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sea anemone

Yu-Ming Hsu, Fang-Rong Chang, I-Wen Lo, Kuei-Hung Lai, Mohamed El-Shazly, Tung-Ying Wu, Ying-Chi Du, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Yang-Chang Wu
Zoanthus kuroshio is a colorful zoanthid with a fluorescent pink oral disc and brown tentacles, which dominates certain parts of the Taiwanese and Japanese coasts. This sea anemone is a rich source of biologically active alkaloids. In the current investigation, two novel halogenated zoanthamines [5α-iodozoanthenamine (1) and 11β-chloro-11-deoxykuroshine A (2)], along with four new zoanthamines [18-epi-kuroshine A (3), 7α-hydroxykuroshine E (4), 5α-methoxykuroshine E (5), and 18-epi-kuroshine E (6)], and six known compounds were isolated from Z...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Matteo Bulati, Alessandra Longo, Tiziana Masullo, Sara Vlah, Carmelo Bennici, Angela Bonura, Monica Salamone, Marcello Tagliavia, Aldo Nicosia, Salvatore Mazzola, Paolo Colombo, Angela Cuttitta
In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines...
2016: BioMed Research International
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Yuuri Yasuoka, Chuya Shinzato, Noriyuki Satoh
Blastoporal expression of the T-box transcription factor gene brachyury is conserved in most metazoans [1, 2]. Its role in mesoderm formation has been intensively studied in vertebrates [3-6]. However, its fundamental function near the blastopore is poorly understood in other phyla. Cnidarians are basal metazoans that are important for understanding evolution of metazoan body plans [7, 8]. Because they lack mesoderm, they have been used to investigate the evolutionary origins of mesoderm [1, 9-11]. Here, we focus on corals, a primitive clade of cnidarians that diverged from sea anemones ∼500 mya [12]...
September 15, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Thomas G Dahlgren, Helena Wiklund, Muriel Rabone, Diva J Amon, Chiho Ikebe, Les Watling, Craig R Smith, Adrian G Glover
BACKGROUND: We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Thomas D Hawkins, Julia C G Hagemeyer, Mark E Warner
Symbioses between cnidarians and symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) are ecologically important and physiologically diverse. This diversity contributes to the spatial distribution of specific cnidarian-Symbiodinium associations. Physiological variability also exists within Symbiodinium species, yet we know little regarding its relevance for the establishment of symbiosis under different environmental conditions. Two putatively conspecific Symbiodinium strains (both ITS2-type A4) were isolated from the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida and placed into unialgal culture...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
We report here a novel approach for the extraction, isolation and culturing of intact ectodermal tissue layers from a model marine invertebrate, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. A methodology is described in which a brief exposure of the animal to the mucolytic agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) solution triggers the dislodging of the ectodermis from its underlying basement membrane and mesoglea. These extracted fragments of cell sheets adherent to culture-dish substrates, initially form 2D monolayers that are transformed within 24 h post-isolation into 3D structures...
September 13, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Francesca Gissi, Jennifer L Stauber, Monique T Binet, Lisa A Golding, Merrin S Adams, Christian E Schlekat, Emily R Garman, Dianne F Jolley
The South East Asian Melanesian (SEAM) region contains the world's largest deposits of nickel lateritic ores. Environmental impacts may occur if mining operations are not adequately managed. Effects data for tropical ecosystems are required to assess risks of contaminant exposure and to derive water quality guidelines (WQG) to manage these risks. Currently, risk assessment tools and WQGs for the tropics are limited due to the sparse research on how contaminants impact tropical biota. As part of a larger project to develop appropriate risk assessment tools to ensure sustainable nickel production in SEAM, nickel effects data were required...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Amos A Schaffer, Michael Bazarsky, Karine Levy, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Uri Gat
BACKGROUND: The ability of regeneration is essential for the homeostasis of all animals as it allows the repair and renewal of tissues and body parts upon normal turnover or injury. The extent of this ability varies greatly in different animals with the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a basal cnidarian model animal, displaying remarkable whole-body regeneration competence. RESULTS: In order to study this process in Nematostella we performed an RNA-Seq screen wherein we analyzed and compared the transcriptional response to bisection in the wound-proximal body parts undergoing oral (head) or aboral (tail) regeneration at several time points up to the initial restoration of the basic body shape...
2016: BMC Genomics
R B Clark, W R Giles
It is now well established that the slowly inactivating component of the Na(+) current (INa-L) in the mammalian heart is a significant regulator of the action potential waveform. This insight has led to detailed studies of the role of INa-L in a number of important and challenging pathophysiological settings. These include genetically based ventricular arrhythmias (LQT 1, 2, and 3), ventricular arrhythmias arising from progressive cardiomyopathies (including diabetic), and proarrhythmic abnormalities that develop during local or global ventricular ischemia...
2016: Current Topics in Membranes
Cheng-Yi Chiang, Cheng-Yung Lin, Yen-Ting Chen, Huai-Jen Tsai
Chromoproteins, especially far-red fluorescent proteins with long stokes shift, are good sources for engineering biological research tools. However, chromoproteins have not been used for developing fluorescent proteins with short emission wavelength. Therefore, we herein report the development of a blue fluorescent protein, termed shBFP, which is derived from a purple chromoprotein isolated from the sea anemone Stichodacyla haddoni (shCP) after shCP was simultaneously mutated on E63L and Y64L. The shBFP chromophore is composed of Leu-Leu-Gly, which introduced a maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 401 nm and 458 nm, respectively, and a quantum yield of 0...
August 29, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Chen Huang, Jean-Étienne Rl Morlighem, Hefeng Zhou, Érica P Lima, Paula B Gomes, Jing Cai, Inchio Lou, Carlos D Pérez, Simon Ming Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids...
October 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Takato Izumi, Kensuke Yanagi, Toshihiko Fujita
In the present study, we report the identification of a sea anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi, collected in the Seto Inland Sea, which represents a new genus and new species. This new species has unusual tentacle and mesenterial arrangements that have not been observed in other species of Haloclavidae. There are 12 regular marginal tentacles and two 'antenna tentacles,' with the latter always rising upward and located on the oral disk near the mouth; the species is also characterized by its peculiar mesenterial pairs, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme...
August 2016: Zoological Science
Alison E Murray, Frank R Rack, Robert Zook, Michael J M Williams, Mary L Higham, Michael Broe, Ronald S Kaufmann, Marymegan Daly
Edwardsiella andrillae is a sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) only known to live embedded in the ice at the seawater interface on the underside of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Although the anatomy and morphological characteristics of E. andrillae have been described, the adaptations of this species to the under-ice ecosystem have yet to be examined. One feature that may be important to the physiology and ecology of E. andrillae is its microbiome, which may play a role in health and survival, as has been deduced in other metazoans, including anthozoans...
October 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Pei-Ciao Tang, Karen Müller Smith, Glen M Watson
Mammalian hair cells possess only a limited ability to repair damage after trauma. In contrast, sea anemones show a marked capability to repair damaged hair bundles by means of secreted repair proteins (RPs). Previously, it was found that recovery of traumatized hair cells in blind cavefish was enhanced by anemone-derived RPs; therefore, the ability of anemone RPs to assist recovery of damaged hair cells in mammals was tested here. After a 1 h incubation in RP-enriched culture media, uptake of FM1-43 by experimentally traumatized murine cochlear hair cells was restored to levels comparable to those exhibited by healthy controls...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gabriel Otto Meissner, Pedro Túlio de Resende Lara, Luis Paulo Barbour Scott, Antônio Sérgio Kimus Braz, Daniele Chaves-Moreira, Fernando Hitomi Matsubara, Eduardo Mendonça Soares, Dilza Trevisan-Silva, Luiza Helena Gremski, Silvio Sanches Veiga, Olga Meiri Chaim
Inhibitor cystine knots (ICKs) are a family of structural peptides with a large number of cysteine residues that form intramolecular disulfide bonds, resulting in a knot. These peptides are involved in a variety of biological functions including predation and defense, and are found in various species, such as spiders, scorpions, sea anemones, and plants. The Loxosceles intermedia venom gland transcriptome identified five groups of ICK peptides that represent more than 50 % of toxin-coding transcripts. Here, we describe the molecular cloning of U2-Sicaritoxin-Lit2 (U2-SCRTX-Lit2), bioinformatic characterization, structure prediction, and molecular dynamic analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Sridharan Rajamani, Gongxin Liu, Nesrine El-Bizri, Donglin Guo, Cindy Li, Xiao-Liang Chen, Kristopher M Kahlig, Nevena Mollova, Elfatih Elzein, Jeff Zablocki, Luiz Belardinelli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enhanced late Na(+) current (late INa ) in the myocardium is pro-arrhythmic. Inhibition of this current is a promising strategy to stabilize ventricular repolarization and suppress arrhythmias. Here, we describe GS-6615, a selective inhibitor of late INa , already in clinical development for the treatment of long QT syndrome 3 (LQT3). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of GS-6615 to inhibit late INa , versus other ion currents to shorten the ventricular action potential duration (APD), monophasic APD (MAPD) and QT interval, and decrease to the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias was determined in rabbit cardiac preparations...
November 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Koldo Morante, Augusto Bellomio, David Gil-Cartón, Lorena Redondo-Morata, Jesús Sot, Simon Scheuring, Mikel Valle, Juan Manuel González-Mañas, Kouhei Tsumoto, Jose M M Caaveiro
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are cytolytic proteins belonging to the molecular warfare apparatus of living organisms. The assembly of the functional transmembrane pore requires several intermediate steps ranging from a water-soluble monomeric species to the multimeric ensemble inserted in the cell membrane. The non-lytic oligomeric intermediate known as prepore plays an essential role in the mechanism of insertion of the class of β-PFTs. However, in the class of α-PFTs, like the actinoporins produced by sea anemones, evidence of membrane-bound prepores is still lacking...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Luciana C Gusmão
The diversity of burrowing sea anemones from Brazil is poorly known with only three species recorded. Metapeachia schlenzae sp. nov. is described from specimens collected in the intertidal zone of São Sebastião and Cabo Frio in the southeastern coast of Brazil. Metapeachia schlenzae sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the second haloclavid recorded from Brazil. A comparison between Metapeachia schlenzae sp. nov. and Metapeachia tropica, the type species of the genus, is included. The two valid species of Metapeachia differ in the morphology of the conchula, internal anatomy, cnidae and geographical distribution...
2016: Zootaxa
Jason Macrander, Michael Broe, Marymegan Daly
Cnidarians represent one of the few groups of venomous animals that lack a centralized venom transmission system. Instead, they are equipped with stinging capsules collectively known as nematocysts. Nematocysts vary in abundance and type across different tissues; however, the venom composition in most species remains unknown. Depending on the tissue type, the venom composition in sea anemones may be vital for predation, defense, or digestion. Using a tissue-specific RNA-seq approach, we characterize the venom assemblage in the tentacles, mesenterial filaments, and column for three species of sea anemone (Anemonia sulcata, Heteractis crispa, and Megalactis griffithsi)...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
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