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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902151/apetx4-a-novel-sea-anemone-toxin-and-a-modulator-of-the-cancer-relevant-potassium-channel-kv10-1
#1
Lien Moreels, Steve Peigneur, Diogo T Galan, Edwin De Pauw, Lászlo Béress, Etienne Waelkens, Luis A Pardo, Loïc Quinton, Jan Tytgat
The human ether-à-go-go channel (hEag1 or KV10.1) is a cancer-relevant voltage-gated potassium channel that is overexpressed in a majority of human tumors. Peptides that are able to selectively inhibit this channel can be lead compounds in the search for new anticancer drugs. Here, we report the activity-guided purification and electrophysiological characterization of a novel KV10.1 inhibitor from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Purified sea anemone fractions were screened for inhibitory activity on KV10...
September 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888836/transcriptome-sequencing-and-characterization-of-symbiodinium-muscatinei-and-elliptochloris-marina-symbionts-found-within-the-aggregating-sea-anemone-anthopleura-elegantissima
#2
Jason C Macrander, James L Dimond, Brian L Bingham, Adam M Reitzel
There is a growing body of literature using transcriptomic data to study how tropical cnidarians and their photosynthetic endosymbionts respond to environmental stressors and participate in metabolic exchange. Despite these efforts, our understanding of how essential genes function to facilitate symbiosis establishment and maintenance remains limited. The inclusion of taxonomically and ecologically diverse endosymbionts will enhance our understanding of these interactions. Here we characterize the transcriptomes of two very different symbionts found within the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima: the chlorophyte Elliptochloris marina and the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium muscatinei...
September 6, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878874/paxa-but-not-paxc-is-required-for-cnidocyte-development-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#3
Leslie S Babonis, Mark Q Martindale
BACKGROUND: Pax genes are a family of conserved transcription factors that regulate many aspects of developmental morphogenesis, notably the development of ectodermal sensory structures including eyes. Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, has numerous Pax orthologs, many of which are expressed early during embryogenesis. The function of Pax genes in this eyeless cnidarian is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we show that PaxA, but not PaxC, plays a critical role in the development of cnidocytes in N...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853034/biophysical-and-biochemical-strategies-to-understand-membrane-binding-and-pore-formation-by-sticholysins-pore-forming-proteins-from-a-sea-anemone
#4
REVIEW
Carlos Alvarez, Uris Ros, Aisel Valle, Lohans Pedrera, Carmen Soto, Yadira P Hervis, Sheila Cabezas, Pedro A Valiente, Fabiola Pazos, Maria E Lanio
Actinoporins constitute a unique class of pore-forming toxins found in sea anemones that are able to bind and oligomerize in membranes, leading to cell swelling, impairment of ionic gradients and, eventually, to cell death. In this review we summarize the knowledge generated from the combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches to the study of sticholysins I and II (Sts, StI/II), two actinoporins largely characterized by the Center of Protein Studies at the University of Havana during the last 20 years...
August 29, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851289/coral-cell-separation-and-isolation-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting-facs
#5
Benyamin Rosental, Zhanna Kozhekbaeva, Nathaniel Fernhoff, Jonathan M Tsai, Nikki Traylor-Knowles
BACKGROUND: Generalized methods for understanding the cell biology of non-model species are quite rare, yet very much needed. In order to address this issue, we have modified a technique traditionally used in the biomedical field for ecological and evolutionary research. Fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) is often used for sorting and identifying cell populations. In this study, we developed a method to identify and isolate different cell populations in corals and other cnidarians...
August 29, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837825/renal-effects-of-bunodosoma-caissarum-crude-extract-prostaglandin-and-endothelin-involvement
#6
René Duarte Martins, Roberta Jeane Bezerra Jorge, Renata de Sousa Alves, Antônio Gomes da Silva Neto, Paulo Sergio F Barbosa, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Marcos H Toyama, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro
Sea anemones contain a variety of interesting biologically active compounds, including some potent toxins. PLA2 from Bunodosoma caissarum, a sea anemone endemic in the Brazilian southern coast, has shown renal alterations on isolated kidney. The aim of this study was to evaluate the renal and vascular effects of B. caissarum crude extract (BcE) on isolated perfused kidney and arteriolar mesenteric bed, as well the involvement of prostaglandins and endothelin. BcE did not show any effect on arteriolar mesenteric bed, but increased perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate and decreased the percentage of sodium tubular transport on isolated perfused kidney...
August 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827642/functional-and-proteomic-analysis-of-ceratonova-shasta-cnidaria-myxozoa-polar-capsules-reveals-adaptations-to-parasitism
#7
Gadi Piriatinskiy, Stephen D Atkinson, Sinwook Park, David Morgenstern, Vera Brekhman, Gilad Yossifon, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
Myxozoa is a diverse, speciose group of microscopic parasites, recently placed within the phylum Cnidaria. Myxozoans are highly reduced in size and complexity relative to free-living cnidarians, yet they have retained specialized organelles known as polar capsules, akin to the nematocyst stinging capsules of free-living species. Whereas in free-living cnidarians the stinging capsules are used for prey capture or defense, in myxozoans they have the essential function of initiating the host infection process...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827097/unipotent-progenitors-contribute-to-the-generation-of-sensory-cell-types-in-the-nervous-system-of-the-cnidarian-nematostella-vectensis
#8
Henriette Busengdal, Fabian Rentzsch
Nervous systems often consist of a large number of different types of neurons which are generated from neural stem and progenitor cells by a series of symmetric and asymmetric divisions. The origin and early evolution of these neural progenitor systems is not well understood. Here we use a cnidarian model organism, Nematostella vectensis, to gain insight into the generation of neural cell type diversity in a non-bilaterian animal. We identify NvFoxQ2d as a transcription factor that is expressed in a population of spatially restricted, proliferating ectodermal cells that are derived from NvSoxB(2)-expressing neural progenitor cells...
August 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817121/meganuclease-assisted-generation-of-stable-transgenics-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#9
Eduard Renfer, Ulrich Technau
The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a model system used by a rapidly growing research community for comparative genomics, developmental biology and ecology. Here, we describe a microinjection procedure for creating stable transgenic lines in Nematostella based on meganuclease (I-SceI)-assisted integration of a transgenic cassette into the genome. The procedure describes the preparation of the reagents, microinjection of the transgenesis vector and the husbandry of transgenic animals. The microinjection setup differs from those of previously published protocols by the use of a holding capillary mounted on an inverted fluorescence microscope...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796817/histological-study-on-maturation-fertilization-and-the-state-of-gonadal-region-following-spawning-in-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#10
Elizabeth Moiseeva, Claudette Rabinowitz, Guy Paz, Baruch Rinkevich
The starlet sea-anemone Nematostella vectensis has emerged as a model organism in developmental biology. Still, our understanding of various biological features, including reproductive biology of this model species are in its infancy. Consequently, through histological sections, we study here key stages of the oogenesis (oocyte maturation/fertilization), as the state of the gonad region immediately after natural spawning. Germ cells develop in a secluded mesenterial gastrodermal zone, where the developing oocytes are surrounded by mucoid glandular cells and trophocytes (accessory cells)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796463/defensin-neurotoxin-dyad-in-a-basally-branching-metazoan-sea-anemone
#11
Chan-Hee Kim, Ye Jin Lee, Hye-Jin Go, Hye Young Oh, Tae Kwan Lee, Ji Been Park, Nam Gyu Park
Recent studies suggest that vertebrate and invertebrate defensins have evolved from two independent ancestors, and that both defensins could share origins with animal toxins. Here, we purified novel sea anemone neurotoxin (BDS)-like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-Crassicorin-I and its putative homolog (Crassicorin-II)-from the pharynx extract of an anthozoan sea anemone (Urticina crassicornis). Based on structural analyses and cDNA cloning, mature Crassicorin-I represents a cationic AMP likely generated from a precursor and comprising 40 amino acid residues, including six cysteines forming three intramolecular disulphide bonds...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783426/characterization-of-the-pirna-pathway-during-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#12
Daniela Praher, Bob Zimmermann, Grigory Genikhovich, Yaara Columbus-Shenkar, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Reuven Aharoni, Yehu Moran, Ulrich Technau
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and associated proteins comprise a conserved pathway for silencing transposons in metazoan germlines. piRNA pathway components are also expressed in multipotent somatic stem cells in various organisms. piRNA functions have been extensively explored in bilaterian model systems, however, comprehensive studies in non-bilaterian phyla remain limited. Here we investigate the piRNA pathway during the development of Nematostella vectensis, a well-established model system belonging to Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria...
August 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775320/modulation-of-activation-and-inactivation-by-ca-2-and-2-apb-in-the-pore-of-an-archetypal-trpm-channel-from-nematostella-vectensis
#13
Frank J P Kühn, Winking Mathis, Kühn Cornelia, Daniel C Hoffmann, Andreas Lückhoff
The archetypal TRPM2-like channel of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is gated by ADPR like its human orthologue but additionally exhibits properties of other vertebrate TRPM channels. Thus it can help towards an understanding of gating and regulation of the whole subfamily. To elucidate further the role of Ca(2+) as a co-factor of ADPR, we exploited 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB), previously shown to exert either inhibitory or stimulatory effects on diverse TRPM channels, or both in a concentration-dependent manner...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774820/identification-of-cyp443d1-cyp74-clan-of-nematostella-vectensis-as-a-first-cnidarian-epoxyalcohol-synthase-and-insights-into-its-catalytic-mechanism
#14
Yana Y Toporkova, Svetlana S Gorina, Fakhima K Mukhitova, Mats Hamberg, Tatyana M Ilyina, Lucia S Mukhtarova, Alexander N Grechkin
The CYP74 clan enzymes are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive oxylipins in higher plants, some Proteobacteria, brown and green algae, and Metazoa. A novel putative CYP74 clan gene CYP443D1 of the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Cnidaria) has been cloned, and the properties of the corresponding recombinant protein have been studied in the present work. The recombinant CYP443D1 was incubated with the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids (9-HPOD, 13-HPOD, 9-HPOT, and 13-HPOT, respectively), as well as with the 9-hydroperoxide of γ-linolenic acid (γ-9-HPOT) and 15-hydroperoxide of eicosapentaenoic acid (15-HPEPE)...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754376/characterization-of-mxr-activity-in-the-sea-anemone-bunodosoma-cangicum-exposed-to-copper
#15
Vanessa Abelaira Anjos, Juliana Zomer Sandrini, Cláudia Bueno Reis Martinez, Marta Marques Souza
Transmembrane proteins of the ABC family contribute to a multiple xenobiotic resistance (MXR) phenotype in cells, driving the extrusion of toxic substances. This phenotype promotes a high degree of protection against xenobiotics. The present study provides a better understanding of the MXR activity in the podal disk cells of Bunodosoma cangicum exposed to copper, and further establishes the relationship between protein activity (measured by accumulation of rhodamine-B) and bioaccumulation of copper in these cells...
July 25, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747629/clownfish-in-hypoxic-anemones-replenish-host-o2-at-only-localised-scales
#16
N A Herbert, S Bröhl, K Springer, A Kunzmann
The clownfish-anemone association exemplifies a symbiosis where both members benefit from nutrient exchange and protection from predators. Clownfish also perform aeration-like behaviour in their host anemones at night, but it is not yet known whether this is stimulated by the onset of hypoxia, and whether both members benefit from O2 replenishment. Oxygen at 3 distances above the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor (0.2, 1.2 and 2.2 cm) therefore was measured under 3 light levels (photon flux density = 0, 55 and 110 µmol m(-2) s(-1)), with and without the anemonefish Amphiprion frenatus...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739511/revisiting-venom-of-the-sea-anemone-stichodactyla-haddoni-omics-techniques-reveal-the-complete-toxin-arsenal-of-a-well-studied-sea-anemone-genus
#17
Bruno Madio, Eivind A B Undheim, Glenn F King
More than a century of research on sea anemone venoms has shown that they contain a diversity of biologically active proteins and peptides. However, recent omics studies have revealed that much of the venom proteome remains unexplored. We used, for the first time, a combination of proteomic and transcriptomic techniques to obtain a holistic overview of the venom arsenal of the well-studied sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni. A purely search-based approach to identify putative toxins in a transcriptome from tentacles regenerating after venom extraction identified 508 unique toxin-like transcripts grouped into 63 families...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710031/zoantharian-mitochondrial-genomes-contain-unique-complex-group-i-introns-and-highly-conserved-intergenic-regions
#18
Sylvia Ighem Chi, Steinar D Johansen
Complex group I introns represent hallmarks of hexacoral mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs). These intron elements are expected to influence the gene organization and gene expression. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome and transcriptome of Zoanthus sansibariscus and Palythoa heliodiscus, two zoantharian species (colonial anemones) representing different families within the suborder Brachycnemina. The circular and approximately 21kb mtDNAs contained two group I introns, one in ND5 and another in COI. The ND5-717 intron harbored two conventional mitochondrial genes (ND1 and ND3) within its structure and revealed several conserved features compared to ND5-717 in sea anemones...
July 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695745/treating-autoimmune-disorders-with-venom-derived-peptides
#19
Bingzheng Shen, Zhijian Cao, Wenxin Li, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Yingliang Wu
The effective treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a challenge. Voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channels, which are expressed in lymphocytes, are a new therapeutic target for treating autoimmune disease. Consequently, Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides are a prospective resource for new drug discovery and clinical application. Area covered: Preclinical and clinical studies have produced a wealth of information on Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides, especially from venomous scorpions and sea anemones...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690821/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-a-sea-anemone-bolocera-sp-exhibits-novel-genetic-structures-potentially-involved-in-adaptation-to-the-deep-sea-environment
#20
Bo Zhang, Yan-Hong Zhang, Xin Wang, Hui-Xian Zhang, Qiang Lin
The deep sea is one of the most extensive ecosystems on earth. Organisms living there survive in an extremely harsh environment, and their mitochondrial energy metabolism might be a result of evolution. As one of the most important organelles, mitochondria generate energy through energy metabolism and play an important role in almost all biological activities. In this study, the mitogenome of a deep-sea sea anemone (Bolocera sp.) was sequenced and characterized. Like other metazoans, it contained 13 energy pathway protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNAs...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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