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Christabel Y L Chan, Kum C Hiong, Mel V Boo, Celine Y L Choo, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
Giant clams live in nutrient-poor reef waters of the Indo-Pacific and rely on symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium spp., also known as zooxanthellae) for nutrients. As the symbionts are nitrogen deficient, the host clam has to absorb exogenous nitrogen and supply it to them. This study aimed to demonstrate light-enhanced urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa , and to clone and characterize the urea active transporter, DUR3-like, from its ctenidium (gill). Results indicate that T. squamosa could absorb exogenous urea, and the rate of urea uptake in light was significantly higher than that in darkness...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Cèlia Marrasé, Ana Muñoz-Fernández, M Montserrat Sala, Rafel Simó, Josep M Gasol
Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEPs) are a subclass of organic particles with high impact in biogeochemical and ecological processes, such as the biological carbon pump, air-sea interactions, or the microbial loop. However, the complexity in production and consumption makes TEP dynamics hardly predictable, calling for the need of descriptive studies about the in situ dynamics of these particles. We followed monthly TEP dynamics and combined them with a dataset of environmental variables during three years in a coastal site of the oligotrophic North Western Mediterranean (Blanes Bay)...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chinchin Wang, Christopher Q Lan
Cultivation of microalgae requires consideration of shear stress, which is generated by operations such as mixing, circulation, aeration and pumping that are designed to facilitate mass and heat transfer as well as light distribution in cultures. Excessive shear stress can cause increased cell mortality, decreased growth rate and cell viability, or even cell lysis. This review examines the sources of shear stress in different cultivation systems, shear stress tolerance of different microalgal species and the physiological factors and environmental conditions that may affect shear sensitivity, and potential approaches to mitigate the detrimental effects of shear stress...
March 7, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Andrea Boente Juncal, Aida G Mendez, Carmen Vale, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Spirolides are marine toxins, produced by dinoflagellates that act as potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These compounds are not toxic for humans and since there are no reports of human intoxications caused by this group of toxins they are not yet currently regulated in Europe. Currently 13-desmethyl spirolide C, 13,19-didesmethyl spirolide C and 20-methyl spirolide G are commercially available as reference materials. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that after 4 days of treatment of primary mice cortical neurons with 13-desmethyl spirolide C, the compound ameliorated the glutamate induced toxicity and increased acetylcholine levels and the expression of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme being useful both in vitro and in vivo to decrease the brain pathology associated with Alzheimer´s disease...
March 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Márcio Moreira, Marcelino Herrera, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Jose Ignacio Navas Triano, Florbela Soares
Amyloodiniosis is a parasitological disease caused by one of the most common and important parasitic dinoflagellates in fish, Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown), that represents a major bottleneck for gilthead seabream semi-intensive aquaculture in Southern Europe. In this experiment, we analyzed some metabolic, osmoregulatory and stress indicators to elucidate some of the physiological responses of gilthead sea bream when exposed to an A. ocellatum outbreak. We observed significant differences between Control and Infection groups in the cortisol, lactate and gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity levels but that glucose, osmolarity, pH and total protein did not present such differences...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Christopher O Miles, Jane Kilcoyne, Pearse McCarron, Sabrina D Giddings, Thor Waaler, Thomas Rundberget, Ingunn A Samdal, Kjersti E Løvberg
Azaspiracids (AZAs) belong to a family of more than 50 polyether toxins originating from marine dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spinosum. All of the AZAs reported thus far contain a 21,22-dihydroxy group. Boric acid gel (BAG) can bind selectively to compounds containing vic-diols or α-hydroxycarboxylic acids via formation of reversible boronate complexes. Here we report use of BAG to selectively capture and release AZAs from extracts of blue mussels. Analysis of the extracts and BAG fractions by LC-MS showed that this procedure resulted in an excellent clean-up of the AZAs in the extract...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Clémence Mahana Iti Gatti, Davide Lonati, Hélène Taiana Darius, Arturo Zancan, Mélanie Roué, Azzurra Schicchi, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus . Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia)...
February 28, 2018: Toxins
Muriel Amar, Rómulo Aráoz, Bogdan I Iorga, Takeshi Yasumoto, Denis Servent, Jordi Molgó
Prorocentrolides are members of the cyclic imine phycotoxins family. Their chemical structure includes a 26-membered carbo-macrocycle and a 28-membered macrocyclic lactone arranged around a hexahydroisoquinoline that incorporates the characteristic cyclic imine group. Six prorocentrolides are already known. However, their mode of action remains undetermined. The aim of the present work was to explore whether prorocentrolide A acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), using competition-binding assays and electrophysiological techniques...
February 28, 2018: Toxins
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
Jane Kilcoyne, Pearse McCarron, Michael J Twiner, Frode Rise, Philipp Hess, Alistair L Wilkins, Christopher O Miles
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the genera Azadinium and Amphidoma, pelagic marine dinoflagellates that may accumulate in shellfish resulting in human illness following consumption. The complexity of these toxins has been well documented, with more than 40 structural variants reported that are produced by dinoflagellates, result from metabolism in shellfish, or are extraction artifacts. Approximately 34 μg of a new AZA with MW 823 Da (AZA26 (3)) was isolated from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), and its structure determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Flavio Guidi, Laura Pezzolesi, Silvana Vanucci
Algal-bacterial interactions play a major role in shaping diversity of algal associated bacterial communities. Temporal variation in bacterial phylogenetic composition reflects changes of these complex interactions which occur during the algal growth cycle as well as throughout the lifetime of algal blooms. Viruses are also known to cause shifts in bacterial community diversity which could affect algal bloom phases. This study investigated on changes of bacterial and viral abundances, bacterial physiological status, and on bacterial successional pattern associated with the harmful benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf...
February 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Ryoma Kamikawa, Euki Yazaki, Michiru Tahara, Takaya Sakura, Eriko Matsuo, Kisaburo Nagamune, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Yuji Inagaki
The ancestral kareniacean dinoflagellate has undergone tertiary endosymbiosis, in which the original plastid is replaced by a haptophyte endosymbiont. During this plastid replacement, the endosymbiont genes were most likely flowed into the host dinoflagellate genome (endosymbiotic gene transfer or EGT). Such EGT may have generated the redundancy of functionally homologous genes in the host genome-one has resided in the host genome prior to the haptophyte endosymbiosis, while the other transferred from the endosymbiont genome...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sheng-Fang Tsai, Lu-Ying Wu, Wen-Chen Chou, Kuo-Ping Chiang
Bioluminescent seas caused by blooms of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans are a famous scenic attraction in the Matsu archipelago near the Chinese coast in the northern part of the Taiwan Strait. The relationship between the abundance of N. scintillans and various environmental factors was examined in the subtropical coastal waters of these islands from April to December, 2016. N. scintillans disappeared after June 20th, when the sea water temperature exceeded 27°C. A strong inverse correlation between N...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jorge M Navarro, John Widdows, Oscar R Chaparro, Alejandro Ortíz, Carla Mellado, Paola A Villanueva
This study investigates the effects of toxic and non-toxic dinoflatellates on two sympatric bivalves, the clam Mulinia edulis and the mussel Mytilus chilensis. Groups of bivalves were fed one of three diets: (i) the toxic paralytic shellfish producing (PSP) Alexandrium catenella + Isochrysis galbana; (ii) the non-toxic Alexandrium affine + Isochrysis galbana and (iii) the control diet of Isochrysis galbana. Several physiological traits were measured, such as, clearance rate, pre-ingestive selection efficiency and particle transport velocity in the gill...
2018: PloS One
Kristen A Lycett, J Sook Chung, Joseph S Pitula
In the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, early studies suggested a relationship between smaller crabs, which molt more frequently, and higher rates of infection by the dinoflagellate parasite, Hematodinium perezi. In order to better explore the influence of size and molting on infections, blue crabs were collected from the Maryland coastal bays and screened for the presence of H. perezi in hemolymph samples using a quantitative PCR assay. Molt stage was determined by a radioimmunoassay which measured ecdysteroid concentrations in blue crab hemolymph...
2018: PloS One
Zineng Yuan, Dongyan Liu, John K Keesing, Meixun Zhao, Shixin Guo, Yajun Peng, Hailong Zhang
Ocean warming can modify the phytoplankton biomass on decadal scales. Significant increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall in the northwest of Australia over recent decades are attributed to climate change. Here, we used four biomarker proxies (TEX86 index, long-chain n -alkanes, brassicasterol, and dinosterol) to reconstruct approximately 60-year variations of SST, terrestrial input, and diatom and dinoflagellate biomass in the coastal waters of the remote Kimberley region. The results showed that the most significant increases in SST and terrestrial input occurred since 1997, accompanied by an abrupt increase in diatom and dinoflagellate biomasses...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Irene B Rodriguez, Tung-Yuan Ho
Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuu Ishii, Shinichiro Maruyama, Konomi Fujimura-Kamada, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Shunichi Takahashi, Masakado Kawata, Jun Minagawa
Coral reef ecosystems rely on stable symbiotic relationship between the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. and host cnidarian animals. The collapse of such symbiosis could cause coral 'bleaching' and subsequent host death. Despite huge interest on Symbiodinium, lack of mutant strains and readily available genetic tools have hampered molecular research. A major issue was the tolerance to marker antibiotics. Here, we isolated Symbiodinium mutants requiring uracil for growth, and hence, useful in transformation screening...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qiao Yang, Xiaoling Zhang, Lingzhi Li, Ruonan Zhang, Lijuan Feng, Jun Mu
Subsequent to the publication of this article, it was noted that one of the culture collection numbers given for the type strain was given in error. Consequently, in the abstract "The type strain is AT2-AT (CCTCC AB 2016296T = KCTC 52626T)." should read "The type strain is AT2-AT (CCTCC AB 2016296T = KCTC 62340T)." Likewise, in the protologue section, "The type strain is AT2-AT (= CCTCC AB 201696T = KCTC 52626T), which is a algal-associated bacterium isolated from the culture of a toxigenic marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum (Amtk-4) collected from southern Taiwan...
February 12, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ghada Souid, Nouha Souayed, Zohra Haouas, Khira Maaroufi
Okadaic Acid (OA) is a marine toxin responsible for DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) in humans produced by dinoflagellate. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA have been well reported in mammalian experimental animals and in vitro cultured cells. However, there are no available investigations regarding the involvement of the oxidative stress pathways in OA toxicity, especially on aquatic animals such as fish. In this context, we aimed in the present work to demonstrate whether OA (7.5 μg/ml) induces oxidative stress and histopathological damages in the fish species Sparus aurata under short term exposure (2 h, 4 h and 24 h)...
February 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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