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sea anemone

Ivona Horká, Sammy De Grave, Charles H J M Fransen, Adam Petrusek, Zdeněk Ďuriš
Several species of palaemonid shrimps are known to act as fish-cleaning symbionts, with cleaning interactions ranging from dedicated (obligate) to facultative. We confirmed five evolutionarily independent origins of fish cleaning symbioses within the family Palaemonidae based on a phylogenetic analysis and the ancestral state reconstruction of 68 species, including 13 fish-cleaners from the genera Ancylomenes, Brachycarpus, Palaemon, Periclimenes, and Urocaridella. We focus in particular on two distantly related lineages of fish cleaning shrimps with allopatric distributions, the Indo-West Pacific Ancylomenes and the western Atlantic monophyletic Ancylomenes/Periclimenes group, which exhibit striking similarities in morphology, colouration and complex behaviour...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Longhua Guo, Alice Accorsi, Shuonan He, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Shamilene Sivagnanam, Sean McKinney, Matthew Gibson, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
BACKGROUND: The ability to efficiently visualize and manipulate chromosomes is fundamental to understanding the genome architecture of organisms. Conventional chromosome preparation protocols developed for mammalian cells and those relying on species-specific conditions are not suitable for many invertebrates. Hence, a simple and inexpensive chromosome preparation protocol, adaptable to multiple invertebrate species, is needed. RESULTS: We optimized a chromosome preparation protocol and applied it to several planarian species (phylum Platyhelminthes), the freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (phylum Mollusca), and the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria)...
February 26, 2018: BMC Biology
Yuu Ishii, Shinichiro Maruyama, Konomi Fujimura-Kamada, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Shunichi Takahashi, Masakado Kawata, Jun Minagawa
Coral reef ecosystems rely on stable symbiotic relationship between the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. and host cnidarian animals. The collapse of such symbiosis could cause coral 'bleaching' and subsequent host death. Despite huge interest on Symbiodinium, lack of mutant strains and readily available genetic tools have hampered molecular research. A major issue was the tolerance to marker antibiotics. Here, we isolated Symbiodinium mutants requiring uracil for growth, and hence, useful in transformation screening...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Marcionetti, Victor Rossier, Joris A M Bertrand, Glenn Litsios, Nicolas Salamin
Clownfishes (or anemonefishes) form an iconic group of coral reef fishes, principally known for their mutualistic interaction with sea anemones. They are characterized by particular life-history traits, such as a complex social structure and mating system involving sequential hermaphroditism, coupled with an exceptionally long lifespan. Additionally, clownfishes are considered to be one of the rare group to have experienced an adaptive radiation in the marine environment. Here, we assembled and annotated the first genome of a clownfish species, the tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus)...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Kyoung Hwan Lee, Guidenn Sulbarán, Shixin Yang, Ji Young Mun, Lorenzo Alamo, Antonio Pinto, Osamu Sato, Mitsuo Ikebe, Xiong Liu, Edward D Korn, Floyd Sarsoza, Sanford I Bernstein, Raúl Padrón, Roger Craig
Electron microscope studies have shown that the switched-off state of myosin II in muscle involves intramolecular interaction between the two heads of myosin and between one head and the tail. The interaction, seen in both myosin filaments and isolated molecules, inhibits activity by blocking actin-binding and ATPase sites on myosin. This interacting-heads motif is highly conserved, occurring in invertebrates and vertebrates, in striated, smooth, and nonmuscle myosin IIs, and in myosins regulated by both Ca 2+ binding and regulatory light-chain phosphorylation...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael J Layden
To understand the ancestral and evolved roles of zic homologs, it is important to reconstruct the putative roles of ancient zic homologs in the animal phylogeny. Most studies of zic genes have been conducted in model systems that are members of the bilaterian phylum. However, two additional phyla have zic homologs encoded in their genomes. The three animal phyla that contain zic homologs all share a common ancestor and collectively are termed the parahoxozoans (cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish), placozoans (Trichoplax adhaerens), and bilaterians (chordates, insects, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, etc...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Anastasia Kirillova, Grigory Genikhovich, Ekaterina Pukhlyakova, Adrien Demilly, Yulia Kraus, Ulrich Technau
Robust morphogenetic events are pivotal for animal embryogenesis. However, comparison of the modes of development of different members of a phylum suggests that the spectrum of developmental trajectories accessible for a species might be far broader than can be concluded from the observation of normal development. Here, by using a combination of microsurgery and transgenic reporter gene expression, we show that, facing a new developmental context, the aggregates of dissociated embryonic cells of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis take an alternative developmental trajectory...
February 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yaara Y Columbus-Shenkar, Maria Y Sachkova, Jason Macrander, Arie Fridrich, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Adam M Reitzel, Kartik Sunagar, Yehu Moran
Little is known about venom in young developmental stages of animals. The appearance of toxins and stinging cells during early embryonic stages in the sea anemone Nematostellavectensis suggests that venom is already expressed in eggs and larvae of this species. Here we harness transcriptomic, biochemical and transgenic tools to study venom production dynamics in Nematostella. We find that venom composition and arsenal of toxin-producing cells change dramatically between developmental stages of this species...
February 9, 2018: ELife
Armando Alexei Rodríguez, Anoland Garateix, Emilio Salceda, Steve Peigneur, André Junqueira Zaharenko, Tirso Pons, Yúlica Santos, Roberto Arreguín, Ludger Ständker, Wolf-Georg Forssmann, Jan Tytgat, Rosario Vega, Enrique Soto
Sea anemones produce proteinaceous toxins for predation and defense, including peptide toxins that act on a large variety of ion channels of pharmacological and biomedical interest. Phymanthus crucifer is commonly found in the Caribbean Sea; however, the chemical structure and biological activity of its toxins remain unknown, with the exception of PhcrTx1, an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor. Therefore, in the present work, we focused on the isolation and characterization of new P. crucifer toxins by chromatographic fractionation, followed by a toxicity screening on crabs, an evaluation of ion channels, and sequence analysis...
February 7, 2018: Toxins
Charlotte R Dromard, Yolande Bouchon-Navaro, Sébastien Cordonnier, Mathilde Guéné, Mireille Harmelin-Vivien, Claude Bouchon
Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide used in the banana fields of the French West Indies from 1972 to 1993. Three marine habitats (mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs) of two study sites located downstream contaminated rivers were chosen to evaluate the level of contamination of marine food webs. On each habitat, the food chain collected included suspended organic matter, primary producers (macroalgae, algal turf, seagrass), zooplankton, symbiotic organisms (corals, sea anemones), primary consumers (herbivores, suspension feeders, biofilm feeders), omnivores and detritivores (lobsters, fish), secondary consumers (carnivores 1: invertebrate feeders, planktivores) and tertiary consumers (carnivores 2: invertebrate and fish feeders, piscivores)...
2018: PloS One
Ilona Urbarova, Hardip Patel, Sylvain Forêt, Bård Ove Karlsen, Tor Erik Jørgensen, Jason M Hall-Spencer, Steinar D Johansen
Cnidarians harbour a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons...
January 27, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Milena Srdic, Marijana Pejic, Dario Jelic, Mina Radosavljevic-Radovanovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: European Heart Journal
Emily S Bellis, Dee R Denver
Rising ocean temperatures disrupt the symbiosis between corals and their microalgae, accelerating global decline of coral reef ecosystems. Because of the difficulty of performing laboratory experiments with corals, the sea anemone Aiptasia has emerged as an important model system for molecular studies of coral bleaching and symbiosis. Here, we investigate natural variation in bleaching responses among different genetic lineages of Aiptasia. Both heat- and cold-induced paths to symbiosis breakdown were analyzed...
October 2017: Biological Bulletin
Sylvia Ighem Chi, Ilona Urbarova, Steinar D Johansen
The mitochondrial genomes of sea anemones are dynamic in structure. Invasion by genetic elements, such as self-catalytic group I introns or insertion-like sequences, contribute to sea anemone mitochondrial genome expansion and complexity. By using next generation sequencing we investigated the complete mtDNAs and corresponding transcriptomes of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its closer tropical relative Anemonia majano. Two versions of fused homing endonuclease gene (HEG) organization were observed among the Actiniidae sea anemones; in-frame gene fusion and pseudo-gene fusion...
January 20, 2018: Gene
Dany Domínguez-Pérez, Alexandre Campos, Armando Alexei Rodríguez, Maria V Turkina, Tiago Ribeiro, Hugo Osorio, Vítor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes
Cnidarian toxic products, particularly peptide toxins, constitute a promising target for biomedicine research. Indeed, cnidarians are considered as the largest phylum of generally toxic animals. However, research on peptides and toxins of sea anemones is still limited. Moreover, most of the toxins from sea anemones have been discovered by classical purification approaches. Recently, high-throughput methodologies have been used for this purpose but in other Phyla. Hence, the present work was focused on the proteomic analyses of whole-body extract from the unexplored sea anemone Bunodactis verrucosa...
January 24, 2018: Marine Drugs
Ekaterina N Grafskaia, Nadezhda F Polina, Vladislav V Babenko, Daria D Kharlampieva, Pavel A Bobrovsky, Valentin A Manuvera, Tatyana E Farafonova, Nikolay A Anikanov, Vassili N Lazarev
As essential conservative component of the innate immune systems of living organisms, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could complement pharmaceuticals that increasingly fail to combat various pathogens exhibiting increased resistance to microbial antibiotics. Among the properties of AMPs that suggest their potential as therapeutic agents, diverse peptides in the venoms of various predators demonstrate antimicrobial activity and kill a wide range of microorganisms. To identify potent AMPs, the study reported here involved a transcriptomic profiling of the tentacle secretion of the sea anemone Cnidopus japonicus...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
Bankala Krishnarjuna, Christopher A MacRaild, Punnepalli Sunanda, Rodrigo A V Morales, Steve Peigneur, Jason Macrander, Heidi H Yu, Marymegan Daly, Srinivasarao Raghothama, Vikas Dhawan, Satendra Chauhan, Jan Tytgat, Michael W Pennington, Raymond S Norton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Peptides
Aline Lima de Oliveira, Eduardo Maffud Cilli, Uris Ros, Edson Crusca, María Eliana Lanio, Carlos Alvarez, Shirley Schreier, Thelma Aguiar Pertinhez, Alberto Spisni
Sticholysin II (StII) is a pore-forming actinoporin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. A mechanistic model of its action has been proposed: proteins bind to cell membrane, insert their N-termini into the lipid core and assemble into homo-tetramer pores responsible for host-cell death. Because very likely the first 10 residues of StII N-terminus are critical for membrane penetration, to dissect the molecular details of that functionality, we studied two synthetic peptides: StII1-30 and StII16-35 ...
January 23, 2018: Biopolymers
Mariana T Q de Magalhães, Fábio S Mambelli, Bruno P O Santos, Suellen B Morais, Sergio C Oliveira
Proteins containing a Kunitz domain have the typical serine protease inhibition function ranging from sea anemone to man. Protease inhibitors play major roles in infection, inflammation disorders and cancer. This review discusses the role of serine proteases containing a Kunitz domain in immunomodulation induced by helminth parasites. Helminth parasites are associated with protection from inflammatory conditions. Therefore, interest has raised whether worm parasites or their products hold potential as drugs for treatment of immunological disorders...
January 18, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Will H Ryan
The temperature-size rule is a commonly observed pattern where adult body size is negatively correlated with developmental temperature. In part, this may occur as a consequence of allometric scaling, where changes in the ratio of surface area to mass limit oxygen diffusion as body size increases. As oxygen demand increases with temperature, a smaller body should be favored as temperature increases. For clonal animals, small changes in growth and/or fission rate can rapidly alter the average body size of clonal descendants...
February 2018: American Naturalist
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