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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330574/ectomycorrhizal-fungal-communities-in-alpine-relict-forests-of-pinus-pumila-on-mt-norikura-japan
#1
Takahiko Koizumi, Masahira Hattori, Kazuhide Nara
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses are indispensable for the establishment of host trees, yet available information of ECM symbiosis in alpine forests is scarce. Pinus pumila is a typical ice age relict tree species in Japan and often forms monodominant dwarf vegetation above the tree line in mountains. We studied ECM fungi colonizing P. pumila on Mt. Norikura, Japan, with reference to host developmental stages, i.e., from current-year seedlings to mature trees. ECM fungal species were identified based on rDNA ITS sequences...
January 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330535/the-stoichiometry-of-coral-dinoflagellate-symbiosis-carbon-and-nitrogen-cycles-are-balanced-in-the-recycling-and-double-translocation-system
#2
Yasuaki Tanaka, Atsushi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Sakai
Symbioses between microalgae and animal hosts have the advantage of acquiring and sharing autotrophically produced organic carbon (C) as their energy source. However, the stoichiometry and turnover rates of biological elements in symbioses are not fully understood because of complicated metabolic interactions. We report the first comprehensive and simultaneous measurement of C and nitrogen (N) flows through coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis by using the unique approach of dual-isotope labeling with 13C and 15N, in situ chasing, and isotope-mixing models...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329439/conserved-proteins-of-the-rna-interference-system-in-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-rhizoglomus-irregulare-provide-new-insight-into-the-evolutionary-history-of-glomeromycota
#3
Soon-Jae Lee, Mengxuan Kong, Paul Harrison, Mohamed Hijri
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism in the evolution of many living organisms particularly in Prokaryotes where genes are frequently dispersed between taxa. Although, HGT has been reported in Eukaryotes, its accumulative effect and its frequency has been questioned. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an early diverged fungal lineage belonging to phylum Glomeromycota, whose phylogenetic position is still under debate. The history of AMF and land plant symbiosis dates back to at least 460 million years ago...
January 10, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327481/the-genome-and-microbiome-of-a-dikaryotic-fungus-inocybe-terrigena-inocybaceae-revealed-by-metagenomics
#4
Mohammad Bahram, Dan Vanderpool, Mari Pent, Markus Hiltunen, Martin Ryberg
Recent advances in molecular methods have increased our understanding of various fungal symbioses. However, little is known about genomic and microbiome features of most uncultured symbiotic fungal clades. Here, we analysed the genome and microbiome of Inocybaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a largely uncultured ectomycorrhizal clade known to form symbiotic associations with a wide variety of plant species. We used metagenomic sequencing and assembly of dikaryotic fruiting-body tissues from Inocybe terrigena (Fr...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325010/incomplete-co-cladogenesis-between-zootermopsis-termites-and-their-associated-protists
#5
Stephen J Taerum, Francesca De Martini, Jürgen Liebig, Gillian H Gile
Coevolution is a major driver of speciation in many host-associated symbionts. In the termite-protist digestive symbiosis, the protists are vertically inherited by anal feeding among nest mates. Lower termites (all termite families except Termitidae) and their symbionts have broadly co-diversified over ~170 million yr. However, this inference is based mainly on the restricted distribution of certain protist genera to certain termite families. With the exception of one study, which demonstrated congruent phylogenies for the protist Pseudotrichonympha and its Rhinotermitidae hosts, coevolution in this symbiosis has not been investigated with molecular methods...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321910/why-does-oriental-arborvitae-grow-better-when-mixed-with-black-locust-insight-on-nutrient-cycling
#6
Xuedong Chen, Ming Tang, Xinlu Zhang, Chantal Hamel, Wei Li, Min Sheng
To identify why tree growth differs by afforestation type is a matter of prime concern in forestry. A study was conducted to determine why oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) grows better in the presence of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) than in monoculture. Different types of stands (i.e., monocultures and mixture of black locust and oriental arborvitae, and native grassland as a control) were selected in the Loess Plateau, China. The height and diameter at breast height of each tree species were measured, and soil, shoot, and root samples were sampled...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321853/tracking-plant-preference-for-higher-quality-mycorrhizal-symbionts-under-varying-co2-conditions-over-multiple-generations
#7
Gijsbert D A Werner, Yeling Zhou, Corné M J Pieterse, E Toby Kiers
The symbiosis between plants and root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most ecologically important examples of interspecific cooperation in the world. AM fungi provide benefits to plants; in return plants allocate carbon resources to fungi, preferentially allocating more resources to higher-quality fungi. However, preferential allocations from plants to symbionts may vary with environmental context, particularly when resource availability affects the relative value of symbiotic services...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316019/cell-cycle-dynamics-of-cultured-coral-endosymbiotic-microalgae-symbiodinium-across-different-types-species-under-alternate-light-and-temperature-conditions
#8
Lisa Fujise, Matthew R Nitschke, Jörg C Frommlet, João Serôdio, Stephen Woodcock, Peter J Ralph, David J Suggett
Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium live in symbiosis with many invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Hosts maintain this symbiosis through continuous regulation of Symbiodinium cell density via expulsion and degradation (post-mitotic) and/or constraining cell growth and division through manipulation of the symbiont cell cycle (pre-mitotic). Importance of pre-mitotic regulation is unknown since little data exists on cell cycles for the immense genetic diversity of Symbiodinium. We therefore examined cell cycle progression for several distinct Symbiodinium ITS2-types (B1, C1, D1a)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315638/comparative-genomics-and-transcriptomics-depict-ericoid-mycorrhizal-fungi-as-versatile-saprotrophs-and-plant-mutualists
#9
Elena Martino, Emmanuelle Morin, Gwen-Aëlle Grelet, Alan Kuo, Annegret Kohler, Stefania Daghino, Kerrie W Barry, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Rhyan B Dockter, Matthieu Hainaut, Rita C Kuo, Kurt LaButti, Björn D Lindahl, Erika A Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Jon Magnuson, Claude Murat, Robin A Ohm, Steven W Singer, Joseph W Spatafora, Mei Wang, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Bernard Henrissat, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis M Martin, Silvia Perotto
Some soil fungi in the Leotiomycetes form ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) symbioses with Ericaceae. In the harsh habitats in which they occur, ERM plant survival relies on nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter (SOM) by their fungal partners. The characterization of the fungal genetic machinery underpinning both the symbiotic lifestyle and SOM degradation is needed to understand ERM symbiosis functioning and evolution, and its impact on soil carbon (C) turnover. We sequenced the genomes of the ERM fungi Meliniomyces bicolor, M...
January 7, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315021/the-global-regulatory-protein-vela-is-required-for-symbiosis-between-the-endophytic-fungus-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae-and-lolium-perenne
#10
Mostafa Rahnama, Richard Johnson, Christine Rosalie Voisey, Wayne R Simpson, Damien J Fleetwood
Epichloë species fungi form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. One of the key global regulators in fungal secondary metabolism and development is the VelA protein. In this study, velA was functionally characterised in vitro and in fungal interaction with its host perennial ryegrass. The velA gene is required for E...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313151/cnidarian-primary-cell-culture-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-effect-of-thermal-stress-at-cellular-level
#11
P Ventura, G Toullec, C Fricano, L Chapron, V Meunier, E Röttinger, P Furla, S Barnay-Verdier
In the context of global change, symbiotic cnidarians are largely affected by seawater temperature elevation leading to symbiosis breakdown. This process, also called bleaching, is triggered by the dysfunction of the symbiont photosystems causing an oxidative stress and cell death to both symbiont and host cells. In our study, we wanted to elucidate the intrinsic capacity of isolated animal cells to deal with thermal stress in the absence of symbiont. In that aim, we have characterized an animal primary cell culture form regenerating tentacles of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis...
January 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311719/transcriptome-changes-induced-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l-roots
#12
Alberto Vangelisti, Lucia Natali, Rodolfo Bernardi, Cristiana Sbrana, Alessandra Turrini, Keywan Hassani-Pak, David Hughes, Andrea Cavallini, Manuela Giovannetti, Tommaso Giordani
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are essential elements of soil fertility, plant nutrition and productivity, facilitating soil mineral nutrient uptake. Helianthus annuus is a non-model, widely cultivated species. Here we used an RNA-seq approach for evaluating gene expression variation at early and late stages of mycorrhizal establishment in sunflower roots colonized by the arbuscular fungus Rhizoglomus irregulare. mRNA was isolated from roots of plantlets at 4 and 16 days after inoculation with the fungus...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305786/computational-investigation-of-small-rnas-in-the-establishment-of-root-nodules-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-leguminous-plants
#13
Danfeng Jin, Xianwen Meng, Yue Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yuhua Zhao, Ming Chen
Many small RNAs have been confirmed to play important roles in the development of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this study, we carried out the identification of certain small RNAs in leguminous plants (Medicago truncatula, soybean, peanut and common bean), such as miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs, as well as the computational investigation of their regulations. Thirty miRNAs were predicted to be involved in establishing root nodules and mycorrhiza, and 12 of them were novel in common bean and peanut. The generation of tRFs in M...
January 3, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301366/in-bps1-downregulated-roots-the-bypass1-signal-disrupts-the-induction-of-cortical-cell-divisions-in-bean-rhizobium-symbiosis
#14
Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Kalpana Nanjareddy, Miguel Lara
BYPASS1 (BPS1), which is a well-conserved gene in plants, is required for normal root and shoot development. In the absence of BPS1 gene function, Arabidopsis overproduces a mobile signalling compound (the BPS1 signal) in roots, and this transmissible signal arrests shoot growth and causes abnormal root development. In addition to the shoot and root meristem activities, the legumes also possess transient meristematic activity in root cortical cells during Rhizobium symbiosis. We explored the role of Phaseolus vulgaris BPS1 during nodule primordium development using an RNA-interference (RNAi) silencing approach...
January 3, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300826/from-rhizoids-to-roots-experimental-evidence-of-mutualism-between-liverworts-and-ascomycete-fungi
#15
Jill Kowal, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G Duckett, Martin I Bidartondo, Katie J Field
Background and Aims: The rhizoids of leafy liverworts (Jungermanniales, Marchantiophyta) are commonly colonized by the ascomycete fungus Pezoloma ericae. These associations are hypothesized to be functionally analogous to the ericoid mycorrhizas (ErMs) formed by P. ericae with the roots of Ericaceae plants in terms of bi-directional phosphorus for carbon exchange; however, this remains unproven. Here, we test whether associations between the leafy liverwort Cephalozia bicuspidata and P...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299529/studying-the-symbiotic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-nematophila-in-individual-living-steinernema-carpocapsae-nematodes-using-microfluidic-systems
#16
Matthew D Stilwell, Mengyi Cao, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Douglas B Weibel
Animal-microbe symbioses are ubiquitous in nature and scientifically important in diverse areas, including ecology, medicine, and agriculture. Steinernema nematodes and Xenorhabdus bacteria compose an established, successful model system for investigating microbial pathogenesis and mutualism. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a species-specific mutualist of insect-infecting Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. The bacterium colonizes a specialized intestinal pocket within the infective stage of the nematode, which transports the bacteria between insects that are killed and consumed by the pair for reproduction...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299261/disturbance-modulated-symbioses-in-termitophily
#17
Ivan Monteiro, Arleu Barbosa Viana-Junior, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro Solar, Frederico de Siqueira Neves, Og DeSouza
Symbiosis, the living-together of unlike organisms, underlies every major transition in evolution and pervades most ecological dynamics. Among examples of symbioses, the simultaneous occupation of a termite nest by its builder termites and intruding invertebrate species (so-called termitophily) provides suitable macroscopic scenarios for the study of species coexistence in confined environments. Current evidence on termitophily abounds for dynamics occurring at the interindividual level within the termitarium, but is insufficient for broader scales such as the community and the landscape...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299220/the-road-to-cybathlon-2016-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-team-irpt-spz
#18
Marco Laubacher, Efe Anil Aksöz, Ines Bersch, Kenneth James Hunt
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides a good possibility to activate paralysed muscles and it has been shown to elicit substantial physiological and health benefits. For successful application of FES, a perfect symbiosis of the bike and the pilot has to be achieved. The road to the Cybathlon 2016 describes the different pieces needed for FES cycling in spinal cord injury. The systematic optimisation of the stimulation parameters and the Cybatrike, and sophisticated training contributed to the team's success as the fastest surface-electrode team in the competition...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291450/imaging-bacteria-inside-their-host-by-cryo-focused-ion-beam-milling-and-electron-cryotomography
#19
REVIEW
João M Medeiros, Désirée Böck, Martin Pilhofer
Bacterium-host interactions are important for diverse ecological settings including pathogenicity and symbiosis. Electron cryotomography is a powerful method for studying the macromolecular complexes that mediate such interactions in situ. The main limitation of electron cryotomography is its restriction to relatively thin samples such as individual bacterial cells. Cryo-focused ion beam milling was recently proposed as a solution to the thickness limitation. This approach allows the artifact-free thinning of biological specimens for subsequent imaging in the transmission electron microscope...
December 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290501/the-metabolic-microenvironment-steers-bone-tissue-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Julia Loeffler, Georg N Duda, F Andrea Sass, Anke Dienelt
Over the past years, basic findings in cancer research have revealed metabolic symbiosis between different cell types to cope with high energy demands under limited nutrient availability. Although this also applies to regenerating tissues with disrupted physiological nutrient and oxygen supply, the impact of this metabolic cooperation and metabolic reprogramming on cellular development, fate, and function during tissue regeneration has widely been neglected so far. With this review, we aim to provide a schematic overview on metabolic links that have a high potential to drive tissue regeneration...
December 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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