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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916864/marine-organisms-with-anti-diabetes-properties
#1
REVIEW
Chiara Lauritano, Adrianna Ianora
Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic organisms have been screened to evaluate their possible anti-diabetes activities, such as bacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, sponges, corals, sea anemones, fish, salmon skin, a shark fusion protein as well as fish and shellfish wastes...
December 1, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896028/the-scavenger-receptor-repertoire-in-six-cnidarian-species-and-its-putative-role-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#2
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR) are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889504/responses-of-the-sea-anemone-exaiptasia-pallida-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-and-zinc-or-nickel-exposure
#3
Christina G Duckworth, Codie R Picariello, Rachel K Thomason, Krina S Patel, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser
Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO2, as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni)...
November 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
November 23, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880960/antifouling-activity-towards-mussel-by-small-molecule-compounds-from-a-strain-of-vibrio-alginolyticus-bacterium-associated-with-sea-anemone-haliplanella-sp
#5
Xiang Wang, Yanqiu Huang, Yanqing Sheng, Pei Su, Yan Qiu, Caihuan Ke, Danqing Feng
Mussels are major fouling organisms causing serious technical and economic problems. In this study, antifouling activity towards mussel was found in three compounds isolated from a marine bacterium associated with the sea anemone Haliplanella sp.. This bacterial strain, called PE2 was identified as Vibrio alginolyticus using morphology, biochemical tests and phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 16S rRNA and four housekeeping genes (rpoD, gyrB, rctB and toxR). Three small-molecule compounds (indole, 3-formylindole and cyclo (Pro-Leu)) were purified from the ethyl acetate extract of V...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864775/assessing-mercury-contamination-in-a-tropical-coastal-system-using-the-mussel-perna-perna-and-the-sea-anemone-bunodosoma-caissarum
#6
Nafisa Rizzini Ansari, Marcos Antônio Fernandez, José Lailson Brito, Lara Gama Vidal, Erika Silva de Andrade Costa, Olaf Malm
Total mercury concentrations in the mussel Perna perna and the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum were determined to assess Hg contamination in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and an adjacent sea area. Concentrations in the tissues of these species were compared. Average total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.54 to 21.01 μg kg(-1) (wet wt.) in P. perna and from 4.51 to 23.19 μg kg(-1) (wet wt.) for B. caissarum. Concentrations varied according to the sampling stations. Distribution of concentrations for both species was similar along the sampling stations, and a significant correlation was observed...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859808/diet-assessment-of-the-atlantic-sea-nettle-chrysaora-quinquecirrha-in-barnegat-bay-new-jersey-using-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Robert W Meredith, John J Gaynor, Paul A X Bologna
Next generation sequencing (NGS) methodologies have proven useful in deciphering the food items of generalist predators, but have yet to be applied to gelatinous animal gut and tentacle content. NGS can potentially supplement traditional methods of visual identification. Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Atlantic sea nettle) has progressively become more abundant in Mid-Atlantic United States' estuaries including Barnegat Bay (New Jersey), potentially having detrimental effects on both marine organisms and human enterprises...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853593/sea-anemones-modify-their-hiding-time-based-on-their-commensal-damselfish
#8
Alexandra N Lim, Justin A De La Guerra, Daniel T Blumstein
Animals often retreat to refugia when alarmed and the time they spend hiding reflects an economic decision that trades off reducing predation risk with other beneficial activities. Typically, refugia such as burrows are static, but some refugia are dynamic. For species with defensive mutualisms, hiding might be contingent on their mutualist's behaviour. We disturbed and quantified hiding time in magnificent sea anemones, Heteractis magnifica, and their associated domino damselfish, Dascyllus trimaculatus. We found that sea anemone hiding behaviour was dependent on the number and behaviour of their commensal fish: anemones emerged sooner when they had more associated fish and faster returning fish...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833038/characterization-of-glutathione-peroxidase-diversity-in-the-symbiotic-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis
#9
Alexis Pey, Thamilla Zamoum, Richard Christen, Pierre-Laurent Merle, Paola Furla
Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (commonly named zooxanthellae) are exposed to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon illumination. To quench ROS production, both the cnidarian host and zooxanthellae express a full suite of antioxidant enzymes. Studying antioxidative balance is therefore crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. We characterized glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in the symbiotic cnidarian Anemonia viridis by analysis of their isoform diversity, their activity distribution in the three cellular compartments (ectoderm, endoderm and zooxanthellae) and their involvement in the response to thermal stress...
November 7, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826319/in-the-picture-disulfide-poor-conopeptides-a-class-of-pharmacologically-interesting-compounds
#10
REVIEW
Eline K M Lebbe, Jan Tytgat
During evolution, nature has embraced different strategies for species to survive. One strategy, applied by predators as diverse as snakes, scorpions, sea anemones and cone snails, is using venom to immobilize or kill a prey. This venom offers a unique and extensive source of chemical diversity as it is driven by the evolutionary pressure to improve prey capture and/or to protect their species. Cone snail venom is an example of the remarkable diversity in pharmacologically active small peptides that venoms can consist of...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822758/effect-of-polypeptides-from-sea-anemone-heteractis-crispa-on-the-rodent-blood-pressure-heart-rate-and-hemostasis
#11
L A Skobtsova, I A Dyachenko, Ya A Andreev, Yu A Logashina, A N Murashev, E V Grishin
АРНС1-3 peptides, modulators of TRPV1 receptors, have been administered to SD rats to study their influence on the animal hemostatic system, heart rate, and blood pressure. None of АЗРС1-3 polypeptides have any effect on the hemostatic system. Both АРНС1 and АРНС2 polypeptides increased significantly the heart rate, but they did not affect blood pressure, which was probably caused by an ability of these polypeptides to modify animal thermoregulation.
September 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811734/new-records-of-the-deep-sea-anemone-phelliactis-callicyclus-riemann-zurneck-1973-cnidaria-actiniaria-hormathiidae-from-the-gulf-of-california-mexico
#12
M E Hendrickx, A Hinojosa-Corona, M Ayón-Parente
Specimens of a deep-sea anemone were observed in photographs and video footage taken with the Remotely Operated Vehicle JASON (WHOI Deep Submergence Laboratory) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in May 2008. Comparison of our material with photographs and description of this species available in literature indicate that the sea anemones filmed during the JASON survey are most likely to represent Phelliactis callicyclus Riemann-Zurneck, 1973. This species has previously been reported from a locality in the Gulf of California near the present record...
October 20, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806695/insights-into-the-innate-immunome-of-actiniarians-using-a-comparative-genomic-approach
#13
Chloé A van der Burg, Peter J Prentis, Joachim M Surm, Ana Pavasovic
BACKGROUND: Innate immune genes tend to be highly conserved in metazoans, even in early divergent lineages such as Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, hydroids and sea anemones) and Porifera (sponges). However, constant and diverse selection pressures on the immune system have driven the expansion and diversification of different immune gene families in a lineage-specific manner. To investigate how the innate immune system has evolved in a subset of sea anemone species (Order: Actiniaria), we performed a comprehensive and comparative study using 10 newly sequenced transcriptomes, as well as three publically available transcriptomes, to identify the origins, expansions and contractions of candidate and novel immune gene families...
November 2, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794434/who-knows-not-where-an-anemone-does-wear-his-sting-could-polypeptides-released-from-the-columnar-vesicles-of-bunodosoma-cangicum-induce-apoptosis-in-the-zf-l-cell-line
#14
Claudio L Q Bastos, Antonio Sergio Varela, Shana Pires Ferreira, Bruna Felix Nornberg, Robert Tew Boyle
We provide ultrastructural and cytological evidence that the tentacles of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum does not contain cytotoxic venom. However, we show that the stimulated secretion of an apparent mixture of biomolecules containing polypeptides from the columnar vesicles of Bunodosoma cangicum is apparently a potent inducer of apoptosis in the zebrafish cell line, ZF-L. Microscopic fluorescence, cell morphology and flow cytometric assays confirm the apoptotic activity. Crude vesicle venom was partially purified by size exclusion chromatography...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759384/zoanthamine-type-alkaloids-from-the-zoanthid-zoanthus-kuroshio-collected-in-taiwan-and-their-effects-on-inflammation
#15
Yu-Ming Hsu, Fang-Rong Chang, I-Wen Lo, Kuei-Hung Lai, Mohamed El-Shazly, Tung-Ying Wu, Ying-Chi Du, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Yang-Chang Wu
Zoanthus kuroshio is a colorful zoanthid with a fluorescent pink oral disc and brown tentacles, which dominates certain parts of the Taiwanese and Japanese coasts. This sea anemone is a rich source of biologically active alkaloids. In the current investigation, two novel halogenated zoanthamines [5α-iodozoanthenamine (1) and 11β-chloro-11-deoxykuroshine A (2)], along with four new zoanthamines [18-epi-kuroshine A (3), 7α-hydroxykuroshine E (4), 5α-methoxykuroshine E (5), and 18-epi-kuroshine E (6)], and six known compounds were isolated from Z...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725939/partially-purified-extracts-of-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis-affect-the-growth-and-viability-of-selected-tumour-cell-lines
#16
Matteo Bulati, Alessandra Longo, Tiziana Masullo, Sara Vlah, Carmelo Bennici, Angela Bonura, Monica Salamone, Marcello Tagliavia, Aldo Nicosia, Salvatore Mazzola, Paolo Colombo, Angela Cuttitta
In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718022/erratum-to-in-vitro-cultures-of-ectodermal-monolayers-from-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#17
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693135/the-mesoderm-forming-gene-brachyury-regulates-ectoderm-endoderm-demarcation-in-the-coral-acropora-digitifera
#18
Yuuri Yasuoka, Chuya Shinzato, Noriyuki Satoh
Blastoporal expression of the T-box transcription factor gene brachyury is conserved in most metazoans [1, 2]. Its role in mesoderm formation has been intensively studied in vertebrates [3-6]. However, its fundamental function near the blastopore is poorly understood in other phyla. Cnidarians are basal metazoans that are important for understanding evolution of metazoan body plans [7, 8]. Because they lack mesoderm, they have been used to investigate the evolutionary origins of mesoderm [1, 9-11]. Here, we focus on corals, a primitive clade of cnidarians that diverged from sea anemones ∼500 mya [12]...
September 15, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660533/abyssal-fauna-of-the-uk-1-polymetallic-nodule-exploration-area-clarion-clipperton-zone-central-pacific-ocean-cnidaria
#19
Thomas G Dahlgren, Helena Wiklund, Muriel Rabone, Diva J Amon, Chiho Ikebe, Les Watling, Craig R Smith, Adrian G Glover
BACKGROUND: We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648935/temperature-moderates-the-infectiousness-of-two-conspecific-symbiodinium-strains-isolated-from-the-same-host-population
#20
Thomas D Hawkins, Julia C G Hagemeyer, Mark E Warner
Symbioses between cnidarians and symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) are ecologically important and physiologically diverse. This diversity contributes to the spatial distribution of specific cnidarian-Symbiodinium associations. Physiological variability also exists within Symbiodinium species, yet we know little regarding its relevance for the establishment of symbiosis under different environmental conditions. Two putatively conspecific Symbiodinium strains (both ITS2-type A4) were isolated from the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida and placed into unialgal culture...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
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