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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725961/the-plasma-membrane-proteome-of-medicago-truncatula-roots-as-modified-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#1
Achref Aloui, Ghislaine Recorbet, Christelle Lemaître-Guillier, Arnaud Mounier, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Daniel Wipf, Eliane Dumas-Gaudot
In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots, the plasma membrane (PM) of the host plant is involved in all developmental stages of the symbiotic interaction, from initial recognition to intracellular accommodation of intra-radical hyphae and arbuscules. Although the role of the PM as the agent for cellular morphogenesis and nutrient exchange is especially accentuated in endosymbiosis, very little is known regarding the PM protein composition of mycorrhizal roots. To obtain a global overview at the proteome level of the host PM proteins as modified by symbiosis, we performed a comparative protein profiling of PM fractions from Medicago truncatula roots either inoculated or not with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis...
July 19, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724414/effects-of-feeding-drunken-horse-grass-infected-with-epichlo%C3%A3-gansuensis-endophyte-on-animal-performance-clinical-symptoms-and-physiological-parameters-in-sheep
#2
Ying Liang, Hucheng Wang, Chunjie Li, Zhibiao Nan, Fadi Li
BACKGROUND: Many reports showed that grass-endophyte symbiosis induced livestock poisoned. Yet, there is no study evaluating clinical symptoms and physiological parameters in sheep fed Epichloë gansuensis endophyte-infected grass. The objective of the present study was to investigate these indexes by feeding sheep with endophyte-infected A. inebrians (E+ Group) or endophyte-free A. inebrians (E- Group) drunken horse grass or alfalfa hay (Control Group). RESULTS: The Epichloë endophyte caused obvious toxicity symptoms in the sheep fed E+ A...
July 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721658/microbial-communities-in-different-tissues-of-atta-sexdens-rubropilosa-leaf-cutting-ants
#3
Alexsandro S Vieira, Manuela O Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Vanderlei G Martins, Odair C Bueno
Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721334/draft-genome-sequence-of-bradyrhizobium-paxllaeri-lmtr-21-t-isolated-from-lima-bean-phaseolus-lunatus-in-peru
#4
Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo, Luis Rey, David Durán, Carlos A Canchaya, Marco A Rogel, Doris Zúñiga-Dávila, Juan Imperial, Tomás Ruiz-Argüeso, Esperanza Martínez-Romero
Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri is a prevalent species in root nodules of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in Peru. LMTR 21(T) is the type strain of the species and was isolated from a root nodule collected in an agricultural field in the Peruvian central coast. Its 8.29 Mbp genome encoded 7635 CDS, 71 tRNAs and 3 rRNAs genes. All genes required to stablish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with its host were present. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number MAXB00000000...
September 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717220/imaging-mass-spectrometry-and-ms-ms-molecular-networking-reveals-chemical-interactions-among-cuticular-bacteria-and-pathogenic-fungi-associated-with-fungus-growing-ants
#5
Cristopher A Boya P, Hermógenes Fernández-Marín, Luis C Mejía, Carmenza Spadafora, Pieter C Dorrestein, Marcelino Gutiérrez
The fungus-growing ant-microbe symbiosis is an ideal system to study chemistry-based microbial interactions due to the wealth of microbial interactions described, and the lack of information on the molecules involved therein. In this study, we employed a combination of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) and MS/MS molecular networking to study chemistry-based microbial interactions in this system. MALDI IMS was used to visualize the distribution of antimicrobials at the inhibition zone between bacteria associated to the ant Acromyrmex echinatior and the fungal pathogen Escovopsis sp...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#6
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713093/legal-regulation-of-the-production-and-trade-of-medical-devices-and-medical-equipment-in-the-eu-and-us-experience-for-ukraine
#7
Vitalii Pashkov, Alla Kotvitska, Andrii Harkusha
INTRODUCTION: The need for effective legal regulation of production and sale of medical products in Ukraine due to its social effect is obvious and requires a high level of clarity. The experience of more advanced countries in this area, given the way chosen by Ukraine to harmonize our laws with EU legislation, is certainly could be a useful source of information. The urgency of issues need further intensification of national legal reforms. Some key points on concept of legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711576/explaining-coexistence-of-nitrogen-fixing-and-non-fixing-rhizobia-in-legume-rhizobia-mutualism-using-mathematical-modeling
#8
G Moyano, D Marco, D Knopoff, G Torres, C Turner
In the mutualism established between legumes and soil bacteria known as rhizobia, bacteria from soil infect plants roots and reproduce inside root nodules where they fix atmospheric N2 for plant nutrition, receiving carbohydrates in exchange. Host-plant sanctions against non N2 fixing, cheating bacterial symbionts have been proposed to act in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, to preserve the mutualistic relationship. Sanctions include decreased rhizobial survival in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. Previously, a simple population model experimentally based showed that the coexistence of fixing and cheating rhizobia strains commonly found in field conditions is possible, and that the inclusion of sanctions leads to the extinction of cheating strains in soil...
July 12, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710419/generation-of-clade-and-symbiont-specific-antibodies-to-characterize-marker-molecules-during-cnidaria-symbiodinium-endosymbiosis
#9
Kao-Jean Huang, Zi-Yu Huang, Ching-Yen Lin, Li-Hsueh Wang, Pin-Hsiang Chou, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Hsing-Hui Li
The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is responsible for the formation of coral reefs. Changes in molecules have been identified during the process of cnidaria-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, the complexity of the molecular interaction has prevented the establishment of a mechanistic explanation of cellular regulation in this mutualistic symbiosis. To date, no marker molecules have been identified to specifically represent the symbiotic status. Because the endosymbiotic association occurs in the symbiotic gastrodermal cells (SGCs), whole cells of isolated SGCs were used as an antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to screen possible molecular candidates of symbiotic markers...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709802/human-secretory-igm-emerges-from-plasma-cells-clonally-related-to-gut-memory-b-cells-and-targets-highly-diverse-commensals
#10
Giuliana Magri, Laura Comerma, Marc Pybus, Jordi Sintes, David Lligé, Daniel Segura-Garzón, Sabrina Bascones, Ada Yeste, Emilie K Grasset, Cindy Gutzeit, Mathieu Uzzan, Meera Ramanujam, Menno C van Zelm, Raquel Albero-González, Ivonne Vazquez, Mar Iglesias, Sergi Serrano, Lucía Márquez, Elena Mercade, Saurabh Mehandru, Andrea Cerutti
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) enhances host-microbiota symbiosis, whereas SIgM remains poorly understood. We found that gut IgM(+) plasma cells (PCs) were more abundant in humans than mice and clonally related to a large repertoire of memory IgM(+) B cells disseminated throughout the intestine but rare in systemic lymphoid organs. In addition to sharing a gut-specific gene signature with memory IgA(+) B cells, memory IgM(+) B cells were related to some IgA(+) clonotypes and switched to IgA in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent signals...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705905/genome-wide-transcriptional-dynamics-in-the-companion-bacterial-symbionts-of-the-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-cicadellidae-homalodisca-vitripennis-reveal-differential-gene-expression-in-bacteria-occupying-multiple-host-organs
#11
Gordon M Bennett, Rebecca A Chong
The agricultural pest the Glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: GWSS), harbors two bacterial symbionts, "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca Baumannia cicadellinicola", that provide the ten essential amino acids (EAAs) limited in the host plant-sap diet. Although differing in origins and symbiotic age, both bacteria have experienced extensive genome degradation resulting from their ancient restriction to specialized host organs (bacteriomes) that provide cellular support and ensure vertical transmission...
July 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702014/detecting-the-diversity-of-mycoplasma-and-ureaplasma-endosymbionts-hosted-by-trichomonas-vaginalis-isolates
#12
Anastasios Ioannidis, Panagiota Papaioannou, Emmanouil Magiorkinis, Maria Magana, Vasiliki Ioannidou, Konstantina Tzanetou, Angeliki R Burriel, Maria Tsironi, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
Objectives: The symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis is the first described association between two obligate human parasites. Trichomonas is the niche and the vector for the transmission of M. hominis infection. This clinically significant symbiosis may affect T. vaginalis virulence and susceptibility to treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the intracellularly present Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species in T. vaginalis strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of infected women as well as to trace the diversity pattern among the species detected in the isolated strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701560/specificity-in-diversity-single-origin-of-a-widespread-ciliate-bacteria-symbiosis
#13
Brandon K B Seah, Thomas Schwaha, Jean-Marie Volland, Bruno Huettel, Nicole Dubilier, Harald R Gruber-Vodicka
Symbioses between eukaryotes and sulfur-oxidizing (thiotrophic) bacteria have convergently evolved multiple times. Although well described in at least eight classes of metazoan animals, almost nothing is known about the evolution of thiotrophic symbioses in microbial eukaryotes (protists). In this study, we characterized the symbioses between mouthless marine ciliates of the genus Kentrophoros, and their thiotrophic bacteria, using comparative sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Ciliate small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained from 17 morphospecies collected in the Mediterranean and Caribbean, and symbiont sequences from 13 of these morphospecies...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700717/integrated-analysis-of-zone-specific-protein-and-metabolite-profiles-within-nitrogen-fixing-medicago-truncatula-sinorhizobium-medicae-nodules
#14
Aaron J Ogden, Mahmoud Gargouri, JeongJin Park, David R Gang, Michael L Kahn
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) between rhizobia and legumes requires metabolic coordination within specialized root organs called nodules. Nodules formed in the symbiosis between S. medicae and barrel medic (M. truncatula) are indeterminate, cylindrical, and contain spatially distinct developmental zones. Bacteria in the infection zone II (ZII), interzone II-III (IZ), and nitrogen fixation zone III (ZIII) represent different stages in the metabolic progression from free-living bacteria into nitrogen fixing bacteroids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696944/mitoriboscins-mitochondrial-based-therapeutics-targeting-cancer-stem-cells-cscs-bacteria-and-pathogenic-yeast
#15
Bela Ozsvari, Marco Fiorillo, Gloria Bonuccelli, Anna Rita Cappello, Luca Frattaruolo, Federica Sotgia, Rachel Trowbridge, Richard Foster, Michael P Lisanti
The "endo-symbiotic theory of mitochondrial evolution" states that mitochondrial organelles evolved from engulfed aerobic bacteria, after millions of years of symbiosis and adaptation. Here, we have exploited this premise to design new antibiotics and novel anti-cancer therapies, using a convergent approach. First, virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) and computational chemistry were used to identify novel compounds binding to the 3D structure of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. The resulting library of ~880 compounds was then subjected to phenotypic drug screening on human cancer cells, to identify which compounds functionally induce ATP-depletion, which is characteristic of mitochondrial inhibition...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696422/metagenomic-binning-of-a-marine-sponge-microbiome-reveals-unity-in-defense-but-metabolic-specialization
#16
Beate M Slaby, Thomas Hackl, Hannes Horn, Kristina Bayer, Ute Hentschel
Marine sponges are ancient metazoans that are populated by distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. In order to obtain deeper insights into the functional gene repertoire of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba, we combined Illumina short-read and PacBio long-read sequencing followed by un-targeted metagenomic binning. We identified a total of 37 high-quality bins representing 11 bacterial phyla and two candidate phyla. Statistical comparison of symbiont genomes with selected reference genomes revealed a significant enrichment of genes related to bacterial defense (restriction-modification systems, toxin-antitoxin systems) as well as genes involved in host colonization and extracellular matrix utilization in sponge symbionts...
July 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695334/arbuscular-mycorrhizas-are-present-on-spitsbergen
#17
K K Newsham, P B Eidesen, M L Davey, J Axelsen, E Courtecuisse, C Flintrop, A G Johansson, M Kiepert, S E Larsen, K E Lorberau, M Maurset, J McQuilkin, M Misiak, A Pop, S Thompson, D J Read
A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp...
July 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692858/calcium-signatures-and-signaling-events-orchestrate-plant-microbe-interactions
#18
REVIEW
Peiguo Yuan, Edgard Jauregui, Liqun Du, Kiwamu Tanaka, B W Poovaiah
Calcium (Ca(2+)) acts as an essential second messenger connecting the perception of microbe signals to the establishment of appropriate immune and symbiotic responses in plants. Accumulating evidence suggests that plants distinguish different microorganisms through plasma membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors. The particular recognition events are encoded into Ca(2+) signatures, which are sensed by diverse intracellular Ca(2+) binding proteins. The Ca(2+) signatures are eventually decoded to distinct downstream responses through transcriptional reprogramming of the defense or symbiosis-related genes...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684295/on-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-a-historical-appraisal-of-lynn-margulis-endosymbiotic-theory
#19
Antonio Lazcano, Juli Peretó
Although for a long-time symbiosis was considered to be quite rare and with no role in evolutionary processes, Lynn Margulis demonstrated that endosymbiotic events played a key role in the origin and evolution of eukaryotic cells. Starting with her seminal assay in the Journal of Theoretical Biology in 1967 (authored as Lynn Sagan), her lifelong work on eukaryogenesis and the role of symbiosis in evolution stands as a valid and authoritative contribution to science. As was quick to acknowledge, she was not the first to discuss the significance of symbiosis to explain the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, but no one else had done it to her extent and depth, nor had anyone provided a variety of testable hypotheses...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683136/generality-of-toxins-in-defensive-symbiosis-ribosome-inactivating-proteins-and-defense-against-parasitic-wasps-in-drosophila
#20
Matthew J Ballinger, Steve J Perlman
While it has become increasingly clear that multicellular organisms often harbor microbial symbionts that protect their hosts against natural enemies, the mechanistic underpinnings underlying most defensive symbioses are largely unknown. Spiroplasma bacteria are widespread associates of terrestrial arthropods, and include strains that protect diverse Drosophila flies against parasitic wasps and nematodes. Recent work implicated a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) encoded by Spiroplasma, and related to Shiga-like toxins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, in defense against a virulent parasitic nematode in the woodland fly, Drosophila neotestacea...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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