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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731474/bacterial-transcriptome-remodeling-during-sequential-co-culture-with-a-marine-dinoflagellate-and-diatom
#1
Marine Landa, Andrew S Burns, Selena J Roth, Mary Ann Moran
In their role as primary producers, marine phytoplankton modulate heterotrophic bacterial activities through differences in the types and amounts of organic matter they release. This study investigates the transcriptional response of bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi, a member of the Roseobacter clade known to affiliate with diverse phytoplankton groups in the ocean, during a shift in phytoplankton taxonomy. The bacterium was initially introduced into a culture of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, and then experienced a change in phytoplankton community composition as the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana gradually outcompeted the dinoflagellate...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730312/hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-quantitation-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-validation-and-application-to-reference-materials
#2
Krista M Thomas, Daniel G Beach, Kelley L Reeves, Ryan S Gibbs, Elliott S Kerrin, Pearse McCarron, Michael A Quilliam
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by marine dinoflagellates that are responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. This work highlights our ongoing efforts to develop quantitative methods for PSTs using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Compared with the commonly used method of liquid chromatography with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection (LC-ox-FLD), HILIC-MS/MS has the potential of being more robust, sensitive and straightforward to operate, and provides unequivocal confirmation of toxin identity...
July 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726749/ladder-shaped-ion-channel-ligands-current-state-of-knowledge
#3
REVIEW
Yuri B Shmukler, Denis A Nikishin
Ciguatoxins (CTX) and brevetoxins (BTX) are polycyclic ethereal compounds biosynthesized by the worldwide distributed planktonic and epibenthic dinoflagellates of Gambierdiscus and Karenia genera, correspondingly. Ciguatera, evoked by CTXs, is a type of ichthyosarcotoxism, which involves a variety of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, while BTXs cause so-called neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Both types of toxins are reviewed together because of similar mechanisms of their action. These are the only molecules known to activate voltage-sensitive Na⁺-channels in mammals through a specific interaction with site 5 of its α-subunit and may compete for it, which results in an increase in neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release and impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling...
July 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713348/engineering-strategies-to-decode-and-enhance-the-genomes-of-coral-symbionts
#4
Rachel A Levin, Christian R Voolstra, Shobhit Agrawal, Peter D Steinberg, David J Suggett, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Elevated sea surface temperatures from a severe and prolonged El Niño event (2014-2016) fueled by climate change have resulted in mass coral bleaching (loss of dinoflagellate photosymbionts, Symbiodinium spp., from coral tissues) and subsequent coral mortality, devastating reefs worldwide. Genetic variation within and between Symbiodinium species strongly influences the bleaching tolerance of corals, thus recent papers have called for genetic engineering of Symbiodinium to elucidate the genetic basis of bleaching-relevant Symbiodinium traits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712772/spatio-temporal-variations-in-bloom-of-the-red-tide-dinoflagellate-karenia-mikimotoi-in-imari-bay-japan-in-2014-factors-controlling-horizontal-and-vertical-distribution
#5
Kazuhiro Aoki, Takahiko Kameda, Toshifumi Yamatogi, Naoya Ishida, Sou Hirae, Mayumi Kawaguchi, Toshio Syutou
A massive bloom of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi appeared in 2014 in Imari Bay, Japan. Bloom dynamics and hydrographical conditions were examined by field survey. The bloom initially developed in the eastern area of Imari Bay, subsequently after rainfall during the neap tides, cell density exceeded over 10,000cellsml. Vertical distribution of K. mikimotoi was primarily controlled by the light intensity and secondarily by the water quality during the daytime. Almost all cell-density maxima occurred in depths with weak daytime light intensities of <300μmolm(-2)s(-1)...
July 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711010/the-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-saxitoxin-enters-the-cytoplasm-and-induces-apoptosis-of-oyster-immune-cells-through-a-caspase-dependent-pathway
#6
Celina Abi-Khalil, Darren S Finkelstein, Genevieve Conejero, Justin Du Bois, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzon, Jean Luc Rolland
Exposure of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (A. catenella) was previously demonstrated to cause apoptosis of hemocytes in the oyster species Crassostrea gigas. In this work, a coumarin-labeled saxitoxin appeared to spread throughout the cytoplasm of the hemocytes. PSTs, including saxitoxin, were also shown to be directly responsible for inducing apoptosis in hemocytes, a process dependent on caspase activation and independent of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. A series of in vitro labelling and microscopy experiments revealed that STX and analogs there of induced nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine exposure, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation of hemocytes...
July 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710419/generation-of-clade-and-symbiont-specific-antibodies-to-characterize-marker-molecules-during-cnidaria-symbiodinium-endosymbiosis
#7
Kao-Jean Huang, Zi-Yu Huang, Ching-Yen Lin, Li-Hsueh Wang, Pin-Hsiang Chou, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Hsing-Hui Li
The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is responsible for the formation of coral reefs. Changes in molecules have been identified during the process of cnidaria-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, the complexity of the molecular interaction has prevented the establishment of a mechanistic explanation of cellular regulation in this mutualistic symbiosis. To date, no marker molecules have been identified to specifically represent the symbiotic status. Because the endosymbiotic association occurs in the symbiotic gastrodermal cells (SGCs), whole cells of isolated SGCs were used as an antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to screen possible molecular candidates of symbiotic markers...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696398/maitotoxin-4-a-novel-mtx-analog-produced-by-gambierdiscus-excentricus
#8
Francesco Pisapia, Manoëlla Sibat, Christine Herrenknecht, Korian Lhaute, Greta Gaiani, Pierre-Jean Ferron, Valérie Fessard, Santiago Fraga, Silvia M Nascimento, R Wayne Litaker, William C Holland, Catherine Roullier, Philipp Hess
Maitotoxins (MTXs) are among the most potent toxins known. These toxins are produced by epi-benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa and may play a role in causing the symptoms associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. A recent survey revealed that, of the species tested, the newly described species from the Canary Islands, G. excentricus, is one of the most maitotoxic. The goal of the present study was to characterize MTX-related compounds produced by this species. Initially, lysates of cells from two Canary Island G...
July 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678186/whole-transcriptomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-for-toxin-biosynthesis-in-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-catenella-achk-t
#9
Yong Zhang, Shu-Fei Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a group of neurotoxic alkaloids, are the most potent biotoxins for aquatic ecosystems and human health. Marine dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria are two producers of PSTs. The biosynthesis mechanism of PSTs has been well elucidated in cyanobacteria; however, it remains ambiguous in dinoflagellates. Here, we compared the transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) at different toxin biosynthesis stages within the cell cycle using RNA-seq...
July 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676796/cell-cycle-dependent-expression-dynamics-of-g1-s-specific-cyclin-cellulose-synthase-and-cellulase-in-the-dinoflagellate-prorocentrum-donghaiense
#10
Xinguo Shi, Minglei Ma, Senjie Lin
Dinoflagellates undergo a typical eukaryotic cell cycle consisting of G1, S, G2, and M phases and some of the typical cell cycle related genes have been computationally identified. However, very few of these genes have been experimentally linked to the cell cycle phases. Besides, although thecate dinoflagellates are known to possess theca composed of cellulose, information on cellulose synthesis and degradation associated with the cell cycle is also limited. In this study, we isolated G1/S cyclin, cellulose synthase and cellulase encoding genes in dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673426/transcriptional-and-biochemical-analysis-of-antioxidant-enzymes-in-the-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis-during-experimental-exposures-to-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-prorocentrum-lima
#11
M V Prego-Faraldo, L R Vieira, J M Eirin-Lopez, J Méndez, L Guilhermino
The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins have been widely investigated in bivalve molluscs, representing the main vectors of these compounds in the Atlantic coast of Europe. DSP toxins are produced by Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates, being subsequently accumulated by marine organisms and biomagnified throughout trophic webs. Yet, bivalves display increased resistance to the harmful effects of these toxins during HAB episodes...
June 15, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662976/selective-isolation-of-gonyautoxins-1-4-from-the-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum-based-on-molecularly-imprinted-solid-phase-extraction
#12
Ziru Lian, Jiangtao Wang
Gonyautoxins 1,4 (GTX1,4) from Alexandrium minutum samples were isolated selectively and recognized specifically by an innovative and effective extraction procedure based on molecular imprinting technology. Novel molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres (MIPMs) were prepared by double-templated imprinting strategy using caffeine and pentoxifylline as dummy templates. The synthesized polymers displayed good affinity to GTX1,4 and were applied as sorbents. Further, an off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) protocol was optimized and an effective approach based on the MISPE coupled with HPLC-FLD was developed for selective isolation of GTX1,4 from the cultured A...
June 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661447/biooxidation-of-ciguatoxins-leads-to-species-specific-toxin-profiles
#13
Tsuyoshi Ikehara, Kyoko Kuniyoshi, Naomasa Oshiro, Takeshi Yasumoto
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) contaminate fish worldwide and cause the foodborne illness ciguatera. In the Pacific, these toxins are produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, which accumulates in fish through the food chain and undergoes oxidative modification, giving rise to numerous analogs. In this study, we examined the oxidation of CTXs in vitro with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis using reference toxins, and found that CTX4A, CTX4B, and CTX3C, which are produced by the alga, are oxidized to the analogs found in fish, namely CTX1B, 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, 2-hydroxyCTX3C, and 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C...
June 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654772/evidence-for-the-presence-of-cell-surface-bound-and-intracellular-bactericidal-toxins-in-the-dinoflagellate-heterocapsa-circularisquama
#14
Kichul Cho, Li Wencheng, Satoshi Takeshita, Jung-Kil Seo, Young-Ho Chung, Daekyung Kim, Tatsuya Oda
Heterocapsa circularisquama, a harmful dinoflagellate, has multiple haemolytic toxins that are considered to be involved in the toxic mechanism against shellfish and certain species of zooplankton. To evaluate the further nature of the toxins of H. circularisquama, we investigated its effects on several species of bacteria. By colony formation assay, we found that H. circularisquama had antibacterial activity toward the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus in a cell density-dependent manner. When the inoculated bacterial cells were co-cultured with H...
June 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654331/effects-of-temperature-and-pco2-on-population-regulation-of-symbiodinium-spp-in-a-tropical-reef-coral
#15
Garen Baghdasarian, Andrew Osberg, Danielle Mihora, Hollie Putnam, Ruth D Gates, Peter J Edmunds
This study tested the bleaching response of the Pacific coral Seriatopora caliendrum to short-term exposure to high temperature and elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Juvenile colonies collected from Nanwan Bay, Taiwan, were used in a factorial experimental design in which 2 temperatures (∼27.6 °C and ∼30.4 °C) and 2 pCO2 values (∼47.2 Pa and ∼90.7 Pa) were crossed to evaluate, over 12 days, the effects on the densities and physiology of the symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) in the corals...
April 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649634/pyrocystis-noctiluca-represents-an-excellent-bioassay-for-shear-forces-induced-in-ground-based-microgravity-simulators-clinostat-and-random-positioning-machine
#16
Jens Hauslage, Volkan Cevik, Ruth Hemmersbach
Ground-based facilities, such as clinostats and random positioning machines aiming at simulating microgravity conditions, are tools to prepare space experiments and identify gravity-related signaling pathways. A prerequisite is that the facilities are operated in an appropriate manner and potentially induced non-gravitational effects, such as shearing forces, have to be taken into account. Dinoflagellates, here P. noctiluca, as fast and sensitive reporter system for shear stress and hydrodynamic gradients, were exposed on a clinostat (constant rotation around one axis, 60 rpm) or in a random positioning machine, that means rotating around two axes, whose velocity and direction were chosen at random...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648727/detection-of-okadaic-acid-oa-using-elisa-and-colloidal-gold-immunoassay-based-on-monoclonal-antibody
#17
Rongzhi Wang, Linmao Zeng, Hang Yang, Yanfang Zhong, Juncheng Wang, Sumei Ling, Abdullah Farhan Saeed, Jun Yuan, Shihua Wang
Okadaic Acid (OA), a small seafood-borne toxin secreted by Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates, is generally distributed in various species of shellfish and has caused diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In view of OA toxin threat to humans and animals, it is essential to develop a rapid, accurate and sensitive method for the detection and quantification of OA in real samples. In this study, a monoclonal antibody named 10E8 was screened by cells fusion of Sp2/0 with spleen cells isolated from immunized mouse, and the isotype of McAb 10E8 was belonged to IgG1...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648723/a-protocol-for-the-simultaneous-identification-of-chitin-containing-particles-and-their-associated-bacteria
#18
Florencia Biancalana, Germán A Kopprio, Rubén J Lara, Cecilia Alonso
Chitin is the second most abundant polymer on Earth, playing a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycles. A core issue for studying its processing in aquatic systems is the identification and enumeration of chitin-containing particles and organisms, ideally in a manner that can be directly linked to bulk chitin quantification. The aim of this study was the development of such a technique. We successfully combined the methodology of bulk chitin determination using wheat germ agglutinin (FITC-WGA) for staining chitin-containing particles and organisms along with CARD-FISH staining of either chitin-containing eukaryotic cells or bacteria associated with them...
June 7, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648045/first-identification-of-palytoxin-like-molecules-in-the-atlantic-coral-species-palythoa-canariensis
#19
María Fraga, Natalia Vilariño, M Carmen Louzao, Lucía Molina, Yanira López, Mark Poli, Luis M Botana
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a complex marine toxin produced by Zoanthids (Palyhtoa), dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis), and cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Contact with PLTX-like compounds present in aerosols or marine organisms has been associated with adverse effects on humans. The worldwide distribution of producer species and seafood contaminated with PLTX-like molecules illustrates the global threat to human health. The identification of species capable of palytoxin production is critical for human safety. We studied the presence of PLTX analogues in Palythoa canariensis, a coral species collected in the Atlantic Ocean never described as a PLTX-producer before...
July 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634653/assessing-the-combined-toxicity-of-bmaa-and-its-isomers-2-4-dab-and-aeg-in-vitro-using-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#20
Brendan J Main, Kenneth J Rodgers
The non-protein amino acid (NPAA) ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is produced by a diverse range of cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, and is present in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems globally. Exposure to BMAA has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). BMAA is often found in nature along with its structural isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB) and aminoethylglycine (AEG); however, the toxicity of these NPAAs in combination has not been examined...
June 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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