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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
November 23, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718022/erratum-to-in-vitro-cultures-of-ectodermal-monolayers-from-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#2
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623804/in-vitro-cultures-of-ectodermal-monolayers-from-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#3
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
We report here a novel approach for the extraction, isolation and culturing of intact ectodermal tissue layers from a model marine invertebrate, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. A methodology is described in which a brief exposure of the animal to the mucolytic agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) solution triggers the dislodging of the ectodermis from its underlying basement membrane and mesoglea. These extracted fragments of cell sheets adherent to culture-dish substrates, initially form 2D monolayers that are transformed within 24 h post-isolation into 3D structures...
September 13, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605362/a-transcriptional-time-course-analysis-of-oral-vs-aboral-whole-body-regeneration-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#4
Amos A Schaffer, Michael Bazarsky, Karine Levy, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Uri Gat
BACKGROUND: The ability of regeneration is essential for the homeostasis of all animals as it allows the repair and renewal of tissues and body parts upon normal turnover or injury. The extent of this ability varies greatly in different animals with the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a basal cnidarian model animal, displaying remarkable whole-body regeneration competence. RESULTS: In order to study this process in Nematostella we performed an RNA-Seq screen wherein we analyzed and compared the transcriptional response to bisection in the wound-proximal body parts undergoing oral (head) or aboral (tail) regeneration at several time points up to the initial restoration of the basic body shape...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604873/conservation-of-mirna-mediated-silencing-mechanisms-across-600-million-years-of-animal-evolution
#5
Marta Mauri, Marieluise Kirchner, Reuven Aharoni, Camilla Ciolli Mattioli, David van den Bruck, Nadya Gutkovitch, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Matthias Selbach, Yehu Moran, Marina Chekulaeva
Our current knowledge about the mechanisms of miRNA silencing is restricted to few lineages such as vertebrates, arthropods, nematodes and land plants. miRNA-mediated silencing in bilaterian animals is dependent on the proteins of the GW182 family. Here, we dissect the function of GW182 protein in the cnidarian Nematostella, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, we show that Nematostella GW182 recruits the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complexes via its tryptophan-containing motifs, thereby inhibiting translation and promoting mRNA decay...
September 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333281/adp-ribose-activates-the-trpm2-channel-from-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis-independently-of-the-nudt9h-domain
#6
Frank J P Kühn, Cornelia Kühn, Mathis Winking, Daniel C Hoffmann, Andreas Lückhoff
The human redox-sensitive Transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (hTRPM2) channel contains the C-terminal Nudix hydrolase domain NUDT9H which most likely binds ADP-ribose. During oxidative stress, the intracellular release of ADP-ribose triggers the activation of hTRPM2. The TRPM2 orthologue from Nematostella vectensis (nv) is also stimulated by ADP-ribose but not by the oxidant hydrogen peroxide. For further clarification of the structure-function relationships of these two distantly related channel orthologues, we performed whole-cell as well as single channel patch-clamp recordings, Ca2+-imaging and Western blot analysis after heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated channels in HEK-293 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318695/genomics-and-development-of-nematostella-vectensis-and-other-anthozoans
#7
Fabian Rentzsch, Ulrich Technau
Due to their rather simple body plan with only few organs and a low number of cell types, cnidarians have long been recognized as an important animal group for evolutionary comparisons of animal body plans. Recent studies have shown, however, that the genomes of cnidarians and their epigenetic and posttranscriptional regulation are more complex than their morphology might suggest. How these complex genomes are deployed during embryonic development is an open question. With a focus on the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis we describe new findings about the development of the nervous system from neural progenitor cells and how Wnt and BMP signalling control axial patterning...
June 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229764/pre-bilaterian-origin-of-the-blastoporal-axial-organizer
#8
Yulia Kraus, Andy Aman, Ulrich Technau, Grigory Genikhovich
The startling capacity of the amphibian Spemann organizer to induce naïve cells to form a Siamese twin embryo with a second set of body axes is one of the hallmarks of developmental biology. However, the axis-inducing potential of the blastopore-associated tissue is commonly regarded as a chordate feature. Here we show that the blastopore lip of a non-bilaterian metazoan, the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, possesses the same capacity and uses the same molecular mechanism for inducing extra axes as chordates: Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216622/do-novel-genes-drive-morphological-novelty-an-investigation-of-the-nematosomes-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#9
Leslie S Babonis, Mark Q Martindale, Joseph F Ryan
BACKGROUND: The evolution of novel genes is thought to be a critical component of morphological innovation but few studies have explicitly examined the contribution of novel genes to the evolution of novel tissues. Nematosomes, the free-floating cellular masses that circulate through the body cavity of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, are the defining apomorphy of the genus Nematostella and are a useful model for understanding the evolution of novel tissues. Although many hypotheses have been proposed, the function of nematosomes is unknown...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189570/characterization-of-the-cadherin-catenin-complex-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis-and-implications-for-the-evolution-of-metazoan-cell-cell-adhesion
#10
Donald Nathaniel Clarke, Phillip W Miller, Christopher J Lowe, William I Weis, William James Nelson
The cadherin-catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell-cell adhesion in bilaterian animals by linking extracellular cadherin-based adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is unknown whether the basic organization of the complex is conserved across all metazoans. We tested whether protein interactions and actin-binding properties of the CCC are conserved in a nonbilaterian animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis We demonstrated that N. vectensis has a complete repertoire of cadherin-catenin proteins, including two classical cadherins, one α-catenin, and one β-catenin...
August 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090806/glypican1-2-4-6-and-sulfated-glycosaminoglycans-regulate-the-patterning-of-the-primary-body-axis-in-the-cnidarian-nematostella-vectensis
#11
Markus Bause, Roddy van der Horst, Fabian Rentzsch
Glypicans are members of the heparan sulfate (HS) subfamily of proteoglycans that can function in cell adhesion, cell crosstalk and as modulators of the major developmental signalling pathways in bilaterians. The evolutionary origin of these multiple functions is not well understood. In this study we investigate the role of glypicans in the embryonic and larval development of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a member of the non-bilaterian clade Cnidaria. Nematostella has two glypican (gpc) genes that are expressed in mutually exclusive ectodermal domains, NvGpc1/2/4/6 in a broad aboral domain, and NvGpc3/5 in narrow oral territory...
June 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989171/development-of-the-aboral-domain-in-nematostella-requires-%C3%AE-catenin-and-the-opposing-activities-of-six3-6-and-frizzled5-8
#12
Lucas Leclère, Markus Bause, Chiara Sinigaglia, Julia Steger, Fabian Rentzsch
The development of the oral pole in cnidarians and the posterior pole in bilaterians is regulated by canonical Wnt signaling, whereas a set of transcription factors, including Six3/6 and FoxQ2, controls aboral development in cnidarians and anterior identity in bilaterians. However, it is poorly understood how these two patterning systems are initially set up in order to generate correct patterning along the primary body axis. Investigating the early steps of aboral pole formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, we found that, at blastula stage, oral genes are expressed before aboral genes and that Nvβ-catenin regulates both oral and aboral development...
May 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950882/distribution-of-cpg-motifs-in-upstream-gene-domains-in-a-reef-coral-and-sea-anemone-implications-for-epigenetics-in-cnidarians
#13
Adam G Marsh, Kenneth D Hoadley, Mark E Warner
Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924819/a-comparative-view-of-early-development-in-the-corals-favia-lizardensis-ctenactis-echinata-and-acropora-millepora-morphology-transcriptome-and-developmental-gene-expression
#14
Nami Okubo, David C Hayward, Sylvain Forêt, Eldon E Ball
BACKGROUND: Research into various aspects of coral biology has greatly increased in recent years due to anthropogenic threats to coral health including pollution, ocean warming and acidification. However, knowledge of coral early development has lagged. The present paper describes the embryonic development of two previously uncharacterized robust corals, Favia lizardensis (a massive brain coral) and Ctenactis echinata (a solitary coral) and compares it to that of the previously characterized complex coral, Acropora millepora, both morphologically and in terms of the expression of a set of key developmental genes...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26894563/the-rise-of-the-starlet-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis-as-a-model-system-to-investigate-development-and-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Michael J Layden, Fabian Rentzsch, Eric Röttinger
Reverse genetics and next-generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model system, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870755/proteome-wide-dataset-supporting-the-study-of-ancient-metazoan-macromolecular-complexes
#16
Sadhna Phanse, Cuihong Wan, Blake Borgeson, Fan Tu, Kevin Drew, Greg Clark, Xuejian Xiong, Olga Kagan, Julian Kwan, Alexandr Bezginov, Kyle Chessman, Swati Pal, Graham Cromar, Ophelia Papoulas, Zuyao Ni, Daniel R Boutz, Snejana Stoilova, Pierre C Havugimana, Xinghua Guo, Ramy H Malty, Mihail Sarov, Jack Greenblatt, Mohan Babu, W Brent Derry, Elisabeth R Tillier, John B Wallingford, John Parkinson, Edward M Marcotte, Andrew Emili
Our analysis examines the conservation of multiprotein complexes among metazoa through use of high resolution biochemical fractionation and precision mass spectrometry applied to soluble cell extracts from 5 representative model organisms Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and Homo sapiens. The interaction network obtained from the data was validated globally in 4 distant species (Xenopus laevis, Nematostella vectensis, Dictyostelium discoideum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and locally by targeted affinity-purification experiments...
March 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772201/daily-cycle-in-oxygen-consumption-by-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis-stephenson
#17
Amy E Maas, Ian T Jones, Adam M Reitzel, Ann M Tarrant
In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter...
2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747639/identification-and-characterization-of-an-apoptosis-stimulating-protein-of-p53-aspp-gene-from-branchiostoma-belcheri-insights-into-evolution-of-aspp-gene-family
#18
Xiaojun Song, Juan Du, Wei Zhu, Ping Jin, Fei Ma
The ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) protein family plays very key roles in apoptosis regulation, in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. However, the ASPP homologous gene has not been identified in amphioxus to date. Here, we identified and characterized an ASPP gene from Branchiostoma belcheri (designed as AmphiASPP) and extensively studied its evolution and roles involved in innate immunity. The results showed that the amphioxus genome has an ASPP homolog gene with an ORF of 3285 bp, encoding 1094 amino acids which contains ANK repeats and SK3 domain...
February 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26633371/characterization-of-morphological-and-cellular-events-underlying-oral-regeneration-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#19
Aldine R Amiel, Hereroa T Johnston, Karine Nedoncelle, Jacob F Warner, Solène Ferreira, Eric Röttinger
Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26555239/functional-characterization-of-cnidarian-hcn-channels-points-to-an-early-evolution-of-ih
#20
Emma C Baker, Michael J Layden, Damian B van Rossum, Bishoy Kamel, Monica Medina, Eboni Simpson, Timothy Jegla
HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence...
2015: PloS One
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