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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342277/finding-nemo-hybrid-assembly-with-oxford-nanopore-and-illumina-reads-greatly-improves-the-clownfish-amphiprion-ocellaris-genome-assembly
#1
Mun Hua Tan, Christopher M Austin, Michael P Hammer, Yin Peng Lee, Laurence J Croft, Han Ming Gan
Background: Some of the most widely recognised coral-reef fishes are clownfish or anemonefishes, members of the family Pomacentridae (subfamily: Amphiprioninae). They are popular aquarium species due to their bright colours, adaptability to captivity and fascinating behavior. Their breeding biology (sequential hermaphrodites) and symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones have attracted much scientific interest. Moreover, there are some curious geographic-based phenotypes which warrant investigation...
January 12, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338710/a-genetically-encoded-ca2-indicator-based-on-circularly-permutated-sea-anemone-red-fluorescent-protein-eqfp578
#2
Yi Shen, Hod Dana, Ahmed S Abdelfattah, Ronak Patel, Jamien Shea, Rosana S Molina, Bijal Rawal, Vladimir Rancic, Yu-Fen Chang, Lanshi Wu, Yingche Chen, Yong Qian, Matthew D Wiens, Nathan Hambleton, Klaus Ballanyi, Thomas E Hughes, Mikhail Drobizhev, Douglas S Kim, Minoru Koyama, Eric R Schreiter, Robert E Campbell
BACKGROUND: Genetically encoded calcium ion (Ca2+) indicators (GECIs) are indispensable tools for measuring Ca2+ dynamics and neuronal activities in vitro and in vivo. Red fluorescent protein (RFP)-based GECIs have inherent advantages relative to green fluorescent protein-based GECIs due to the longer wavelength light used for excitation. Longer wavelength light is associated with decreased phototoxicity and deeper penetration through tissue. Red GECI can also enable multicolor visualization with blue- or cyan-excitable fluorophores...
January 16, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336831/ultraviolet-radiation-significantly-enhances-the-molecular-response-to-dispersant-and-sweet-crude-oil-exposure-in-nematostella-vectensis
#3
Ann M Tarrant, Samantha L Payton, Adam M Reitzel, Danielle T Porter, Matthew J Jenny
Estuarine organisms are subjected to combinations of anthropogenic and natural stressors, which together can reduce an organisms' ability to respond to either stress or can potentiate or synergize the cellular impacts for individual stressors. Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone) is a useful model for investigating novel and evolutionarily conserved cellular and molecular responses to environmental stress. Using RNA-seq, we assessed global changes in gene expression in Nematostella in response to dispersant and/or sweet crude oil exposure alone or combined with ultraviolet radiation (UV)...
January 4, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324689/characterization-of-translationally-controlled-tumour-protein-from-the-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis-and-transcriptome-wide-identification-of-cnidarian-homologues
#4
Aldo Nicosia, Carmelo Bennici, Girolama Biondo, Salvatore Costa, Marilena Di Natale, Tiziana Masullo, Calogera Monastero, Maria Antonietta Ragusa, Marcello Tagliavia, Angela Cuttitta
Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure...
January 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316700/sea-anemones-quiet-achievers-in-the-field-of-peptide-toxins
#5
REVIEW
Peter J Prentis, Ana Pavasovic, Raymond S Norton
Sea anemones have been understudied as a source of peptide and protein toxins, with relatively few examined as a source of new pharmacological tools or therapeutic leads. This is surprising given the success of some anemone peptides that have been tested, such as the potassium channel blocker from Stichodactyla helianthus known as ShK. An analogue of this peptide, ShK-186, which is now known as dalazatide, has successfully completed Phase 1 clinical trials and is about to enter Phase 2 trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases...
January 8, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313151/cnidarian-primary-cell-culture-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-effect-of-thermal-stress-at-cellular-level
#6
P Ventura, G Toullec, C Fricano, L Chapron, V Meunier, E Röttinger, P Furla, S Barnay-Verdier
In the context of global change, symbiotic cnidarians are largely affected by seawater temperature elevation leading to symbiosis breakdown. This process, also called bleaching, is triggered by the dysfunction of the symbiont photosystems causing an oxidative stress and cell death to both symbiont and host cells. In our study, we wanted to elucidate the intrinsic capacity of isolated animal cells to deal with thermal stress in the absence of symbiont. In that aim, we have characterized an animal primary cell culture form regenerating tentacles of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis...
January 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311676/anti-glioma-natural-products-downregulating-tumor-glycolytic-enzymes-from-marine-actinomycete-streptomyces-sp-zz406
#7
Mengxuan Chen, Weiyun Chai, Tengfei Song, Mingzhu Ma, Xiao-Yuan Lian, Zhizhen Zhang
Marine natural products are important resources for discovering novel anticancer drugs. In this study, an extract prepared from the culture of a sea anemone-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZZ406 in soluble starch and casein-related liquid medium was found to have activity in inhibiting the proliferation of glioma cells and reducing the production of lactate in glioma cells. Chemical investigation of this active crude extract resulted in the isolation of four new compounds and seven known ones. Structures of the new compounds were determined by a combination of extensive NMR analyses, HRESIMS and MS-MS data, electronic circular dichroism calculation, chemical degradation, and Marfey's method...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289634/pilot-production-of-the-recombinant-peptide-toxin-of-heteractis-crispa-as-a-potential-analgesic-by-intein-mediated-technology
#8
Roman S Esipov, Dmitry A Makarov, Vasily N Stepanenko, Maria A Kostromina, Tatyana I Muravyova, Yaroslav A Andreev, Igor A Dyachenko, Sergey A Kozlov, Evgeny V Grishin
APHC3 is an analgesic polypeptide that was found in the sea anemone (Heteractis crispa), and contains 56 amino acid residues. This polypeptide is of interest for the development of medications for diseases, associated with inflammatory or neuropathological processes, as well as its use as an analgesic. This work presents an innovative biotechnological method for APHC3 production. We have constructed a recombinant plasmid intended for biosynthesizing the fusion protein consisting of a chitin-binding domain, DnaB mini-intein from Synechocystis sp...
December 28, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285938/novel-kunitz-like-peptides-discovered-in-the-zoanthid-palythoa-caribaeorum-through-transcriptome-sequencing
#9
Qiwen Liao, Shengnan Li, Shirley Weng In Siu, Binrui Yang, Chen Huang, Judy Yuet-Wa Chan, Jean-Étienne Morlighem, Clarence Tsun Ting Wong, Gandhi Radis-Baptista, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoanthid that together jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, which are venomous and predatory, belongs to the Phyllum Cnidaria. The distinguished feature in these marine animals is the cnidocytes in the body tissues, responsible for toxin production and injection that are used majorly for prey capture and defense. With exception for other anthozoans, the toxin cocktails of zoanthids have been scarcely studied and are poorly known. Here, based on the analysis of P. caribaeorum transcriptome, numerous predicted venom-featured polypeptides were identified, including allergens, neurotoxins, membrane-active and Kunitz-like peptides (PcKuz)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280949/peripheral-5-ht3-receptors-are-involved-in-the-antinociceptive-effect-of-bunodosine-391
#10
Wilson Alves Ferreira Junior, Andre Junqueira Zaharenko, Kohei Kazuma, Gisele Picolo, Vanessa Pacciari Gutierrez, Jose Carlos de Freitas, Katsuhiro Konno, Yara Cury
Bunodosine 391 (BDS 391), a low molecular weight compound isolated from the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum, increases the nociceptive threshold and inhibits inflammatory hyperalgesia. Serotonin receptors are involved in those effects. In this study, we have expanded the characterization of the antinociceptive effect of BDS 391 demonstrating that, in rats: (a) the compound inhibits (1.2-12 ng/paw) overt pain, in the formalin test, and mechanical hyperalgesia (0.6-6.0 ng/paw) detected in a model of neuropathic pain; (b) intraplantar administration of ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, blocks the effect of BDS 391, whereas ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, partially reversed this effect, indicating the involvement of peripheral 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in BDS 391 antinociception; and (c) in binding assay studies, BDS 391 was not able to displace the selective 5-HT receptor antagonists, suggesting that this compound does not directly bind to these receptors...
December 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218749/evidence-for-mirna-mediated-modulation-of-the-host-transcriptome-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#11
Sebastian Baumgarten, Maha J Cziesielski, Ludivine Thomas, Craig T Michell, Lisl Y Esherick, John R Pringle, Manuel Aranda, Christian R Voolstra
Reef-building corals and other cnidarians living in symbiotic relationships with intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium undergo transcriptomic changes during infection with the algae and maintenance of the endosymbiont population. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms modulating the host transcriptome are unknown. Here we report apparent post-transcriptional gene regulation by miRNAs in the sea anemone Aiptasia, a model system for cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217594/glucose-induced-trophic-shift-in-an-endosymbiont-dinoflagellate-with-physiological-and-molecular-consequences
#12
Tingting Xiang, Robert E Jinkerson, Sophie Clowez, Cawa Tran, Cory J Krediet, Masayuki Onishi, Phillip A Cleves, John R Pringle, Arthur R Grossman
Interactions between the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium and its cnidarian hosts (e.g., corals, sea anemones) are the foundation of coral-reef ecosystems. Carbon flow between the partners is a hallmark of this mutualism, but the mechanisms governing this flow and its impact on symbiosis remain poorly understood. We showed previously that although Symbiodinium strain SSB01 can grow photoautotrophically, it can grow mixotrophically or heterotrophically when supplied with glucose, a metabolite normally transferred from the alga to its host...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205750/spatially-distinct-temporally-stable-microbial-populations-mediate-biogeochemical-cycling-at-and-below-the-seafloor-in-hydrothermal-vent-fluids
#13
Caroline S Fortunato, Benjamin Larson, David A Butterfield, Julie A Huber
At deep-sea hydrothermal vents, microbial communities thrive across geochemical gradients above, at, and below the seafloor. In this study, we determined the gene content and transcription patterns of microbial communities and specific populations to understand the taxonomy and metabolism both spatially and temporally across geochemically different diffuse fluid hydrothermal vents. Vent fluids were examined via metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, genomic binning, and geochemical analyses from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the NE Pacific Ocean, from 2013-2015 at three different vents: Anemone, Marker 33, and Marker 113...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191747/peptide-fingerprinting-of-the-sea-anemone-heteractis-magnifica-mucus-revealed-neurotoxins-kunitz-type-proteinase-inhibitors-and-a-new-%C3%AE-defensin-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitor
#14
Oksana Sintsova, Irina Gladkikh, Victoria Chausova, Margarita Monastyrnaya, Stanislav Anastyuk, Oleg Chernikov, Ekaterina Yurchenko, Dmitriy Aminin, Marina Isaeva, Elena Leychenko, Emma Kozlovskaya
Sea anemone mucus, due to its multiple and vital functions, is a valuable substance for investigation of new biologically active peptides. In this work, compounds of Heteractis magnifica mucus were separated by multistage liquid chromatography and resulting fractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Peptide maps constructed according to the molecular masses and hydrophobicity showed presence of 326 both new and known peptides. Several major peptides from mucus were identified, including the sodium channel toxin RpII isolated earlier from H...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185520/gut-like-ectodermal-tissue-in-a-sea-anemone-challenges-germ-layer-homology
#15
Patrick R H Steinmetz, Andy Aman, Johanna E M Kraus, Ulrich Technau
Cnidarians (for example, sea anemones and jellyfish) develop from an outer ectodermal and inner endodermal germ layer, whereas bilaterians (for example, vertebrates and flies) additionally have a mesodermal layer as intermediate germ layer. Currently, cnidarian endoderm (that is, 'mesendoderm') is considered homologous to both bilaterian endoderm and mesoderm. Here we test this hypothesis by studying the fate of germ layers, the localization of gut cell types, and the expression of numerous 'endodermal' and 'mesodermal' transcription factor orthologues in the anthozoan sea anemone Nematostella vectensis...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175860/high-salinity-conveys-thermotolerance-in-the-coral-model-aiptasia
#16
Hagen M Gegner, Maren Ziegler, Nils Rädecker, Carol Buitrago-López, Manuel Aranda, Christian R Voolstra
The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal...
November 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167511/transcription-factor-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-is-modulated-by-symbiotic-status-in-a-sea-anemone-model-of-cnidarian-bleaching
#17
Katelyn M Mansfield, Nicole M Carter, Linda Nguyen, Phillip A Cleves, Anar Alshanbayeva, Leah M Williams, Camerron Crowder, Ashley R Penvose, John R Finnerty, Virginia M Weis, Trevor W Siggers, Thomas D Gilmore
Transcription factor NF-κB plays a central role in immunity from fruit flies to humans, and NF-κB activity is altered in many human diseases. To investigate a role for NF-κB in immunity and disease on a broader evolutionary scale we have characterized NF-κB in a sea anemone (Exaiptasia pallida; called Aiptasia herein) model for cnidarian symbiosis and dysbiosis (i.e., "bleaching"). We show that the DNA-binding site specificity of Aiptasia NF-κB is similar to NF-κB proteins from a broad expanse of organisms...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163217/different-principles-of-adp-ribose-mediated-activation-and-opposite-roles-of-the-nudt9-homology-domain-in-the-trpm2-orthologs-of-man-and-sea-anemone
#18
REVIEW
Frank Kühn, Cornelia Kühn, Andreas Lückhoff
A decisive element in the human cation channel TRPM2 is a region in its cytosolic C-terminus named NUDT9H because of its homology to the NUDT9 enzyme, a pyrophosphatase degrading ADP-ribose (ADPR). In hTRPM2, however, the NUDT9H domain has lost its enzymatic activity but serves as a binding domain for ADPR. As consequence of binding, gating of the channel is initiated. Since ADPR is produced after oxidative DNA damage, hTRPM2 mediates Ca(2+) influx in response to oxidative stress which may lead to cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161292/individual-marking-of-soft-bodied-subtidal-invertebrates-in-situ-a-novel-staining-technique-applied-to-the-giant-plumose-anemone-metridium-farcimen-tilesius-1809
#19
Christopher D Wells, Kenneth P Sebens
The ability to recognize individuals and track growth over time is crucial to population dynamics research as well as studies of animal behavior. Invertebrates are particularly difficult to track as they often molt, have regenerative capabilities, or lack hard parts to attach markers. We tested, in laboratory and field studies, a new way of marking sea anemones (order Actiniaria) by injection of three vital stains (i.e., neutral red, methylene blue, and fluorescein). Neutral red and methylene blue did not affect growth or survival, but fluorescein was lethal at high concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158383/optimal-nutrient-exchange-and-immune-responses-operate-in-partner-specificity-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#20
Jennifer L Matthews, Camerron M Crowder, Clinton A Oakley, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Eli Meyer, Arthur R Grossman, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
The relationship between reef-building corals and phototrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is fundamental to the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. It has been suggested that reef corals may adapt to climate change by changing their dominant symbiont type to a more thermally tolerant one, although the capacity for such a community shift is potentially hindered by the compatibility of different host-symbiont pairings. Here we combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to characterize the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that underlie this compatibility, with a particular focus on Symbiodinium trenchii, an opportunistic, thermally tolerant symbiont that flourishes in coral tissues after bleaching events...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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