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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122675/high-throughput-method-for-extracting-and-visualizing-the-spatial-gene-expressions-from-in-situ-hybridization-images-a-case-study-of-the-early-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#1
A M Abdol, Andrew Bedard, Imke Lánský, J A Kaandorp
Studying the spatial gene expression profiles from in situ hybridization images of the embryo is one of the first steps toward the comprehensive understanding of gene interactions in an organism. In the case of N. vectensis, extracting and collecting these data is a challenging task due to the difficulty of detecting the cell layer through the transparent body plan and changing morphology during the blastula and gastrula stages. Here, first, we introduce a method to algorithmically identify and track the cell layer in N...
November 6, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109290/sea-anemone-model-has-a-single-toll-like-receptor-that-can-function-in-pathogen-detection-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-transduction-and-development
#2
Joseph J Brennan, Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Leah M Williams, Bryan J Matthews, Marinaliz Reynoso, Thomas D Gilmore
In organisms from insects to vertebrates, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are primary pathogen detectors that activate downstream pathways, specifically those that direct expression of innate immune effector genes. TLRs also have roles in development in many species. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a useful cnidarian model to study the origins of TLR signaling because its genome encodes a single TLR and homologs of many downstream signaling components, including the NF-κB pathway. We have characterized the single N...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888696/characterization-of-nvlwamide-like-neurons-reveals-stereotypy-in-nematostella-nerve-net-development
#3
Jamie A Havrilak, Dylan Faltine-Gonzalez, Yiling Wen, Daniella Fodera, Ayanna C Simpson, Craig R Magie, Michael J Layden
The organization of cnidarian nerve nets is traditionally described as diffuse with randomly arranged neurites that show minimal reproducibility between animals. However, most observations of nerve nets are conducted using cross-reactive antibodies that broadly label neurons, which potentially masks stereotyped patterns produced by individual neuronal subtypes. Additionally, many cnidarians species have overt structures such as a nerve ring, suggesting higher levels of organization and stereotypy exist, but mechanisms that generated that stereotypy are unknown...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878874/paxa-but-not-paxc-is-required-for-cnidocyte-development-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#4
Leslie S Babonis, Mark Q Martindale
BACKGROUND: Pax genes are a family of conserved transcription factors that regulate many aspects of developmental morphogenesis, notably the development of ectodermal sensory structures including eyes. Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, has numerous Pax orthologs, many of which are expressed early during embryogenesis. The function of Pax genes in this eyeless cnidarian is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we show that PaxA, but not PaxC, plays a critical role in the development of cnidocytes in N...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830546/the-use-of-primary-murine-fibroblasts-to-ascertain-if-spirocerca-lupi-secretory-excretory-protein-products-are-mitogenic-ex-vivo
#5
Kgomotso Sako, Ilse Jv Rensburg, Sarah Clift, Vinny Naidoo
BACKGROUND: Spirocerca lupi is a nematode that parasitizes vertebrates in particular canids, by forming nodules in the thoracic cavity specifically in the oesophagus. In 25% of Spirocerca infections of the domestic dog, nodules progress from inflammatory to pre-neoplastic to sarcomatous neoplasia. With the mechanism of neoplastic transformation being incompletely understood, this study investigates if S. lupi parasite proteinaceous secretory/excretory products (ESPs) play a role in the neoplastic transformation...
August 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827097/unipotent-progenitors-contribute-to-the-generation-of-sensory-cell-types-in-the-nervous-system-of-the-cnidarian-nematostella-vectensis
#6
Henriette Busengdal, Fabian Rentzsch
Nervous systems often consist of a large number of different types of neurons which are generated from neural stem and progenitor cells by a series of symmetric and asymmetric divisions. The origin and early evolution of these neural progenitor systems is not well understood. Here we use a cnidarian model organism, Nematostella vectensis, to gain insight into the generation of neural cell type diversity in a non-bilaterian animal. We identify NvFoxQ2d as a transcription factor that is expressed in a population of spatially restricted, proliferating ectodermal cells that are derived from NvSoxB(2)-expressing neural progenitor cells...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818668/a-bipolar-role-of-the-transcription-factor-erg-for-cnidarian-germ-layer-formation-and-apical-domain-patterning
#7
Aldine R Amiel, Hereroa Johnston, Taylor Chock, Paul Dahlin, Marta Iglesias, Michael Layden, Eric Röttinger, Mark Q Martindale
Germ layer formation and axial patterning are biological processes that are tightly linked during embryonic development of most metazoans. In addition to canonical WNT, it has been proposed that ERK-MAPK signaling is involved in specifying oral as well as aboral territories in cnidarians. However, the effector and the molecular mechanism underlying latter phenomenon is unknown. By screening for potential effectors of ERK-MAPK signaling in both domains, we identified a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, Nverg that is bi-polarily expressed prior to gastrulation...
October 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817121/meganuclease-assisted-generation-of-stable-transgenics-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#8
Eduard Renfer, Ulrich Technau
The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a model system used by a rapidly growing research community for comparative genomics, developmental biology and ecology. Here, we describe a microinjection procedure for creating stable transgenic lines in Nematostella based on meganuclease (I-SceI)-assisted integration of a transgenic cassette into the genome. The procedure describes the preparation of the reagents, microinjection of the transgenesis vector and the husbandry of transgenic animals. The microinjection setup differs from those of previously published protocols by the use of a holding capillary mounted on an inverted fluorescence microscope...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796817/histological-study-on-maturation-fertilization-and-the-state-of-gonadal-region-following-spawning-in-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#9
Elizabeth Moiseeva, Claudette Rabinowitz, Guy Paz, Baruch Rinkevich
The starlet sea-anemone Nematostella vectensis has emerged as a model organism in developmental biology. Still, our understanding of various biological features, including reproductive biology of this model species are in its infancy. Consequently, through histological sections, we study here key stages of the oogenesis (oocyte maturation/fertilization), as the state of the gonad region immediately after natural spawning. Germ cells develop in a secluded mesenterial gastrodermal zone, where the developing oocytes are surrounded by mucoid glandular cells and trophocytes (accessory cells)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783426/characterization-of-the-pirna-pathway-during-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#10
Daniela Praher, Bob Zimmermann, Grigory Genikhovich, Yaara Columbus-Shenkar, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Reuven Aharoni, Yehu Moran, Ulrich Technau
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and associated proteins comprise a conserved pathway for silencing transposons in metazoan germlines. piRNA pathway components are also expressed in multipotent somatic stem cells in various organisms. piRNA functions have been extensively explored in bilaterian model systems, however, comprehensive studies in non-bilaterian phyla remain limited. Here we investigate the piRNA pathway during the development of Nematostella vectensis, a well-established model system belonging to Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria...
August 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775320/modulation-of-activation-and-inactivation-by-ca-2-and-2-apb-in-the-pore-of-an-archetypal-trpm-channel-from-nematostella-vectensis
#11
Frank J P Kühn, Winking Mathis, Kühn Cornelia, Daniel C Hoffmann, Andreas Lückhoff
The archetypal TRPM2-like channel of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is gated by ADPR like its human orthologue but additionally exhibits properties of other vertebrate TRPM channels. Thus it can help towards an understanding of gating and regulation of the whole subfamily. To elucidate further the role of Ca(2+) as a co-factor of ADPR, we exploited 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB), previously shown to exert either inhibitory or stimulatory effects on diverse TRPM channels, or both in a concentration-dependent manner...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774820/identification-of-cyp443d1-cyp74-clan-of-nematostella-vectensis-as-a-first-cnidarian-epoxyalcohol-synthase-and-insights-into-its-catalytic-mechanism
#12
Yana Y Toporkova, Svetlana S Gorina, Fakhima K Mukhitova, Mats Hamberg, Tatyana M Ilyina, Lucia S Mukhtarova, Alexander N Grechkin
The CYP74 clan enzymes are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive oxylipins in higher plants, some Proteobacteria, brown and green algae, and Metazoa. A novel putative CYP74 clan gene CYP443D1 of the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Cnidaria) has been cloned, and the properties of the corresponding recombinant protein have been studied in the present work. The recombinant CYP443D1 was incubated with the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids (9-HPOD, 13-HPOD, 9-HPOT, and 13-HPOT, respectively), as well as with the 9-hydroperoxide of γ-linolenic acid (γ-9-HPOT) and 15-hydroperoxide of eicosapentaenoic acid (15-HPEPE)...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705897/cas9-mediated-excision-of-nematostella-brachyury-disrupts-endoderm-development-pharynx-formation-and-oral-aboral-patterning
#13
Marc D Servetnick, Bailey Steinworth, Leslie S Babonis, David Simmons, Miguel Salinas-Saavedra, Mark Q Martindale
The mesoderm is a key novelty in animal evolution, although we understand little of how the mesoderm arose. brachyury, the founding member of the T-box gene family, is a key gene in chordate mesoderm development. However, the brachyury gene was present in the common ancestor of fungi and animals long before mesoderm appeared. To explore ancestral roles of brachyury prior to the evolution of definitive mesoderm, we excised the gene using CRISPR/Cas9 in the diploblastic cnidarian Nematostella vectensisNvbrachyury is normally expressed in precursors of the pharynx, which separates endoderm from ectoderm...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662520/regulation-of-ap-1-by-mapk-signaling-in-metal-stressed-sea-anemone
#14
Maayan Agron, Vera Brekhman, David Morgenstern, Tamar Lotan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: AP-1 transcription factor plays a conserved role in the immediate response to stress. Activation of AP-1 members jun and fos is mediated by complex signaling cascades to control cell proliferation and survival. To understand the evolution of this broadly-shared pathway, we studied AP-1 regulation by MAPK signaling in a basal metazoan. METHODS: Metal- stressed cnidarian Nematostella vectensis anemones were tested with kinase inhibitors and analyzed for gene expression levels and protein phosphorylation...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652368/antagonistic-bmp-cwnt-signaling-in-the-cnidarian-nematostella-vectensis-reveals-insight-into-the-evolution-of-mesoderm
#15
Naveen Wijesena, David K Simmons, Mark Q Martindale
Gastrulation was arguably the key evolutionary innovation that enabled metazoan diversification, leading to the formation of distinct germ layers and specialized tissues. Differential gene expression specifying cell fate is governed by the inputs of intracellular and/or extracellular signals. Beta-catenin/Tcf and the TGF-beta bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) provide critical molecular signaling inputs during germ layer specification in bilaterian metazoans, but there has been no direct experimental evidence for a specific role for BMP signaling during endomesoderm specification in the early branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis (an anthozoan cnidarian)...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633361/evolution-of-mirna-tailing-by-3-terminal-uridylyl-transferases-in-metazoa
#16
Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Yehu Moran
In bilaterian animals the 3' ends of microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently modified by tailing and trimming. These modifications affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation by modulating miRNA stability. Here, we analyzed data from three nonbilaterian animals: two cnidarians (Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata) and one poriferan (Amphimedon queenslandica). Our analysis revealed that nonbilaterian miRNAs frequently undergo modifications like the bilaterian counterparts: the majority are expressed as different length isoforms and frequent modifications of the 3' end by mono U or mono A tailing are observed...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621408/a-brief-history-of-developmental-biology-in-israel
#17
Dalit Sela-Donenfeld, Dale Frank
While the history of developmental biology in Israel is relatively short, its impact is far-reaching, so we wanted to present a concise perspective on the Israeli developmental biology community, past-present-future. This community has undergone a wonderful, nearly exponential growth over the last three decades. How exactly did this happen? There are approximately fifty research groups that focus on developmental biology questions in Israel today that are members of the Israel Society of Developmental Biology (IsSDB; http://issdb...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602952/a-novel-technique-to-combine-and-analyse-spatial-and-temporal-expression-datasets-a-case-study-with-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis-to-identify-potential-gene-interactions
#18
Amir M Abdol, Eric Röttinger, Fredrik Jansson, Jaap A Kaandorp
Understanding genetic interactions during early development of a given organism, is the first step toward unveiling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern a biological process of interest. Predicting such interactions from large expression datasets by performing targeted knock-down/knock-out approaches is a challenging task. We use the currently available expression datasets (in situ hybridization images & qPCR time series) for a basal anthozoan the sea anemone N. vectensis to construct continuous spatiotemporal gene expression patterns during its early development...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601529/functional-studies-on-the-role-of-notch-signaling-in-hydractinia-development
#19
James M Gahan, Christine E Schnitzler, Timothy Q DuBuc, Liam B Doonan, Justyna Kanska, Sebastian G Gornik, Sofia Barreira, Kerry Thompson, Philipp Schiffer, Andreas D Baxevanis, Uri Frank
The function of Notch signaling was previously studied in two cnidarians, Hydra and Nematostella, representing the lineages Hydrozoa and Anthozoa, respectively. Using pharmacological inhibition in Hydra and a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches in Nematostella, it was shown in both animals that Notch is required for tentacle morphogenesis and for late stages of stinging cell maturation. Surprisingly, a role for Notch in neural development, which is well documented in bilaterians, was evident in embryonic Nematostella but not in adult Hydra...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457868/cell-cycle-coupled-oscillations-in-apical-polarity-and-intercellular-contact-maintain-order-in-embryonic-epithelia
#20
Katerina Ragkousi, Kendra Marr, Sean McKinney, Lacey Ellington, Matthew C Gibson
Throughout animals, embryonic cells must ultimately organize into polarized epithelial layers that provide the structural basis for gastrulation or subsequent developmental events [1]. Precisely how this primary epithelium maintains continuous integrity during rapid and repeated cell divisions has never been directly addressed, particularly in cases where early cleavages are driven in synchrony. Representing the early-branching non-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria, embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis undergo rapid synchronous cell divisions and ultimately give rise to a diploblastic epithelial body plan after gastrulation [2, 3]...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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