoshiko Nagaoka, YooJin Lee, Jing Wen, Heidi J Elsaesser, Meng Qin, David G Brooks, Gene-Errol Ringpis, Irvin S Y Chen, Masakazu Kamata
Cytotoxic T cells are critical in controlling virus infections. However, continuous antigen stimulation and negative regulatory factors cause CD8 T cells to enter a dysfunctional state (T cell exhaustion), resulting in viral persistence. We hypothesized that the exhausted T cell state could be molecularly rejuvenated using a somatic cell reprogramming technology, which is technically able to convert any types of cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to regenerate functional T cells capable of purging chronic infection...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130192/lcm-seq-a-method-for-spatial-transcriptomic-profiling-using-laser-capture-microdissection-coupled-with-polya-based-rna-sequencing
#2
Susanne Nichterwitz, Julio Aguila Benitez, Rein Hoogstraaten, Qiaolin Deng, Eva Hedlund
LCM-seq couples laser capture microdissection of cells from frozen tissues with polyA-based RNA sequencing and is applicable to single neurons. The method utilizes off-the-shelf reagents and direct lysis of the cells without RNA purification, making it a simple and relatively cheap method with high reproducibility and sensitivity compared to previous methods. The advantage with LCM-seq is also that tissue sections are kept intact and thus the positional information of each cell is preserved.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116514/combine-phage-antibody-display-library-selection-on-patient-tissue-specimens-with-laser-capture-microdissection-to-identify-novel-human-antibodies-targeting-clinically-relevant-tumor-antigens
#3
Yang Su, Scott Bidlingmaier, Nam-Kyung Lee, Bin Liu
A functional approach to generate tumor-targeting human monoclonal antibodies is through selection of phage antibody display libraries directly on tumor cells. Although technically convenient, the use of cancer cell lines for the selection has limitations as those cell lines often undergo genetic and epigenetic changes during prolonged in vitro culture and alter their cell surface antigen expression profile. The key is to develop a technology that allows selection of phage antibody display libraries on tumor cells in situ residing in their natural tissue microenvironment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093652/semi-functional-quantitative-flow-cytometry-assay-for-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-titration
#4
Young Ho Ban, Sang-Jun Ha
Quantitative PCR and plaque assay are powerful virological techniques used to measure the load of defective or infectious virus in mouse and human. However, these methods display limitations such as cross contamination and long run-time. Here, we describe a novel technique termed as semi-functional quantitative flow cytometry (SFQF) for the accurate estimation of the quantity of infectious lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). LCMV titration method using flow cytometry was previously developed but has technical shortcomings, owing to the less optimized parameters such as cell overgrowth, plate scale, and detection threshold...
October 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078126/differential-diagnosis-of-scrub-typhus-meningitis-from-tuberculous-meningitis-using-clinical-and-laboratory-features
#5
Ashraf V Valappil, Sohanlal Thiruvoth, Jabir M Peedikayil, Praveenkumar Raghunath, Manojan Thekkedath
OBJECTIVES: The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067678/the-immunoproteasome-subunit-lmp7-is-required-in-the-murine-thymus-for-filling-up-a-hole-in-the-t-cell-repertoire
#6
Michael Basler, Sarah Mundt, Marcus Groettrup
Cells of hematopoietic origin express high levels of the immunoproteasome, a cytokine-inducible variant of the proteasome which has been implicated in regulating inflammatory responses and antigen presentation. In the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs) do express different proteasome subunits exerting chymotrypsin-like activities suggesting distinct functions in thymic T cell selection. Employing the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection model, we could show that the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7 was absolutely required for the generation of LCMV GP118-125 -specific T cells although the class I mediated presentation of GP118-125 was not dependent on LMP7...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054998/interleukin-10-from-cd4-follicular-regulatory-t-cells-promotes-the-germinal-center-response
#7
Brian J Laidlaw, Yisi Lu, Robert A Amezquita, Jason S Weinstein, Jason A Vander Heiden, Namita T Gupta, Steven H Kleinstein, Susan M Kaech, Joe Craft
CD4(+) follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells suppress B cell responses through modulation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and germinal center (GC) development. We found that Tfr cells can also promote the GC response through provision of interleukin-10 (IL-10) after acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Sensing of IL-10 by B cells was necessary for optimal development of the GC response. GC B cells formed in the absence of Treg cell-derived IL-10 displayed an altered dark zone state and decreased expression of the transcription factor Forkhead box protein 1 (FOXO1)...
October 20, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053136/-lacosamide-vimpat-prospects-for-clinical-application
#8
I G Rudakova, P N Vlasov, L V Lipatova, K V Voronkova
This article presents the review of the most significant studies of the efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide (LCM) in treatment of patients with focal epilepsy. The review includes the results of the main studies which preceded the official approval of LCM use in mono- and polytherapy. Results on the efficacy of LCM in long-term use and treatment retention in clinical practice, most effective LCM combinations, tolerability, an influence on cognitive and mental functions, advantages in treatment of elderly patients are presented...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041638/minimization-of-1-f-n-phase-noise-in-liquid-crystal-masks-for-reliable-femtosecond-pulse-shaping
#9
Elisabeth Brühl, Tiago Buckup, Marcus Motzkus
Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (LCM) are a common tool to tailor femtosecond laser pulses. The phase stability of 1 kHz, sub-20 fs visible shaped and unshaped pulses are investigated. Our results show that the spectral phase after the LCM varies from pulse to pulse leading to strong deviations from the predicted pulse shapes. This phase instability is generated only by LCM and is strongly temperature dependent. Based on the experimental data, a numerical model for the phase was developed that takes the temperature-dependent phase instability as well as pixel coupling across the LCM into account...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029641/sequence-specific-detection-of-different-strains-of-lcmv-in-a-single-sample-using-tentacle-probes
#10
Lina S Franco, Susan A Holechek, Michael R Caplan, Joseph N Blattman
BACKGROUND: Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cost-prohibitive. Rapid, cost-effective methods are needed for accurate measurement of virus diversity to understand virus evolution and can be useful for experimental systems. METHODS: We have developed a novel molecular method for sequence-specific detection of RNA virus genetic variants called Tentacle Probes...
October 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026617/cerebral-vasculitis-and-intracranial-multiple-aneurysms-in-a-child-with-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#11
Elisa Kortela, Jukka Hytönen, Jussi Numminen, Margit Overmyer, Harri Saxen, Jarmo Oksi
Introduction. Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Neurological manifestations are reported in up to 15 % of adult patients with Lyme disease, while the frequency among children is higher. The most common manifestations are painful radiculopathy, facial nerve paresis and lymphocytic meningitis. Epileptic seizures and cerebral vasculitis with stroke or aneurysms are very rare complications. Case presentation. We describe a paediatric patient with sensorineural auditory dysfunction, headache, fatigue and epileptic seizures as sequelae of meningoencephalitis/Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) caused by B...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025952/permanent-draft-genome-sequences-for-mesorhizobium-sp-strains-lcm-4576-lcm-4577-and-ors3428-salt-tolerant-nitrogen-fixing-bacteria-isolated-from-senegalese-soils
#12
Nathalie Diagne, Erik Swanson, Céline Pesce, Fatoumata Fall, Fatou Diouf, Niokhor Bakhoum, Dioumacor Fall, Mathieu Ndigue Faye, Rediet Oshone, Stephen Simpson, Krystalynne Morris, W Kelley Thomas, Lionel Moulin, Diegane Diouf, Louis S Tisa
The genus Mesorhizobium contains many species that are able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plants of the legume family. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for three Mesorhizobium strains. The genome sizes of strains LCM 4576, LCM 4577, and ORS3428 were 7.24, 7.02, and 6.55 Mbp, respectively.
October 12, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993768/cd30-is-dispensable-for-t-cell-responses-to-influenza-virus-and-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-clone-13-but-contributes-to-age-associated-t-cell-expansion-in-mice
#13
Angela C Zhou, Laura M Snell, Michael E Wortzman, Tania H Watts
CD30 is a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member whose expression is associated with Hodgkin's disease, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and other T and B lymphoproliferative disorders in humans. A limited number of studies have assessed the physiological role of CD30/CD30 ligand interactions in control of infection in mice. Here, we assess the role of CD30 in T-cell immunity to acute influenza and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 infection, two viral infections in which other members of the TNFR superfamily are important for T-cell responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986909/laser-capture-microdissection-of-maize-kernel-compartments-for-rna-seq-based-expression-analysis
#14
Shanshan Zhang, Dhiraj Thakare, Ramin Yadegari
Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) enables isolation of single cells or groups of cells for a variety of downstream applications including transcriptome profiling. Recently, this methodology has found a more widespread use particularly with the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques that enable deep profiling of the limited amounts of RNA obtained from fixed or frozen sections. When used with fixed tissues, a major experimental challenge is to balance the tissue integrity needed for microscopic visualization of the cell types of interest with that of the RNA quality necessary for deep profiling...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986843/a-primate-model-for-viral-hemorrhagic-fever
#15
Maria S Salvato, Igor S Lukashevich, Yida Yang, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Mahmoud Djavani, Joseph Bryant, Juan David Rodas, Juan Carlos Zapata
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strain WE (LCMV-WE), a Risk Group 3 virus, causes a disease in rhesus monkeys that closely resembles human infection with Lassa fever virus, a Risk Group 4 agent. Three stages of disease progression have been defined and profiled in this model: pre-viremic, viremic, and terminal. The earliest or pre-viremic stage reveals changes in the blood profile predictive of the later stages of disease. In order to identify whether specific changes are pathognomonic, it was necessary to perform a parallel infection with an attenuated virus (LCMV-Armstrong)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986841/murine-models-for-viral-hemorrhagic-fever
#16
Rosana Gonzalez-Quintial, Roberto Baccala
Hemorrhagic fever (HF) viruses, such as Lassa, Ebola, and dengue viruses, represent major human health risks due to their highly contagious nature, the severity of the clinical manifestations induced, the lack of vaccines, and the very limited therapeutic options currently available. Appropriate animal models are obviously critical to study disease pathogenesis and develop efficient therapies. We recently reported that the clone 13 (Cl13) variant of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-Cl13), a prototype arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, causes in some mouse strains endothelial damage, vascular leakage, platelet loss, and death, mimicking pathological aspects typically observed in Lassa and other HF syndromes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980276/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-mass-limited-tissue-samples-for-spatially-resolved-tissue-profiling
#17
Paul D Piehowski, Rui Zhao, Ronald J Moore, Geremy Clair, Charles Ansong
Traditionally, proteomic studies have been carried out on whole tissues or organs enabling the profiling of thousands of proteins within a single LC-MS analysis. A disadvantage of this approach is that proteomes generated from whole tissues are an "average" that represents a blend of cell types and distinct anatomical regions which can obscure important biological phenomena. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is an elegant method that allows tissue features of interest, as small as a single cell, to be identified and isolated for downstream analysis...
October 5, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979670/quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-mitochondrial-proteins-in-lung-adenocarcinomas-and-normal-lung-tissue-using-itraq-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Wei Li, Xuede Zhang, Wei Wang, Ruiying Sun, Boxuan Liu, Yuefeng Ma, Wei Zhang, Li Ma, Yaofeng Jin, Shuanying Yang
Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer. Unfortunately, lung adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis and the pathogenesis remains unclear. Mitochondria are important mediators of tumorigenesis. However, the proteomics profile of lung adenocarcinoma mitochondrial proteins has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated differences in the mitochondrial protein profiles between lung adenocarcinomas and normal tissue. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate the target cells from lung adenocarcinomas and normal tissue...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976562/seroprevalence-of-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-and-ljungan-virus-in-finnish-patients-with-suspected-neurological-infections
#19
Cristina Fevola, Suvi Kuivanen, Teemu Smura, Antti Vaheri, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Heidi C Hauffe, Olli Vapalahti, Anne J Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Directly-transmitted rodent-borne zoonotic viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can cause nervous system infections. Rodent-borne Ljungan virus (LV) is considered potentially zoonotic possibly causing neurological symptoms. Our objective was to understand the role of these two viruses compared to other pathogens in causing neurological infections in Finnish patients. METHODS: Routine screening data were available for 400 patients aged 5-50 years, collected from December 2013-December 2014 with suspected neurological infection...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968818/deletions-at-slc18a1-increased-the-risk-of-crc-and-lower-slc18a1-expression-associated-with-poor-crc-outcome
#20
Dandan Zhang, Zhenli Li, Xiaohong Xu, Dan Zhou, Shunli Tang, Xiaoyang Yin, Fangying Xu, Hui Li, Yuan Zhou, Tao Zhu, Hong Deng, Shuai Zhang, Qiong Huang, Jing Wang, Wei Yin, Yimin Zhu, Maode Lai
Copy number variations (CNVs) contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a two-stage association study to identify CNV risk loci for CRC. We performed a gene-based rare CNV study on 694 sporadic CRC and 1641 controls using Illumina Human-OmniExpress-12v1.0 BeadChips, and further replicated in 934 CRC cases and 2680 controls for risk CNVs by using TaqMan Copy Number Assay. Tumor buddings, cancer cells in the center of primary tumor and normal intestinal epithelial cells were captured using laser capture microdissection (LCM) and were assayed using AffymetrixGeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2...
October 26, 2017: Carcinogenesis
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