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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818387/plant-response-to-biotic-stress-is-there-a-common-epigenetic-response-during-plant-pathogenic-and-symbiotic-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Prince Zogli, Marc Libault
Plants constantly interact with pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. Recent studies have revealed several regulatory mechanisms controlling these interactions. Among them, the plant defense system is activated not only in response to pathogenic, but also in response to symbiotic microbes. Interestingly, shortly after symbiotic microbial recognition, the plant defense system is suppressed to promote plant infection by symbionts. Research studies have demonstrated the influence of the plant epigenome in modulating both pathogenic and symbiotic plant-microbe interactions, thereby influencing plant survival, adaptation and evolution of the plant response to microbial infections...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816608/function-of-plasma-membrane-microdomain-associated-proteins-during-legume-nodulation
#2
Zhenzhen Qiao, Marc Libault
Plasma membrane microdomains are plasma membrane sub-compartments enriched in sphingolipids and sterols, and composed by a specific set of proteins. They are involved in recognizing signal molecules, transducing these signals, and controlling endocytosis and exocytosis processes. In a recent study, applying biochemical and microscopic methods, we characterized the soybean GmFWL1 protein, a major regulator of soybean nodulation, as a new membrane microdomain-associated protein. Interestingly, upon rhizobia inoculation of the soybean root system, GmFWL1 and one of its interacting partners, GmFLOT2/4, both translocate to the root hair cell tip, the primary site of interaction and infection between soybean and Rhizobium...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812709/adaptation-to-deep-sea-chemosynthetic-environments-as-revealed-by-mussel-genomes
#3
Jin Sun, Yu Zhang, Ting Xu, Yang Zhang, Huawei Mu, Yanjie Zhang, Yi Lan, Christopher J Fields, Jerome Ho Lam Hui, Weipeng Zhang, Runsheng Li, Wenyan Nong, Fiona Ka Man Cheung, Jian-Wen Qiu, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme deep-sea ecosystems that support dense populations of specialized macro-benthos such as mussels. But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments. Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum). Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812152/native-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-alters-foliar-bacterial-community-composition
#4
Anbu Poosakkannu, Riitta Nissinen, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant-associated microbes are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that colonization by an AM fungus affects microbial species richness and microbial community composition of host plant tissues. We grew the grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a greenhouse with or without the native AM fungus, Claroideoglomus etunicatum. We divided clonally produced tillers into two parts: one inoculated with AM fungus spores and one without AM fungus inoculation (non-mycorrhizal, NM)...
August 15, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811517/heritability-of-the-symbiodinium-community-in-vertically-and-horizontally-transmitting-broadcast-spawning-corals
#5
Kate M Quigley, Bette L Willis, Line K Bay
The dinoflagellate-coral partnership influences the coral holobiont's tolerance to thermal stress and bleaching. However, the comparative roles of host genetic versus environmental factors in determining the composition of this symbiosis are largely unknown. Here we quantify the heritability of the initial Symbiodinium communities for two broadcast-spawning corals with different symbiont transmission modes: Acropora tenuis has environmental acquisition, whereas Montipora digitata has maternal transmission. Using high throughput sequencing of the ITS-2 region to characterize communities in parents, juveniles and eggs, we describe previously undocumented Symbiodinium diversity and dynamics in both corals...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808960/the-application-of-humanized-mouse-models-for-the-study-of-human-exclusive-viruses
#6
Fatemeh Vahedi, Elizabeth C Giles, Ali A Ashkar
The symbiosis between humans and viruses has allowed human tropic pathogens to evolve intricate means of modulating the human immune response to ensure its survival among the human population. In doing so, these viruses have developed profound mechanisms that mesh closely with our human biology. The establishment of this intimate relationship has created a species-specific barrier to infection, restricting the virus-associated pathologies to humans. This specificity diminishes the utility of traditional animal models...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808815/physiological-responses-and-antioxidant-enzyme-changes-in-sulla-coronaria-inoculated-by-cadmium-resistant-bacteria
#7
Manel Chiboub, Salwa Harzalli Jebara, Omar Saadani, Imen Challougui Fatnassi, Souhir Abdelkerim, Moez Jebara
Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) may help to reduce the toxicity of heavy metals on plants growing in polluted soils. In this work, Sulla coronaria inoculated with four Cd resistant bacteria (two Pseudomonas spp. and two Rhizobium sullae) were cultivated in hydroponic conditions treated by Cd; long time treatment 50 µM CdCl2 for 30 days and short time treatment; 100 µM CdCl2 for 7 days. Results showed that inoculation with Cd resistant PGPB enhanced plant biomass, thus shoot and root dry weights of control plants were enhanced by 148 and 35% respectively after 7 days...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808562/floral-scent-and-species-divergence-in-a-pair-of-sexually-deceptive-orchids
#8
Daniel D L Gervasi, Marc-Andre Selosse, Mathieu Sauve, Wittko Francke, Nicolas J Vereecken, Salvatore Cozzolino, Florian P Schiestl
Speciation is typically accompanied by the formation of isolation barriers between lineages. Commonly, reproductive barriers are separated into pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms that can evolve with different speed. In this study, we measured the strength of different reproductive barriers in two closely related, sympatric orchids of the Ophrys insectifera group, namely Ophrys insectifera and Ophrys aymoninii to infer possible mechanisms of speciation. We quantified pre- and post-pollination barriers through observation of pollen flow, by performing artificial inter- and intraspecific crosses and analyzing scent bouquets...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803096/upgrading-of-the-symbiosis-of-nitrosomanas-and-anammox-bacteria-in-a-novel-single-stage-partial-nitritation-anammox-system-nitrogen-removal-potential-and-microbial-characterization
#9
Yuan Liu, Qigui Niu, Shaopo Wang, Jiayuan Ji, Yu Zhang, Min Yang, Toshimasa Hojo, Yu-You Li
A novel single-stage partial nitritation-anammox process equipped with porous functional suspended carriers was developed at 25°C in a CSTR by controlling dissolved oxygen <0.3mg/L. The nitrogen removal performance was almost unchanged over a nitrogen loading rate ranging from 0.5 to 2.5kgNH4(+)-N/m(3)/d with a high nitrogen removal efficiency of 81.1%. The specific activity of AOB and anammox bacteria was of 3.00g-N/g-MLVSS/d (the suspended sludge), 3.56g-N/g-MLVSS/d (the biofilm sludge), respectively...
July 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802841/effects-of-symbiotic-status-on-cellular-immunity-dynamics-in-sitophilus-oryzae
#10
Sergio López-Madrigal, Justin Maire, Séverine Balmand, Anna Zaidman-Rémy, Abdelaziz Heddi
Many insects maintain intracellular symbiosis with mutualistic bacteria that improve their adaptive capabilities in nutritionally poor habitats. Adaptation of insect immune systems to such associations has been shown in several symbiotic consortia, including that of the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae with the gammaproteobacterium Sodalis pierantonius. Although authors have mostly focused on the role of humoral immunity in host-symbiont interactions, recent studies suggest that symbiotic bacteria may also interfere with the cellular, hemocyte-based, immunity...
August 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800136/feathermoss-and-epiphytic-nostoc-cooperate-differently-expanding-the-spectrum-of-plant-cyanobacteria-symbiosis
#11
Denis Warshan, Josh L Espinoza, Rhona K Stuart, R Alexander Richter, Sea-Yong Kim, Nicole Shapiro, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides, Kerrie Barry, Vasanth Singan, Erika Lindquist, Charles Ansong, Samuel O Purvine, Heather M Brewer, Philip D Weyman, Christopher L Dupont, Ulla Rasmussen
Dinitrogen (N2)-fixation by cyanobacteria in symbiosis with feathermosses is the primary pathway of biological nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests. Despite its significance, little is known about the cyanobacterial gene repertoire and regulatory rewiring needed for the establishment and maintenance of the symbiosis. To determine gene acquisitions and regulatory changes allowing cyanobacteria to form and maintain this symbiosis, we compared genomically closely related symbiotic-competent and -incompetent Nostoc strains using a proteogenomics approach and an experimental set up allowing for controlled chemical and physical contact between partners...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800134/bacterial-volatile-ammonia-regulates-the-consumption-sequence-of-d-pinitol-and-d-glucose-in-a-fungus-associated-with-an-invasive-bark-beetle
#12
Fangyuan Zhou, Letian Xu, Shanshan Wang, Bo Wang, Qiaozhe Lou, Min Lu, Jianghua Sun
Interactions among microbial symbionts have multiple roles in the maintenance of insect-microbe symbiosis. However, signals mediating microbial interactions have been scarcely studied. In the classical model system of bark beetles and fungal associates, fungi increase the fitness of insects. However, not all interactions are mutualistic, some of these fungal symbionts compete for sugars with beetle larvae. How this antagonistic effect is alleviated is unknown, and recent research suggests potential roles of bacterial symbionts...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800133/adaptive-evolution-of-rhizobial-symbiotic-compatibility-mediated-by-co-evolved-insertion-sequences
#13
Ran Zhao, Li Xue Liu, Yun Zeng Zhang, Jian Jiao, Wen Jing Cui, Biliang Zhang, Xiao Lin Wang, Meng Lin Li, Yi Chen, Zhu Qing Xiong, Wen Xin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Mutualism between bacteria and eukaryotes has essential roles in the history of life, but the evolution of their compatibility is poorly understood. Here we show that different Sinorhizobium strains can form either nitrogen-fixing nodules or uninfected pseudonodules on certain cultivated soybeans, while being all effective microsymbionts of some wild soybeans. However, a few well-infected nodules can be found on a commercial soybean using inocula containing a mixed pool of Tn5 insertion mutants derived from an incompatible strain...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799726/external-hyphae-of-rhizophagus-irregularis-daom-197198-are-less-sensitive-to-low-ph-than-roots-in-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-evidence-from-axenic-culture-system
#14
Ning Wang, Zengwei Feng, Yang Zhou, Honghui Zhu, Qing Yao
The growth of plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be inhibited by low pH; however, it is largely unknown which is more sensitive to low pH. This study aimed to compare the physiological and molecular responses of external hyphae (EH) and roots to low pH in terms of growth, development and functioning. We established AM symbiosis in a two-compartmented system (root compartment, RC; hyphal compartment, HC) using AMF and transformed hairy roots and exposed them to pH 6.5 and/or pH 4.5. The results showed that pH 4...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798728/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-nitrogen-fixing-rhizobium-sullae-type-strain-is123-t-focusing-on-the-key-genes-for-symbiosis-with-its-host-hedysarum-coronarium-l
#15
Gaurav Sablok, Riccardo Rosselli, Torsten Seeman, Robin van Velzen, Elisa Polone, Alessio Giacomini, Nicola La Porta, Rene Geurts, Rosella Muresu, Andrea Squartini
The prominent feature of rhizobia is their molecular dialogue with plant hosts. Such interaction is enabled by the presence of a series of symbiotic genes encoding for the synthesis and export of signals triggering organogenetic and physiological responses in the plant. The genome of the Rhizobium sullae type strain IS123(T) nodulating the legume Hedysarum coronarium, was sequenced and resulted in 317 scaffolds for a total assembled size of 7,889,576 bp. Its features were compared with those of genomes from rhizobia representing an increasing gradient of taxonomical distance, from a conspecific isolate (Rhizobium sullae WSM1592), to two congeneric cases (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794950/structure-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-from-the-bradyrhizobium-sp-ors285-rfal-mutant-strain
#16
Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Angelo Palmigiano, Katarzyna A Duda, Mateusz Pallach, Nicolas Busset, Luisa Sturiale, Eric Giraud, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo
The importance of the outer membrane and of its main constituent, lipopolysaccharide, in the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous host plants has been well studied. Here, the first complete structural characterization of the entire lipopolysaccharide from an O-chain-deficient Bradyrhizobium ORS285 rfaL mutant is achieved by a combination of chemical analysis, NMR spectroscopy, MALDI MS and MS/MS. The lipid A structure is shown to be consistent with previously reported Bradyrhizobium lipid A, that is, a heterogeneous blend of penta- to hepta-acylated species carrying a nonstoichiometric hopanoid unit and possessing very-long-chain fatty acids ranging from 26:0(25-OH) to 32:0(31-OH)...
August 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794466/a-family-of-archaea-like-carboxylesterases-preferentially-expressed-in-the-symbiotic-phase-of-the-mychorrizal-fungus-tuber-melanosporum
#17
Davide Cavazzini, Guido Grossi, Elisabetta Levati, Francesca Vallese, Barbara Montanini, Angelo Bolchi, Giuseppe Zanotti, Simone Ottonello
An increasing number of esterases is being revealed by (meta) genomic sequencing projects, but few of them are functionally/structurally characterized, especially enzymes of fungal origin. Starting from a three-member gene family of secreted putative "lipases/esterases" preferentially expressed in the symbiotic phase of the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum ("black truffle"), we show here that these enzymes (TmelEST1-3) are dimeric, heat-resistant carboxylesterases capable of hydrolyzing various short/medium chain p-nitrophenyl esters...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792680/transcriptomic-basis-of-genome-by-genome-variation-in-a-legume-rhizobia-mutualism
#18
Liana T Burghardt, Joseph Guhlin, Chan Lan Chun, Junqi Liu, Michael J Sadowsky, Robert M Stupar, Nevin D Young, Peter Tiffin
In the legume-rhizobia mutualism, the benefit each partner derives from the other depends on the genetic identity of both host and rhizobial symbiont. To gain insight into the extent of genome x genome interactions on hosts at the molecular level and to identify potential mechanisms responsible for the variation, we examined host gene expression within nodules (the plant organ where the symbiosis occurs) of four genotypes of Medicago truncatula grown with either Ensifer meliloti or E. medicae symbionts. These host x symbiont combinations show significant variation in nodule and biomass phenotypes...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791535/host-dependent-symbiotic-efficiency-of-rhizobium-leguminosarum-bv-trifolii-strains-isolated-from-nodules-of-trifolium-rubens
#19
Monika Marek-Kozaczuk, Sylwia Wdowiak-Wróbel, Michał Kalita, Mykhaylo Chernetskyy, Kamil Deryło, Marek Tchórzewski, Anna Skorupska
Trifolium rubens L., commonly known as the red feather clover, is capable of symbiotic interactions with rhizobia. Up to now, no specific symbionts of T. rubens and their symbiotic compatibility with Trifolium spp. have been described. We characterized the genomic diversity of T. rubens symbionts by analyses of plasmid profiles and BOX-PCR. The phylogeny of T. rubens isolates was inferred based on the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA and two core genes (atpD, recA). The nodC phylogeny allowed classification of rhizobia nodulating T...
August 8, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789611/role-of-the-gras-transcription-factor-ata-ram1-in-the-transcriptional-reprogramming-of-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-petunia-hybrida
#20
Mélanie K Rich, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Christophe Roux, Didier Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots...
August 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
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