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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138759/identification-of-persistent-and-resurgent-sodium-currents-in-spiral-ganglion-neurons-cultured-from-the-mouse-cochlea
#1
Lorcan Browne, Katie E Smith, Daniel J Jagger
In spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the afferent single units of the auditory nerve, high spontaneous and evoked firing rates ensure preservation of the temporal code describing the key features of incoming sound. During postnatal development, the spatiotemporal distribution of ion channel subtypes contributes to the maturation of action potential generation in SGNs, and to their ability to generate spike patterns that follow rapidly changing inputs. Here we describe tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na(+) currents in SGNs cultured from mice, whose properties may support this fast spiking behavior...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138096/one-single-salt-bridge-explains-the-different-cytolytic-activities-shown-by-actinoporins-sticholysin-i-and-ii-from-the-venom-of-stichodactyla-helianthus
#2
Esperanza Rivera-de-Torre, Juan Palacios-Ortega, Sara García-Linares, José G Gavilanes, Álvaro Martínez-Del-Pozo
Sticholysins I and II (StnI and StnII), α-pore forming toxins from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, are water-soluble toxic proteins which upon interaction with lipid membranes of specific composition bind to the bilayer, extend and insert their N-terminal α-helix, and become oligomeric integral membrane structures. The result is a pore that leads to cell death by osmotic shock. StnI and StnII show 93% of sequence identity, but also different membrane pore-forming activities. The hydrophobicity profile along the first 18 residues revealed differences which were canceled by substituting StnI amino acids 2 and 9...
November 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122675/high-throughput-method-for-extracting-and-visualizing-the-spatial-gene-expressions-from-in-situ-hybridization-images-a-case-study-of-the-early-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#3
A M Abdol, Andrew Bedard, Imke Lánský, J A Kaandorp
Studying the spatial gene expression profiles from in situ hybridization images of the embryo is one of the first steps toward the comprehensive understanding of gene interactions in an organism. In the case of N. vectensis, extracting and collecting these data is a challenging task due to the difficulty of detecting the cell layer through the transparent body plan and changing morphology during the blastula and gastrula stages. Here, first, we introduce a method to algorithmically identify and track the cell layer in N...
November 6, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118617/a-sea-anemone-of-many-names-a-review-of-the-taxonomy-and-distribution-of-the-invasive-actiniarian-diadumene-lineata-diadumenidae-with-records-of-its-reappearance-on-the-texas-coast
#4
Zachary B Hancock, Janelle A Goeke, Mary K Wicksten
Diadumene lineata (Actiniaria: Diadumenidae) is a prolific invader of coastal environments around the world. First described from Asia, this sea anemone has only been reported once from the western Gulf of Mexico at Port Aransas, Texas. No subsequent sampling has located this species at this locality. The first record of the reappearance of D. lineata on the Texas coast from three locations in the Galveston Bay area is provided, and its geographic distribution and taxonomic history reviewed.
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109403/identification-of-unusual-peptides-with-new-cys-frameworks-in-the-venom-of-the-cold-water-sea-anemone-cnidopus-japonicus
#5
Vladislav V Babenko, Alexander N Mikov, Valentin A Manuvera, Nickolay A Anikanov, Sergey I Kovalchuk, Yaroslav A Andreev, Yulia A Logashina, Daniil A Kornilov, Alexander I Manolov, Nadya P Sanamyan, Karen E Sanamyan, Elena S Kostryukova, Sergey A Kozlov, Eugene V Grishin, Vadim M Govorun, Vassili N Lazarev
Sea anemones (Actiniaria) are intensely popular objects of study in venomics. Order Actiniaria includes more than 1,000 species, thus presenting almost unlimited opportunities for the discovery of novel biologically active molecules. The venoms of cold-water sea anemones are studied far less than the venoms of tropical sea anemones. In this work, we analysed the molecular venom composition of the cold-water sea anemone Cnidopus japonicus. Two sets of NGS data from two species revealed molecules belonging to a variety of structural classes, including neurotoxins, toxin-like molecules, linear polypeptides (Cys-free), enzymes, and cytolytics...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109290/sea-anemone-model-has-a-single-toll-like-receptor-that-can-function-in-pathogen-detection-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-transduction-and-development
#6
Joseph J Brennan, Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Leah M Williams, Bryan J Matthews, Marinaliz Reynoso, Thomas D Gilmore
In organisms from insects to vertebrates, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are primary pathogen detectors that activate downstream pathways, specifically those that direct expression of innate immune effector genes. TLRs also have roles in development in many species. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a useful cnidarian model to study the origins of TLR signaling because its genome encodes a single TLR and homologs of many downstream signaling components, including the NF-κB pathway. We have characterized the single N...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108677/salinity-stress-results-in-differential-hsp70-expression-in-the-exaiptasia-pallida-and-symbiodinium-symbiosis
#7
Mitchell A Ellison, M Drew Ferrier, Susan L Carney
Abiotic factors affect cnidarian-algal symbiosis and, if severe enough, can result in bleaching. Increased temperature and light are well characterized causes of bleaching, but other factors like salinity can also stress the holobiont. In cnidarian-dinoflagellate systems, the expression of host genes, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), changes due to thermal and light stress. In this experiment, we characterized to what extent salinity stress affects Hsp70 expression in the holobiont by simultaneously measuring host and symbiont Hsp70 expression in response to up to 8 h of hypo- and hypersaline conditions in the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida and its intracellular symbiont Symbiodinium minutum...
October 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043040/marine-protected-area-restricts-demographic-connectivity-dissimilarity-in-a-marine-environment-can-function-as-a-biological-barrier
#8
Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Honda, Wilfredo H Uy, Darwin I Baslot, Tom G Genovia, Yohei Nakamura, Lawrence Patrick C Bernardo, Hiroyuki Kurokochi, Allyn Duvin S Pantallano, Chunlan Lian, Kazuo Nadaoka, Masahiro Nakaoka
The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes (Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We found lower levels of abundance per anemone in the MPA compared to the fishing zones for both species (n = 1,525 anemones, p = ...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026495/recombinant-production-and-affinity-purification-of-the-frac-pore-forming-toxin-using-hexa-his-tag-and-pet-expression-cassette
#9
Mehdi Imani, Hossein Zarei Jaliani, Mohammad Hassan Kheirandish, Mahnaz Azadpour
OBJECTIVES: A newly-introduced protein toxin from a sea anemone, namely fragaceatoxin C is a protein with molecular weight of 20 kDa and pore-forming capability against cell membranes has recently grasped great attentions for its function. In this study, its coding sequence cloned as a fusion protein with His-tag for simple production and rapid purification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After PCR amplification using NcoI and HindIII-harboring primers, the gene fragment was cloned into pET-28a(+)...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993608/cascading-effects-of-thermally-induced-anemone-bleaching-on-associated-anemonefish-hormonal-stress-response-and-reproduction
#10
Ricardo Beldade, Agathe Blandin, Rory O'Donnell, Suzanne C Mills
Organisms can behaviorally, physiologically, and morphologically adjust to environmental variation via integrative hormonal mechanisms, ultimately allowing animals to cope with environmental change. The stress response to environmental and social changes commonly promotes survival at the expense of reproduction. However, despite climate change impacts on population declines and diversity loss, few studies have attributed hormonal stress responses, or their regulatory effects, to climate change in the wild. Here, we report hormonal and fitness responses of individual wild fish to a recent large-scale sea warming event that caused widespread bleaching on coral reefs...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993277/structure-folding-and-stability-of-a-minimal-homologue-from-anemonia-sulcata-of-the-sea-anemone-potassium-channel-blocker-shk
#11
Bankala Krishnarjuna, Christopher A MacRaild, Punnepalli Sunanda, Rodrigo A V Morales, Steve Peigneur, Jason Macrander, Heidi H Yu, Marymegan Daly, Srinivasarao Raghothama, Vikas Dhawan, Satendra Chauhan, Jan Tytgat, Michael W Pennington, Raymond S Norton
Peptide toxins elaborated by sea anemones target various ion-channel sub-types. Recent transcriptomic studies of sea anemones have identified several novel candidate peptides, some of which have cysteine frameworks identical to those of previously reported sequences. One such peptide is AsK132958, which was identified in a transcriptomic study of Anemonia sulcata and has a cysteine framework similar to that of ShK from Stichodactyla helianthus, but is six amino acid residues shorter. We have determined the solution structure of this novel peptide using NMR spectroscopy...
October 6, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972668/wenxin-keli-diminishes-ca-2-overload-induced-by-hypoxia-reoxygenation-in-cardiomyocytes-through-inhibiting-inal-and-ical
#12
Antao Luo, Zhipei Liu, Zhenzhen Cao, Jie Hao, Lin Wu, Chen Fu, Mengliu Zeng, Wanzhen Jiang, Peihua Zhang, Buchang Zhao, Tao Zhao, Jing Zhao, Jihua Ma
BACKGROUND: An increase in the late sodium current (INaL ) causes intracellular Na(+) overload and subsequently intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]i ) overload via the stimulated reverse Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchange (NCX). Wenxin Keli (WXKL) is an effective antiarrhythmic Chinese herb extract, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The INaL , NCX current (INCX ), L-type Ca(2+) current (ICaL ) and action potentials (APs) were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in rabbit ventricular myocytes...
October 3, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902151/apetx4-a-novel-sea-anemone-toxin-and-a-modulator-of-the-cancer-relevant-potassium-channel-kv10-1
#13
Lien Moreels, Steve Peigneur, Diogo T Galan, Edwin De Pauw, Lászlo Béress, Etienne Waelkens, Luis A Pardo, Loïc Quinton, Jan Tytgat
The human ether-à-go-go channel (hEag1 or KV10.1) is a cancer-relevant voltage-gated potassium channel that is overexpressed in a majority of human tumors. Peptides that are able to selectively inhibit this channel can be lead compounds in the search for new anticancer drugs. Here, we report the activity-guided purification and electrophysiological characterization of a novel KV10.1 inhibitor from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Purified sea anemone fractions were screened for inhibitory activity on KV10...
September 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888836/transcriptome-sequencing-and-characterization-of-symbiodinium-muscatinei-and-elliptochloris-marina-symbionts-found-within-the-aggregating-sea-anemone-anthopleura-elegantissima
#14
Jason C Macrander, James L Dimond, Brian L Bingham, Adam M Reitzel
There is a growing body of literature using transcriptomic data to study how tropical cnidarians and their photosynthetic endosymbionts respond to environmental stressors and participate in metabolic exchange. Despite these efforts, our understanding of how essential genes function to facilitate symbiosis establishment and maintenance remains limited. The inclusion of taxonomically and ecologically diverse endosymbionts will enhance our understanding of these interactions. Here we characterize the transcriptomes of two very different symbionts found within the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima: the chlorophyte Elliptochloris marina and the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium muscatinei...
September 6, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878874/paxa-but-not-paxc-is-required-for-cnidocyte-development-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#15
Leslie S Babonis, Mark Q Martindale
BACKGROUND: Pax genes are a family of conserved transcription factors that regulate many aspects of developmental morphogenesis, notably the development of ectodermal sensory structures including eyes. Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, has numerous Pax orthologs, many of which are expressed early during embryogenesis. The function of Pax genes in this eyeless cnidarian is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we show that PaxA, but not PaxC, plays a critical role in the development of cnidocytes in N...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853034/biophysical-and-biochemical-strategies-to-understand-membrane-binding-and-pore-formation-by-sticholysins-pore-forming-proteins-from-a-sea-anemone
#16
REVIEW
Carlos Alvarez, Uris Ros, Aisel Valle, Lohans Pedrera, Carmen Soto, Yadira P Hervis, Sheila Cabezas, Pedro A Valiente, Fabiola Pazos, Maria E Lanio
Actinoporins constitute a unique class of pore-forming toxins found in sea anemones that are able to bind and oligomerize in membranes, leading to cell swelling, impairment of ionic gradients and, eventually, to cell death. In this review we summarize the knowledge generated from the combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches to the study of sticholysins I and II (Sts, StI/II), two actinoporins largely characterized by the Center of Protein Studies at the University of Havana during the last 20 years...
October 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851289/coral-cell-separation-and-isolation-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting-facs
#17
Benyamin Rosental, Zhanna Kozhekbaeva, Nathaniel Fernhoff, Jonathan M Tsai, Nikki Traylor-Knowles
BACKGROUND: Generalized methods for understanding the cell biology of non-model species are quite rare, yet very much needed. In order to address this issue, we have modified a technique traditionally used in the biomedical field for ecological and evolutionary research. Fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) is often used for sorting and identifying cell populations. In this study, we developed a method to identify and isolate different cell populations in corals and other cnidarians...
August 29, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837825/renal-effects-of-bunodosoma-caissarum-crude-extract-prostaglandin-and-endothelin-involvement
#18
René Duarte Martins, Roberta Jeane Bezerra Jorge, Renata de Sousa Alves, Antônio Gomes da Silva Neto, Paulo Sergio F Barbosa, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Marcos H Toyama, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro
Sea anemones contain a variety of interesting biologically active compounds, including some potent toxins. PLA2 from Bunodosoma caissarum, a sea anemone endemic in the Brazilian southern coast, has shown renal alterations on isolated kidney. The aim of this study was to evaluate the renal and vascular effects of B. caissarum crude extract (BcE) on isolated perfused kidney and arteriolar mesenteric bed, as well the involvement of prostaglandins and endothelin. BcE did not show any effect on arteriolar mesenteric bed, but increased perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate and decreased the percentage of sodium tubular transport on isolated perfused kidney...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827642/functional-and-proteomic-analysis-of-ceratonova-shasta-cnidaria-myxozoa-polar-capsules-reveals-adaptations-to-parasitism
#19
Gadi Piriatinskiy, Stephen D Atkinson, Sinwook Park, David Morgenstern, Vera Brekhman, Gilad Yossifon, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
Myxozoa is a diverse, speciose group of microscopic parasites, recently placed within the phylum Cnidaria. Myxozoans are highly reduced in size and complexity relative to free-living cnidarians, yet they have retained specialized organelles known as polar capsules, akin to the nematocyst stinging capsules of free-living species. Whereas in free-living cnidarians the stinging capsules are used for prey capture or defense, in myxozoans they have the essential function of initiating the host infection process...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827097/unipotent-progenitors-contribute-to-the-generation-of-sensory-cell-types-in-the-nervous-system-of-the-cnidarian-nematostella-vectensis
#20
Henriette Busengdal, Fabian Rentzsch
Nervous systems often consist of a large number of different types of neurons which are generated from neural stem and progenitor cells by a series of symmetric and asymmetric divisions. The origin and early evolution of these neural progenitor systems is not well understood. Here we use a cnidarian model organism, Nematostella vectensis, to gain insight into the generation of neural cell type diversity in a non-bilaterian animal. We identify NvFoxQ2d as a transcription factor that is expressed in a population of spatially restricted, proliferating ectodermal cells that are derived from NvSoxB(2)-expressing neural progenitor cells...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
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