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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315771/evidence-for-two-populations-of-hair-bundles-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#1
Shelcie S Menard, Glen M Watson
Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304352/in-vitro-anti-inflammatory-and-cytotoxic-effects-of-aqueous-extracts-from-the-edible-sea-anemones-anemonia-sulcata-and-actinia-equina
#2
Tânia Costa Silva, Paula Branquinho de Andrade, Fátima Paiva-Martins, Patrícia Valentão, David Micael Pereira
Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this work, the chemical profiles of two species of sea anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata, were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its impact upon immune and gastric cells was evaluated...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299647/runx-in-invertebrates
#3
S Hughes, A Woollard
Runx genes have been identified in all metazoans and considerable conservation of function observed across a wide range of phyla. Thus, insight gained from studying simple model organisms is invaluable in understanding RUNX biology in higher animals. Consequently, this chapter will focus on the Runx genes in the diploblasts, which includes sea anemones and sponges, as well as the lower triploblasts, including the sea urchin, nematode, planaria and insect. Due to the high degree of functional redundancy amongst vertebrate Runx genes, simpler model organisms with a solo Runx gene, like C...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287181/a-new-group-of-glycoside-hydrolase-family-13-%C3%AE-amylases-with-an-aberrant-catalytic-triad
#4
Fean D Sarian, Štefan Janeček, Tjaard Pijning, Ihsanawati, Zeily Nurachman, Ocky K Radjasa, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Dessy Natalia, Marc J E C van der Maarel
α-Amylases are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that act on the α(1→4) glycosidic linkages in glycogen, starch, and related α-glucans, and are ubiquitously present in Nature. Most α-amylases have been classified in glycoside hydrolase family 13 with a typical (β/α)8-barrel containing two aspartic acid and one glutamic acid residue that play an essential role in catalysis. An atypical α-amylase (BmaN1) with only two of the three invariant catalytic residues present was isolated from Bacillus megaterium strain NL3, a bacterial isolate from a sea anemone of Kakaban landlocked marine lake, Derawan Island, Indonesia...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286876/diversity-as-opportunity-insights-from-600-million-years-of-ahr-evolution
#5
Mark E Hahn, Sibel I Karchner, Rebeka R Merson
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was for many years of interest only to pharmacologists and toxicologists. However, this protein has fundamental roles in biology that are being revealed through studies in diverse animal species. The AHR is an ancient protein. AHR homologs exist in most major groups of modern bilaterian animals, including deuterostomes (chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms) and the two major clades of protostome invertebrates [ecdysozoans (e.g. arthropods and nematodes) and lophotrochozoans (e...
February 2017: Curr Opin Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270243/predation-on-transmission-stages-reduces-parasitism-sea-anemones-consume-transmission-stages-of-a-barnacle-parasite
#6
Caitlin R Fong, Armand M Kuris
While parasites serve as prey, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of parasite predators provides transmission control and influences patterns of parasitism. Because many of its organisms are sessile, the rocky intertidal zone is a valuable but little used system to understand spatial patterns of parasitism and elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving these patterns. Sea anemones and barnacles are important space competitors in the rocky intertidal zone along the Pacific coast of North America. Anemones are voracious, indiscriminate predators; thus, they may intercept infectious stages of parasites before they reach a host...
March 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258198/novel-adjuvant-based-on-the-pore-forming-protein-sticholysin-ii-encapsulated-into-liposomes-effectively-enhances-the-antigen-specific-ctl-mediated-immune-response
#7
Rady J Laborde, Oraly Sanchez-Ferras, María C Luzardo, Yoelys Cruz-Leal, Audry Fernández, Circe Mesa, Liliana Oliver, Liem Canet, Liane Abreu-Butin, Catarina V Nogueira, Mayra Tejuca, Fabiola Pazos, Carlos Álvarez, María E Alonso, Ieda M Longo-Maugéri, Michael N Starnbach, Darren E Higgins, Luis E Fernández, María E Lanio
Vaccine strategies to enhance CD8(+) CTL responses remain a current challenge because they should overcome the plasmatic and endosomal membranes for favoring exogenous Ag access to the cytosol of APCs. As a way to avoid this hurdle, sticholysin (St) II, a pore-forming protein from the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, was encapsulated with OVA into liposomes (Lp/OVA/StII) to assess their efficacy to induce a CTL response. OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells transferred to mice immunized with Lp/OVA/StII experienced a greater expansion than when the recipients were injected with the vesicles without St, mostly exhibiting a memory phenotype...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243530/a-detailed-observation-of-the-ejection-and-retraction-of-defense-tissue-acontia-in-sea-anemone-exaiptasia-pallida
#8
Julie Lam, Ya-Wen Cheng, Wan-Nan U Chen, Hsing-Hui Li, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Shao-En Peng
Acontia, located in the gastrovascular cavity of anemone, are thread-like tissue containing numerous stinging cells which serve as a unique defense tissue against predators of the immobile acontiarian sea anemone. Although its morphology and biological functions, such as defense and digestion, have been studied, the defense behavior and the specific events of acontia ejection and retraction are unclear. The aim of this study is to observe and record the detailed process of acontia control in anemones. Observations reveal that the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida, possibly controls a network of body muscles and manipulates water pressure in the gastrovascular cavity to eject and retract acontia...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228679/a-new-species-of-aspidophryxus-isopoda-dajidae-ectoparasitic-on-mysidella-hoshinoi-mysidae-in-japan
#9
Michitaka Shimomura
A new dajid, Aspidophryxus izuensissp. n., is described from seven females and six males found infesting the dorsal carapaces of specimens of Mysidella hoshinoi Shimomura, 2016 (Mysidae: Mysidellinae) associated with an unidentified species of sea anemone (Haloclavidae) from Izu-Oshima Island, Sagami Sea, central Japan. Aspidophryxus izuensis sp. n. differs from its congeners in having a body length about as long as wide, widest at the anterior part in females; an elongate frontal part of the cephalon, half as long as wide in females; the frontal margin of the cephalon exceeding the anterior margins of lateral lamellae in females; an unsegmented, vermiform, elongate pleon in females; and a uropod composed of a protopod and an inner and outer ramus in males...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222763/the-discovery-of-novel-lpmo-families-with-a-new-hidden-markov-model
#10
Gerben P Voshol, Erik Vijgenboom, Peter J Punt
BACKGROUND: Renewable biopolymers, such as cellulose, starch and chitin are highly resistance to enzymatic degradation. Therefore, there is a need to upgrade current degradation processes by including novel enzymes. Lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) can disrupt recalcitrant biopolymers, thereby enhancing hydrolysis by conventional enzymes. However, novel LPMO families are difficult to identify using existing methods. Therefore, we developed a novel profile Hidden Markov model (HMM) and used it to mine genomes of ascomycetous fungi for novel LPMOs...
February 21, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196786/assessing-the-chronic-toxicity-of-copper-and-aluminium-to-the-tropical-sea-anemone-exaiptasia-pallida
#11
Melanie A Trenfield, Joost W van Dam, Andrew J Harford, David Parry, Claire Streten, Karen Gibb, Rick A van Dam
The world's most productive bauxite mines and alumina refineries are located in tropical or sub-tropical regions. The discharge water from alumina refineries can contain elevated aluminium (Al, <0.45µm fraction), from 30 to 1000μg/L. There is a need for additional information on the toxicity of Al to aquatic organisms to improve the environmental regulation and management of alumina refinery operations in tropical coastal regions. A 14-d chronic toxicity test was developed for the tropical sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida...
February 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194851/inversion-of-the-side-chain-stereochemistry-of-indvidual-thr-or-ile-residues-in-a-protein-molecule-impact-on-the-folding-stability-and-structure-of-the-shk-toxin
#12
Bobo Dang, Rong Shen, Tomoya Kubota, Kalyaneswar Mandal, Francisco Bezanilla, Benoit Roux, Stephen B H Kent
ShK toxin is a cysteine-rich 35-residue protein ion-channel ligand isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this work, we studied the effect of inverting the side chain stereochemistry of individual Thr or Ile residues on the properties of the ShK protein. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to calculate the free energy cost of inverting the side-chain stereochemistry of individual Thr or Ile residues. Guided by the computational results, we used chemical protein synthesis to prepare three ShK polypeptide chain analogues, each containing either an allo-Thr or an allo-Ile residue...
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173991/damage-of-eukaryotic-cells-by-the-pore-forming-toxin-sticholysin-ii-consequences-of-the-potassium-efflux
#13
Sheila Cabezas, Sylvia Ho, Uris Ros, María E Lanio, Carlos Alvarez, F Gisou van der Goot
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) form holes in membranes causing one of the most catastrophic damages to a target cell. Target organisms have evolved a regulated response against PFTs damage including cell membrane repair. This ability of cells strongly depends on the toxin concentration and the properties of the pores. It has been hypothesized that there is an inverse correlation between the size of the pores and the time required to repair the membrane, which has been for long a non-intuitive concept and far to be completely understood...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168117/boxer-crabs-induce-asexual-reproduction-of-their-associated-sea-anemones-by-splitting-and-intraspecific-theft
#14
Yisrael Schnytzer, Yaniv Giman, Ilan Karplus, Yair Achituv
Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae). These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis. In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150733/transcriptomic-investigation-of-wound-healing-and-regeneration-in-the-cnidarian-calliactis-polypus
#15
Zachary K Stewart, Ana Pavasovic, Daniella H Hock, Peter J Prentis
Wound healing and regeneration in cnidarian species, a group that forms the sister phylum to Bilateria, remains poorly characterised despite the ability of many cnidarians to rapidly repair injuries, regenerate lost structures, or re-form whole organisms from small populations of somatic cells. Here we present results from a fully replicated RNA-Seq experiment to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the sea anemone Calliactis polypus following catastrophic injury. We find that a large-scale transcriptomic response is established in C...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117771/inducing-complete-polyp-regeneration-from-the-aboral-physa-of-the-starlet-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#16
Patricia Bossert, Gerald H Thomsen
Cnidarians, and specifically Hydra, were the first animals shown to regenerate damaged or severed structures, and indeed such studies arguably launched modern biological inquiry through the work of Trembley more than 250 years ago. Presently the study of regeneration has seen a resurgence using both "classic" regenerative organisms, such as the Hydra, planaria and Urodeles, as well as a widening spectrum of species spanning the range of metazoa, from sponges through mammals. Besides its intrinsic interest as a biological phenomenon, understanding how regeneration works in a variety of species will inform us about whether regenerative processes share common features and/or species or context-specific cellular and molecular mechanisms...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077580/peptide-from-sea-anemone-metridium-senile-affects-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-repeat-1-trpa1-function-and-produces-analgesic-effect
#17
Yulia A Logashina, Irina V Mosharova, Yulia V Korolkova, Irina V Shelukhina, Igor A Dyachenko, Victor A Palikov, Yulia A Palikova, Arkadii N Murashev, Sergey A Kozlov, Klara Stensvåg, Yaroslav A Andreev
The transient receptor potential ankyrin-repeat 1 (TRPA1) is an important player in pain and inflammatory pathways. It is a promising target for novel drug development for the treatment of a number of pathological states. A novel peptide producing a significant potentiating effect on allyl isothiocyanate- and diclofenac-induced currents of TRPA1 was isolated from the venom of sea anemone Metridium senile. It is a 35-amino acid peptide cross-linked by two disulfide bridges named τ-AnmTX Ms 9a-1 (short name Ms 9a-1) according to a structure similar to other sea anemone peptides belonging to structural group 9a...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073024/anemonefishes
#18
William E Feeney, Rohan M Brooker
Feeney and Brooker introduce sea-anemone associated fish.
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066713/sequencing-and-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-anthopleura-dowii-verrill-1869-from-mexico
#19
Jorge-Tonatiuh Ayala-Sumuano, Alexei Licea-Navarro, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Estefanía Rodríguez, Claudia Rodríguez-Almazán
Next-generation technologies for determination of genomics and transcriptomics composition have a wide range of applications. Moreover, the development of tools for big data set analysis has allowed the identification of molecules and networks involved in metabolism, evolution or behavior. By natural habitats aquatic organisms have implemented molecular strategies for survival, including the production and secretion of toxic compounds for their predators; therefore these organisms are possible sources of proteins or peptides with potential biotechnological application...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003055/determination-and-speciation-of-cadmium-in-microcosms-with-bunodosoma-caissarum-and-perna-perna-using-isotopically-enriched-116-cd
#20
Nafisa Rizzini Ansari, Nerea Fernández Iglesias, Renato Campello Cordeiro, Marcos Antônio Fernandez, Jörg Bettmer
The study of the uptake and distribution of elements in marine environments is of great interest for understanding their pathways and accumulation. Here, we investigated in laboratory experiments the accumulation behavior of Cd in the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum and the mussel Perna perna. Specimens were incubated with isotopically enriched (116)Cd in aquariums. Cd concentrations in the seawater and in the tissues of B. caissarum and P. perna were followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) by means of isotope dilution analysis...
December 18, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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