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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813504/effect-of-co2-induced-seawater-acidification-on-growth-photosynthesis-and-inorganic-carbon-acquisition-of-the-harmful-bloom-forming-marine-microalga-karenia-mikimotoi
#1
Shunxin Hu, Bin Zhou, You Wang, Ying Wang, Xinxin Zhang, Yan Zhao, Xinyu Zhao, Xuexi Tang
Karenia mikimotoi is a widespread, toxic and non-calcifying dinoflagellate, which can release and produce ichthyotoxins and hemolytic toxins affecting the food web within the area of its bloom. Shifts in the physiological characteristics of K. mikimotoi due to CO2-induced seawater acidification could alter the occurrence, severity and impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 on the physiology of K. mikimotoi. Using semi-continuous cultures under controlled laboratory conditions, growth, photosynthesis and inorganic carbon acquisition were determined over 4-6 week incubations at ambient (390ppmv) and elevated pCO2 levels (1000 ppmv and 2000 ppmv)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811517/heritability-of-the-symbiodinium-community-in-vertically-and-horizontally-transmitting-broadcast-spawning-corals
#2
Kate M Quigley, Bette L Willis, Line K Bay
The dinoflagellate-coral partnership influences the coral holobiont's tolerance to thermal stress and bleaching. However, the comparative roles of host genetic versus environmental factors in determining the composition of this symbiosis are largely unknown. Here we quantify the heritability of the initial Symbiodinium communities for two broadcast-spawning corals with different symbiont transmission modes: Acropora tenuis has environmental acquisition, whereas Montipora digitata has maternal transmission. Using high throughput sequencing of the ITS-2 region to characterize communities in parents, juveniles and eggs, we describe previously undocumented Symbiodinium diversity and dynamics in both corals...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806552/exposure-of-engineered-nanoparticles-to-alexandrium-tamarense-dinophyceae-healthy-impacts-of-nanoparticles-via-toxin-producing-dinoflagellate
#3
Manlu Li, Daoyi Chen, Yang Liu, Chia Ying Chuang, Fanzhou Kong, Paul J Harrison, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yuelu Jiang
Human activities can enhance the frequency, intensity and occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), contained in many materials, will inevitably enter coastal waters and thus cause unpredictable impacts on aquatic organisms. However, knowledge of the influence of ENPs on HAB species is still lacking. In this study, we examined the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2), zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (nAl2O3) on physiological changes and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) production of Alexandrium tamarense...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803343/sediment-lipid-biomarkers-record-phytoplankton-dynamics-of-lake-heihai-yunnan-province-sw-china-driven-by-climate-warming-since-the-1980s
#4
Yongdong Zhang, Yaling Su, Zhengwen Liu, Jinlei Yu, Miao Jin
Increased phosphorus (P) export from sediments to the overlying water column is a significant factor driving the variation of phytoplankton in productivity and community structure in lakes. However, the lack of long-term instrumental data often impeded analyses attempting to associate dynamics of phytoplankton with variation of internal P loading. Here, elements and lipid biomarkers were analyzed in a sediment core from Lake Heihai, a small, deep, and ultraoligotrophic alpine lake in Haba Mountain, Yunnan Province, SW China...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796903/sibling-species-of-mutualistic-symbiodinium-clade-g-from-bioeroding-sponges-in-the-western-pacific-and-western-atlantic-oceans
#5
Blake D Ramsby, Malcolm S Hill, Daniel J Thornhill, Sieuwkje F Steenhuizen, Michelle Achlatis, Allison M Lewis, Todd C Lajeunesse
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium associate with a broad array of metazoan and protistian hosts. Symbiodinium-based symbioses involving bioeroding sponge hosts have received less attention than those involving scleractinian hosts. Certain species of common Cliona harbor high densities of an ecologically restricted group of Symbiodinium, referred to as Clade G. The relationships of these unusual Clade G Symbiodinium with Foraminifera, sponges, and black coral (Antipatharia) are rarely studied. Nonetheless, analyses of genetic evidence indicate that Clade G likely comprises several distinct species...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796896/dactylodinium-pterobelotum-gen-et-sp-nov-a-new-marine-woloszynskioid-dinoflagellate-positioned-between-the-two-families-borghiellaceae-and-suessiaceae
#6
Kazuya Takahashi, Øjvind Moestrup, Minoru Wada, Atsushi Ishimatsu, Nguyen Van Nguyen, Yasuwo Fukuyo, Mitsunori Iwataki
A new marine woloszynskioid dinoflagellate Dactylodinium pterobelotum gen. et sp. nov. collected from a southern Vietnamese estuary was described on the basis of LM, SEM and TEM, and molecular phylogeny inferred from rDNA sequences. This species had the smallest number of amphiesmal vesicles (5 latitudinal series) in woloszynskioid dinoflagellates assigned to the Suessiaceae and Borghiellaceae. The eyespot was of type B, composed of osmiophilic globules and brick-like material, located in- and outside the chloroplast, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794479/the-organizing-effects-of-elevated-co2-on-competition-among-estuarine-primary-producers
#7
Craig S Young, Christopher J Gobler
Fossil fuel combustion, eutrophication, and upwelling introduce excess CO2 into coastal zones. The extent to which marine autotrophs may benefit from elevated CO2 will be a function of their carbon limitation and, among other factors, competition with other primary producers. Here, we report on experiments performed with North Atlantic species of Ulva and Gracilaria grown in situ or exposed to ambient (~400 µatm) and elevated pCO2 (~2500 µatm) and/or subjected to competition with each other and/or with natural plankton assemblages...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793388/morphological-molecular-and-toxin-analysis-of-field-populations-of-alexandrium-genus-from-the-argentina-sea
#8
Elena Fabro, Gastón O Almandoz, Martha Ferrario, Uwe John, Urban Tillmann, Kerstin Toebe, Bernd Krock, Allan Cembella
In the Argentine Sea, blooms of toxigenic dinoflagellates of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex have led to fish and bird mortalities and human deaths as a consequence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Yet little is known about the occurrence of other toxigenic species of the genus Alexandrium, or of their toxin composition beyond coastal waters. The distribution of Alexandrium species and related toxins in the Argentine Sea was determined by sampling surface waters on an oceanographic expedition during austral spring from ~39 to 48º S...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790307/effects-of-prey-of-different-nutrient-quality-on-elemental-nutrient-budgets-in-noctiluca-scintillans
#9
Shuwen Zhang, Hongbin Liu, Patricia M Glibert, Cui Guo, Ying Ke
Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) is a cosmopolitan red tide forming heterotrophic dinoflagellate. In this study, we investigated its ingestion, elemental growth yield and excretion when supplied with different quality food (nutrient-balanced, N-limited and P-limited). Total cellular elemental ratios of Noctiluca were nearly homeostatic, but the ratio of its intracellular NH4(+) and PO4(3-) was weakly regulated. Noctiluca thus seems able to differentially allocate N and P to organic and inorganic pools to maintain overall homeostasis, and it regulated its internal N more strongly and efficiently than P...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781186/response-of-photosynthesis-and-the-antioxidant-defense-system-of-two-microalgal-species-alexandrium-minutum-and-dunaliella-salina-to-the-toxicity-of-bde-47
#10
Yan Zhao, You Wang, Yijun Li, Peter H Santschi, Antonietta Quigg
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a persistent organic pollutant are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, which are causing serious environmental concerns. In this study, we chose BDE-47 as a representative PBDEs, to investigate its toxic effects on two microalgal species and the response of their antioxidant system. The results indicated Alexandrium minutum (a dinoflagellate) was more sensitive to BDE-47 than Dunaliella salina (a chlorophyte), as determined by growth rates, cellular structure and photosynthetic parameters...
August 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771965/contribution-of-the-cytoskeleton-to-mechanosensitivity-reported-by-dinoflagellate-bioluminescence
#11
J C Stires, M I Latz
The cytoskeleton is crucial to cell mechanics and sensing the extracellular physical environment. The objective of this study was to examine the role of the cortical cytoskeleton in mechanosensitivity in a unicellular protist, the marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra, using its intrinsic bioluminescence as a rapid reporter of mechanotransduction. Pharmacological treatments resolved effects due to immediate cytoskeleton disruption from those due to cytoskeletal remodeling during the light to dark phase transition...
August 3, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771148/influence-of-environmental-variables-on-saxitoxin-yields-by-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-in-a-mesotrophic-subtropical-reservoir
#12
Simone Pereira Casali, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Maria do Carmo Calijuri
Saxitoxins are a class of toxins produced by at least two groups of evolutionarily distant organisms (cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates). While the toxicity of these toxins is relatively well characterized, to date little is known about their drivers and ecological functions, especially in lower latitude tropical and subtropical freshwater ecosystems. In the present study, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the main drivers of saxitoxin concentrations in aquatic environments. We investigated the relationships among saxitoxin concentrations in a mesotrophic subtropical reservoir dominated by the cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii with physical, chemical and biological water variables...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769884/conserved-transcriptional-responses-to-nutrient-stress-in-bloom-forming-algae
#13
Matthew J Harke, Andrew R Juhl, Sheean T Haley, Harriet Alexander, Sonya T Dyhrman
The concentration and composition of bioavailable nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the upper ocean shape eukaryotic phytoplankton communities and influence their physiological responses. Phytoplankton are known to exhibit similar physiological responses to limiting N and P conditions such as decreased growth rates, chlorosis, and increased assimilation of N and P. Are these responses similar at the molecular level across multiple species? To interrogate this question, five species from biogeochemically important, bloom-forming taxa (Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, and Haptophyta) were grown under similar low N, low P, and replete nutrient conditions to identify transcriptional patterns and associated changes in biochemical pools related to N and P stress...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767092/molecular-identification-of-gambierdiscus-and-fukuyoa-dinophyceae-from-environmental-samples
#14
Kirsty F Smith, Laura Biessy, Phoebe A Argyle, Tom Trnski, Tuikolongahau Halafihi, Lesley L Rhodes
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons we sought to develop a Quantitative PCR assay that would detect all species from both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera in order to rapidly screen environmental samples for potentially toxic species. Additionally, a specific assay for F...
August 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766269/analysis-of-neurotoxic-amino-acids-from-marine-waters-microbial-mats-and-seafood-destined-for-human-consumption-in-the-arabian-gulf
#15
Aspassia D Chatziefthimiou, Eric J Deitch, William B Glover, James T Powell, Sandra Anne Banack, Renee A Richer, Paul A Cox, James S Metcalf
Human health risks associated with exposure to algal and cyanobacterial toxins (phycotoxins) have been largely concerned with aquatic habitats. People inhabiting desert environments may be exposed to phycotoxins present in terrestrial environments, where cyanobacterial crusts dominate. Seafood comprises a significant portion of the human diet in desert environments proximal to an ocean or sea. Consequently, in addition to terrestrial exposure to cyanotoxins, the potential exists that seafood may be an important exposure route for cyanotoxins in desert regions...
August 1, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763480/effects-of-irradiance-and-prey-deprivation-on-growth-cell-carbon-and-photosynthetic-activity-of-the-freshwater-kleptoplastidic-dinoflagellate-nusuttodinium-gymnodinium-aeruginosum-dinophyceae
#16
Kirstine Drumm, Mette Liebst-Olsen, Niels Daugbjerg, Øjvind Moestrup, Per Juel Hansen
The freshwater dinoflagellate Nusuttodinium aeruginosum lacks permanent chloroplasts. Rather it sequesters chloroplasts as well as other cell organelles, like mitochondria and nuclei, from ingested cryptophyte prey. In the present study, growth rates, cell production and photosynthesis were measured at seven irradiances, ranging from 10 to 140 μmol photons m-2s-1, when fed the cryptophyte Chroomonas sp. Growth rates were positively influenced by irradiance and increased from 0.025 d-1 at 10 μmol photons m-2s-1 to maximum growth rates of ~0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763102/resistance-to-hydrogen-peroxide-highlights-gymnodinium-catenatum-dinophyceae-sensitivity-to-geomagnetic-activity
#17
Paulo Vale
The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Microscopical examination revealed striking dose-response alterations in chain formation above 245 μM: singlets replaced the dominance of long chain formations. These observations were valid for cells acclimated to halogen light. Under fluorescent light, cells were more resistant to modifications in chain length after H2 O2 exposure. Growth along 9-hour in the presence of extracelular H2 O2 followed an hormesis response in both light regimes...
August 1, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763019/use-of-antibiotics-for-maintenance-of-axenic-cultures-of-amphidinium-carterae-for-the-analysis-of-translation
#18
Chieh-Lun Liu, Allen R Place, Rosemary Jagus
Most dinoflagellates in culture are bacterized, complicating the quantification of protein synthesis, as well as the analysis of its regulation. In bacterized cultures of Amphidinium carterae Hulbert, up to 80% of protein synthetic activity appears to be predominantly bacterial based on responses to inhibitors of protein synthesis. To circumvent this, axenic cultures of A. carterae were obtained and shown to respond to inhibitors of protein synthesis in a manner characteristic of eukaryotes. However, these responses changed with time in culture correlating with the reappearance of bacteria...
August 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755724/effects-of-elevated-co2-on-phytoplankton-community-biomass-and-species-composition-during-a-spring-phaeocystis-spp-bloom-in-the-western-english-channel
#19
Matthew Keys, Gavin Tilstone, Helen S Findlay, Claire E Widdicombe, Tracy Lawson
A 21-year time series of phytoplankton community structure was analysed in relation to Phaeocystis spp. to elucidate its contribution to the annual carbon budget at station L4 in the western English Channel (WEC). Between 1993-2014 Phaeocystis spp. contributed ∼4.6% of the annual phytoplankton carbon and during the March - May spring bloom, the mean Phaeocystis spp. biomass constituted 17% with a maximal contribution of 47% in 2001. Upper maximal weekly values above the time series mean ranged from 63 to 82% of the total phytoplankton carbon (∼42-137mg carbon (C)m(-3)) with significant inter-annual variability in Phaeocystis spp...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755722/molecular-mechanism-of-glucose-6-phosphate-utilization-in-the-dinoflagellate-karenia-mikimotoi
#20
Chao Zhang, Hao Luo, Liangmin Huang, Senjie Lin
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton as for other living organisms, and the preferred form, dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP), is often quickly depleted in the sunlit layer of the ocean. Phytoplankton have developed mechanisms to utilize organic forms of P (DOP). Hydrolysis of DOP to release DIP by alkaline phosphatase is believed to be the most common mechanism of DOP utilization. Little effort has been made, however, to understand other potential molecular mechanisms of utilizing different types of DOP...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
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