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John E Parkinson, Trevor R Tivey, Paige E Mandelare, Donovon A Adpressa, Sandra Loesgen, Virginia M Weis
Mutualisms between cnidarian hosts and dinoflagellate endosymbionts are foundational to coral reef ecosystems. These symbioses are often re-established every generation with high specificity, but gaps remain in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that control symbiont recognition and uptake dynamics. Here, we tested whether differences in glycan profiles among different symbiont species account for the different rates at which they initially colonize aposymbiotic polyps of the model sea anemone Aiptasia ( Exaiptasia pallida )...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mei Sun, Zhibo Yang, Boris Wawrik
Traditional approaches for the assessment of physiological responses of microbes in the environment rely on bulk filtration techniques that obscure differences among populations as well as among individual cells. Here, were report on the development on a novel micro-scale sampling device, referred to as the "Single-probe," which allows direct extraction of metabolites from living, individual phytoplankton cells for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The Single-probe is composed of dual-bore quartz tubing which is pulled using a laser pipette puller and fused to a silica capillary and a nano-ESI...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for PSTs in shellfish are set at 80 μg STX eq./100 g meat and this is widely accepted as providing adequate public health protection. In this study, we have determined five individual PSTs (STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4) in shellfish using LC-MS/MS and assessed the human acute and chronic exposures to PSTs through shellfish consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
T P Alves, M A Schramm, L A O Proença, T O Pinto, L L Mafra
This study evaluated an 8-year dataset (2007 to 2015, except 2008) in the attempt to identify the most susceptible periods for the occurrence of diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episodes associated with the presence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, Dinophysis spp., in the mussel farming area of Babitonga Bay (southern Brazil). Dinophysis acuminata complex was the most frequent (present in 66% of the samples) and abundant (max. 4100 cells L-1 ) taxon, followed by D. caudata (14%; max. 640 cells L-1 ) and D...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Tomáš Řezanka, Irena Kolouchová, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
Enantiomers of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing any combination of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and/or very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) with diolein, dilinolein and didocosahexaenoin were synthesized. Gradient non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/high resolution atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (NARP-HPLC/HRMS2 -APCI) and chiral liquid chromatography were used for the separation and identification of molecular species of these TAGs...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Seung Won Jung, Donhyug Kang, Hyun-Jung Kim, Hyeon Ho Shin, Joon Sang Park, So Yun Park, Taek-Kyun Lee
The total dinoflagellate cyst community and the cysts of Cochlodinium polykrikoides in the surface sediments of South Sea (Tongyeong coast), South Korea, were analysed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and morphological approaches. Dinoflagellate cysts can be highly abundant (111-4,087 cysts g-1 dry weight) and have diverse species composition. A total of 35 taxa of dinoflagellate cysts representing 16 genera, 21 species (including four unconfirmed species), and 14 complex species were identified by NGS analysis...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Priscilla T Y Leung, Meng Yan, Veronica T T Lam, Sam K F Yiu, Chia-Yun Chen, J Sam Murray, D Tim Harwood, Lesley L Rhodes, Paul K S Lam, Tak-Cheung Wai
Species of Fukuyoa, recently revised from the globular Gambierdiscus, are toxic benthic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera. In this study, a total of ten strains of Fukuyoa collected from Hong Kong waters were characterized using morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Results from both analyses showed that one of the strains is a putative new species, namely Fukuyoa sp. HK Type 1 (plate formula Po, 3', 7″, 6c, 7s, 5‴, 1p and 2'‴ with a distinctive small and narrow cell shape, narrow Po plate, high Po pore density, large and broad Plate 1' but small and round Po pore size, small and narrow Plate 2', long and narrow Plates 2'‴ and 1p), and the others were F...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
Aneesh A Lotliker, S K Baliarsingh, Vera L Trainer, Mark L Wells, Cara Wilson, T V S Udaya Bhaskar, Alakes Samanta, S R Shahimol
Intense blooms of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate, green Noctiluca scintillans, have been reported annually in the Northern Arabian Sea since the early 2000s. Although not known to produce organic toxins, these blooms are still categorized as a harmful due to their association with massive fish mortalities. Recent work has attributed these blooms to the vertical expansion of the oxygen minimum zone, driven by cultural eutrophication from major coastal cities in western India. As diatoms are preferred prey of green Noctiluca scintillans, more frequent blooms of this mixotroph will likely impact the productivity of important fisheries in the region...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
Jin Hee Ok, Hae Jin Jeong, An Suk Lim, Sung Yeon Lee, So Jin Kim
Heterotrophic nanoflagellates are ubiquitous in natural waters, and most heterotrophic nanoflagellates are known to grow on bacteria. Recently, the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Katablepharis japonica has been reported to be an effective predator of diverse toxic or harmful algal prey. To date, 7 Katablepharis species have been identified, and therefore important questions arise as to whether other Katablepharis species can feed on algal prey, and further whether the types of prey of other Katablepharis species differ from those of K...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
An Suk Lim, Hae Jin Jeong, Jin Hee Ok, So Jin Kim
The trophic mode of a phototrophic dinoflagellate is a critical factor in the dynamics of its harmful algal bloom. Recent discoveries of the mixotrophic capabilities of phototrophic dinoflagellates have changed the traditional view of bloom dynamics and prediction models. Here, mixotrophy in the harmful phototrophic dinoflagellate Takayama tasmanica was examined. Moreover, growth and ingestion rates of T. tasmanica on each of Alexandrium minutum CCMP1888 and Alexandrium tamarense CCMP1493, suitable prey, were determined as a function of prey concentration...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
Brendan J Main, Lee C Bowling, Matthew P Padula, David P Bishop, Simon M Mitrovic, Gilles J Guillemin, Kenneth J Rodgers
The emerging toxin β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been linked to the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases in humans including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. BMAA has been found to be produced by a range of cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates worldwide, and is present in freshwater, saltwater, and terrestrial ecosystems. Surface scum samples were collected from waterways in rural and urban New South Wales, Australia and algal species identified...
April 2018: Harmful Algae
Gert Hansen, Niels Daugbjerg, Øjvind Moestrup
The rarely recorded dinoflagellate Hemidinium ochraceum Levander was isolated from a rainwater rock-pool in Finland and the motile stage studied by light- and electron microscopy and molecular sequencing. The ultrastructure of the motile stage revealed several features not previously observed in other dinoflagellates, e.g. thecal plates with inwards 'knobs' and a peculiar corrugated left sulcal plate. The apparent lack of the R2 and R4 flagellar roots was also unusual. The typical plate tabulation was 4', 2a, 8″, cx , 4c,?s, 3‴, cy , 1p, 2″″, cx and cy being extra plates associated with the cingulum, but intraspecific variations were observed in shape and number of plates...
February 24, 2018: Protist
Sarah K Hu, Zhenfeng Liu, Harriet Alexander, Victoria Campbell, Paige E Connell, Sonya T Dyhrman, Karla B Heidelberg, David A Caron
A metatranscriptome study targeting the protistan community was conducted off the coast of Southern California, at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series station at the surface, 150 m (oxycline), and 890 m to link putative metabolic patterns to distinct protistan lineages. Comparison of relative transcript abundances revealed depth-related shifts in the nutritional modes of key taxonomic groups. Eukaryotic gene expression in the sunlit surface environment was dominated by phototrophs, such as diatoms and chlorophytes, and high abundances of transcripts associated with synthesis pathways (e...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Gabriel Kigundu, Jennifer L Cooper, Susan M E Smith
Bioluminescence in dinoflagellates is controlled by HV 1 proton channels. Database searches of dinoflagellate transcriptomes and genomes yielded hits with sequence features diagnostic of all confirmed HV 1, and show that HV 1 is widely distributed in the dinoflagellate phylogeny including the basal species Oxyrrhis marina. Multiple sequence alignments followed by phylogenetic analysis revealed three major subfamilies of HV 1 that do not correlate with presence of theca, autotrophy, geographic location, or bioluminescence...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Maren Ziegler, Elizabeth Stone, Daniel Colman, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Ursula Shepherd
Large-scale environmental disturbances may impact both partners in coral host-Symbiodinium systems. Elucidation of the assembly patterns in such complex and interdependent communities may enable better prediction of environmental impacts across coral reef ecosystems. In this study, we investigated how the community composition and diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium were distributed among 12 host species from six taxonomic orders (Actinaria, Alcyonacea, Miliolida, Porifera, Rhizostoma, Scleractinia) and in the reef water and sediments at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef before the 3rd Global Coral Bleaching Event...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Yasmin Gabay, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
The genus Symbiodinium is physiologically diverse and so may differentially influence symbiosis establishment and function. To explore this, we inoculated aposymbiotic individuals of the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida (commonly referred to as "Aiptasia"), a model for coral symbiosis, with one of five Symbiodinium species or types (S. microadriaticum, S. minutum, phylotype C3, S. trenchii, or S. voratum). The spatial pattern of colonization was monitored over time via confocal microscopy, and various physiological parameters were measured to assess symbiosis functionality...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
Anne Wietheger, Dorota E Starzak, Kevin S Gould, Simon K Davy
Oxidative stress inside cells occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is no longer efficiently counterbalanced by the generation of antioxidants. In this study, we measured the intracellular production of ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), superoxide (O2 - ), and singlet oxygen (1 O2 ), in cultured dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium under thermal and oxidative stress. ROS tagged with fluorescent probes were measured by flow cytometry. Dissimilar Symbiodinium internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) clades or phylotypes (A1, B2, E, F1) produced ROS in different quantities in response to stress...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
S Uddin, M Behbehani, A N Al-Ghadban, S Sajid, V Vinod Kumar, L Al-Musallam, W Al-Zekri, M Ali, S Al-Julathi, M Al-Murad, F Alam
Marine phytoplankton is a primary producer in the ocean that forms the base of the marine food web and supports the pelagic food chain. The two dominant groups of phytoplankton observed in northern Gulf waters are diatoms and dinoflagellates. The diatoms outnumber dinoflagellates in the Gulf waters. This study presents baseline information on the concentration of 210 Po among selected phytoplankton in the northern Gulf. The concentration among diatoms varies between 6.99 and 11.4 Bq kg-1 wwt, whereas a higher concentration range of 8...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Clementina Sansone, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Christian Galasso, Raffaella Casotti, Angelo Fontana, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Dinoflagellates are one of the most important components in marine phytoplankton, second only to diatoms as primary producers. Dinoflagellates have also been reported to produce bioactive secondary metabolites such as polyethers and macrolides with potential applications as pharmaceuticals. Here, we tested the effect of the organic extract and its related enriched extracts from solid-phase extraction (SPE) of a strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium andersoni. We found that the SPE extracts induced high cytotoxicity towards two cancer cell lines (A549 lung cancer and HT29 colorectal cancer) without affecting normal cell viability...
April 20, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Kelsey J Jesser, Rachel T Noble
Of marine eubacteria, the genus Vibrio is intriguing because member species are relevant to both marine ecology and human health. Many have touted the relationships of Vibrio to environmental factors, especially temperature and salinity, to predict total Vibrio abundance, but these studies lacked the taxonomic resolution to identify relationships among species and key drivers of Vibrio dynamics. In order to improve NGS surveys of Vibrio, we have conducted both 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and heat shock protein 60 ( hsp60 ) amplicon sequencing of water samples collected at two well-studied locations in the Neuse River Estuary, NC...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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