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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634653/assessing-the-combined-toxicity-of-bmaa-and-its-isomers-2-4-dab-and-aeg-in-vitro-using-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#1
Brendan J Main, Kenneth J Rodgers
The non-protein amino acid (NPAA) ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is produced by a diverse range of cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, and is present in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems globally. Exposure to BMAA has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). BMAA is often found in nature along with its structural isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB) and aminoethylglycine (AEG); however, the toxicity of these NPAAs in combination has not been examined...
June 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633948/effect-of-nutrient-pollution-on-dinoflagellate-cyst-assemblages-across-estuaries-of-the-nw-atlantic
#2
Andrea M Price, Michael R S Coffin, Vera Pospelova, James S Latimer, Gail L Chmura
We analyzed surface sediments from 23 northeast USA estuaries, from Maine to Delaware, and nine estuaries from Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), to determine how dinoflagellate cyst assemblages varied with nutrient loading. Overall the abundance of cysts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates correlates with modeled nitrogen loading, but there were also regional signals. On PEI cysts of Gymnodinium microreticulatum characterized estuaries with high nitrogen loading while the sediments of eutrophic Boston Harbor were characterized by high abundances of Spiniferites spp...
June 17, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628993/the-impact-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-marine-plankton-dynamics-dependence-on-coating-size-and-concentration
#3
Anastasia Tsiola, Paraskevi Pitta, Agnès Junyer Callol, Margarita Kagiorgi, Ioanna Kalantzi, Kyriaki Mylona, Ioulia Santi, Claudio Toncelli, Spyros Pergantis, Manolis Tsapakis
During this study, three microcosm experiments were carried out with natural coastal seawater, collected in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, in order to assess the effect of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) exposure to natural plankton communities. The impact of coating (branched-polyethyleneimine: BPEI vs. poly-vinylpyrrolidone: PVP), size (40 vs. 60nm), concentration (200, 500, 2000, 5000 and 10,000ng Ag L(-1)) and silver form (dissolved Ag(+) vs. AgNPs) were tested. The results of chlorophyll a concentration revealed that PVP AgNPs caused a higher toxicity than BPEI AgNPs, and this was possibly related to the measured higher dissolution rate...
June 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617290/micro-zooplankton-grazing-as-a-means-of-fecal-bacteria-removal-in-stormwater-bmps
#4
Jade M Burtchett, Michael A Mallin, Lawrence B Cahoon
A priority for environmental managers is control of stormwater runoff pollution, especially fecal microbial pollution. This research was designed to determine if fecal bacterial grazing by micro-zooplankton is a significant control on fecal bacteria in aquatic best management practices (BMPs); if grazing differs between a wet detention pond and a constructed wetland; and if environmental factors enhance grazing. Both 3-day grazing tests and 24-h dilution assays were used to determine grazing differences between the two types of BMP...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616367/correction-the-scavenger-receptor-repertoire-in-six-cnidarian-species-and-its-putative-role-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#5
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Olivier Detournay, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2692.].
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610836/population-dynamics-of-noctiluca-scintillans-during-a-bloom-in-a-semi-enclosed-bay-in-hong-kong
#6
Shuwen Zhang, Paul J Harrison, Shuqun Song, Mianrun Chen, Hiu Suet Kung, Wing Keung Lau, Cui Guo, Chih-Jung Wu, Jie Xu, Hongbin Liu
Noctiluca scintillans, a heterotrophic dinoflagellate responsible for most of the red tides in Hong Kong waters was investigated to determine the influence of biotic and abiotic factors in determining its population dynamics. N. scintillans first occurred in January when temperature was ~17°C, and reached a maximum of 1980cellsL(-1) one month later. N. scintillans interacted with trophic compartments from picoplankton to mesozooplankton, but its population development was largely related to the availability of phytoplankton, especially diatoms...
June 10, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604648/prevalence-variability-and-bioconcentration-of-saxitoxin-group-in-different-marine-species-present-in-the-food-chain
#7
Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas, Héctor R Contreras, Carlos García
The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs)...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602257/cryptic-diversity-within-the-harmful-dinoflagellate-akashiwo-sanguinea-in-coastal-chinese-waters-is-related-to-differentiated-ecological-niches
#8
Zhaohe Luo, Weidong Yang, Chui Pin Leaw, Vera Pospelova, Gwenael Bilien, Guat Ru Liow, Po Teen Lim, Haifeng Gu
Blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea are responsible for the mass mortality of fish and invertebrates in coastal waters. This cosmopolitan species includes several genetically differentiated clades. Four clonal cultures were established by isolating single cells from Xiamen Harbour (the East China Sea) for morphological and genetic analyses. The cultures displayed identical morphology but were genetically different, thus revealing presence of cryptic diversity in the study area. New details of the apical structure complex of Akashiwo sanguinea were also found...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602254/formation-and-germination-of-temporary-cysts-of-cochlodinium-polykrikoides-margalef-dinophyceae-and-their-ecological-role-in-dense-blooms
#9
Hyeon Ho Shin, Zhun Li, Yang Ho Yoon, Seok Jin Oh, Wol-Ae Lim
While the initiation and development of dense bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides have been shown to be related to some environmental factors, little is known about the ecological role of the formation and germination of temporary cysts, nor of their significance for the rapid expansion of dense regional-scale blooms. This study examined the factors affecting the formation and germination of temporary cysts of C. polykrikoides, and provides details about the germination process. In the laboratory experiments, C...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602251/analysis-of-sterols-in-selected-bloom-forming-algae-in-china
#10
Hui-Xia Geng, Ren-Cheng Yu, Zhen-Fan Chen, Quan-Cai Peng, Tian Yan, Ming-Jiang Zhou
Sterols, a group of stable lipid compounds, are often used as biomarkers in marine biogeochemical studies to indicate sources of organic matter. In this study, sterols in 13 species of major bloom-forming algae in China, which belong to Dinophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Pelagophyceae, were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to test their feasibility in representing different types of harmful algal blooms (HABs). It was found that (24Z)-stigmasta-5,24-dien-3β-ol (28-isofucosterol) was a major sterol component in green-tide forming macroalga Ulva prolifera...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602250/lsu-rdna-based-rflp-assays-for-the-routine-identification-of-gambierdiscus-species
#11
Yihua Lyu, Mindy L Richlen, Taylor R Sehein, Mireille Chinain, Masao Adachi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Yixiao Xu, Michael L Parsons, Tyler B Smith, Tianling Zheng, Donald M Anderson
The Gambierdiscus genus is a group of benthic dinoflagellates commonly associated with ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), which is generally found in tropical or sub-tropical regions around the world. Morphologically similar species within the genus can vary in toxicity; however, species identifications are difficult or sometimes impossible using light microscopy. DNA sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is thus often used to identify and describe Gambierdiscus species and ribotypes, but the expense and time can be prohibitive for routine culture screening and/or large-scale monitoring programs...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595122/winds-and-the-distribution-of-nearshore-phytoplankton-in-a-stratified-lake
#12
Hélène Cyr
The distribution of phytoplankton in lakes is notoriously patchy and dynamic, but wind-driven currents and algal buoyancy/motility are thought to determine where algae accumulate. In this study, nearshore phytoplankton were sampled from different parts of a lake basin twice a day for 4-5 consecutive days, in the spring and in late summer, to test whether short-term changes in phytoplankton biomass and community composition can be predicted from wind-driven currents. On windy days, phytoplankton biomass was higher at downwind than at upwind nearshore sites, and the magnitude of this difference increased linearly with increasing wind speed...
May 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587138/toxin-variability-estimations-of-68-alexandrium-ostenfeldii-dinophyceae-strains-from-the-netherlands-reveal-a-novel-abundant-gymnodimine
#13
Helge Martens, Urban Tillmann, Kirsi Harju, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Luciana Tartaglione, Bernd Krock
Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2...
May 26, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587129/characterization-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylases-in-the-basal-dinoflagellate-amphidinium-carterae
#14
Saddef Haq, Tsvetan R Bachvaroff, Allen R Place
Dinoflagellates make up a diverse array of fatty acids and polyketides. A necessary precursor for their synthesis is malonyl-CoA formed by carboxylating acetyl CoA using the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). To date, information on dinoflagellate ACC is limited. Through transcriptome analysis in Amphidinium carterae, we found three full-length homomeric type ACC sequences; no heteromeric type ACC sequences were found. We assigned the putative cellular location for these ACCs based on transit peptide predictions...
May 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584301/high-resolution-profiling-of-coral-associated-bacterial-communities-using-full-length-16s-rrna-sequence-data-from-pacbio-smrt-sequencing-system
#15
Wirulda Pootakham, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Thippawan Yoocha, Lalita Putchim, Chutima Sonthirod, Chaiwat Naktang, Nalinee Thongtham, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang
Coral reefs are a complex ecosystem consisting of coral animals and a vast array of associated symbionts including the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, fungi, viruses and bacteria. Several studies have highlighted the importance of coral-associated bacteria and their fundamental roles in fitness and survival of the host animal. The scleractinian coral Porites lutea is one of the dominant reef-builders in the Indo-West Pacific. Currently, very little is known about the composition and structure of bacterial communities across P...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573008/common-reef-building-coral-in-the-northern-red-sea-resistant-to-elevated-temperature-and-acidification
#16
Thomas Krueger, Noa Horwitz, Julia Bodin, Maria-Evangelia Giovani, Stéphane Escrig, Anders Meibom, Maoz Fine
Coral reefs are currently experiencing substantial ecological impoverishment as a result of anthropogenic stressors, and the majority of reefs are facing immediate risk. Increasing ocean surface temperatures induce frequent coral mass bleaching events-the breakdown of the nutritional photo-symbiosis with intracellular algae (genus: Symbiodinium). Here, we report that Stylophora pistillata from a highly diverse reef in the Gulf of Aqaba showed no signs of bleaching despite spending 1.5 months at 1-2°C above their long-term summer maximum (amounting to 11 degree heating weeks) and a seawater pH of 7...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558286/interactions-between-polystyrene-microplastics-and-marine-phytoplankton-lead-to-species-specific-hetero-aggregation
#17
Marc Long, Ika Paul-Pont, Hélène Hégaret, Brivaela Moriceau, Christophe Lambert, Arnaud Huvet, Philippe Soudant
To understand the fate and impacts of microplastics (MP) in the marine ecosystems, it is essential to investigate their interactions with phytoplankton as these may affect MP bioavailability to marine organisms as well as their fate in the water column. However, the behaviour of MP with marine phytoplanktonic cells remains little studied and thus unpredictable. The present study assessed the potential for phytoplankton cells to form hetero-aggregates with small micro-polystyrene (micro-PS) particles depending on microalgal species and physiological status...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554022/lipophilic-marine-toxins-discovered-in-the-bohai-sea-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Yang Liu, Ren-Cheng Yu, Fan-Zhou Kong, Chen Li, Li Dai, Zhen-Fan Chen, Ming-Jiang Zhou
Some dinoflagellates can produce lipophilic marine toxins, which pose potent threats to seafood consumers. In the Bohai Sea, an important semi-closed inland sea with intensive mariculture industry in China, there is little knowledge concerning lipophilic marine toxins and their potential threats. In this study, net-concentrated phytoplankton samples were periodically collected from 5 typical mariculture zones around the Bohai Sea, including Laishan (LS), Laizhou (LZ), Hangu (HG), Qinhuangdao (QHD) and Huludao (HLD) in 2013 and 2014, and a method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Q-Trap mass spectrometer was applied to analyze seven representative lipophilic marine toxins, including okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), gymnodimine (GYM), and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (desMeC)...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551108/brevetoxin-2-is-a-unique-inhibitor-of-the-c-terminal-redox-center-of-mammalian-thioredoxin-reductase-1
#19
Wei Chen, Anupama Tuladhar, Shantelle Rolle, Yanhao Lai, Freddy Rodriguez Del Rey, Cristian E Zavala, Yuan Liu, Kathleen S Rein
Karenia brevis, the Florida red tide dinoflagellate produces a suite of neurotoxins known as the brevetoxins. The most abundant of the brevetoxins PbTx-2, was found to inhibit the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system, whereas the PbTx-3 has no effect on this system. On the other hand, PbTx-2 activates the reduction of small disulfides such as 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by thioredoxin reductase. PbTx-2 has an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety which functions as an efficient electrophile and selenocysteine conjugates are readily formed...
May 25, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549285/environmental-response-to-long-term-mariculture-activities-in-the-weihai-coastal-area-china
#20
Hongmei Li, Xiaomin Li, Qiang Li, Ying Liu, Jide Song, Yongyu Zhang
The environmental impacts of rapid expansion of mariculture have garnered worldwide attention. China is currently one of the largest countries to engage in this practice. In this study, a representative mariculture zone, the Weihai coastal area in China, was explored to determine the temporal variations in regional nutrients, N/P ratio, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and cellular abundance of diatoms and dinoflagellates in response to the rapid growth in mariculture activities between 2006 and 2014...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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