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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789526/hox-and-wnt-pattern-the-primary-body-axis-of-an-anthozoan-cnidarian-before-gastrulation
#1
Timothy Q DuBuc, Thomas B Stephenson, Amber Q Rock, Mark Q Martindale
Hox gene transcription factors are important regulators of positional identity along the anterior-posterior axis in bilaterian animals. Cnidarians (e.g., sea anemones, corals, and hydroids) are the sister group to the Bilateria and possess genes related to both anterior and central/posterior class Hox genes. Here we report a previously unrecognized domain of Hox expression in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, beginning at early blastula stages. We explore the relationship of two opposing Hox genes (NvAx6/NvAx1) expressed on each side of the blastula during early development...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784822/%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-mechanotransduction-dates-back-to-the-common-ancestor-of-cnidaria-and-bilateria
#2
Ekaterina Pukhlyakova, Andrew J Aman, Kareem Elsayad, Ulrich Technau
Although the genetic regulation of cellular differentiation processes is well established, recent studies have revealed the role of mechanotransduction on a variety of biological processes, including regulation of gene expression. However, it remains unclear how universal and widespread mechanotransduction is in embryonic development of animals. Here, we investigate mechanosensitive gene expression during gastrulation of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis , a cnidarian model organism. We show that the blastoporal marker gene brachyury is down-regulated by blocking myosin II-dependent gastrulation movements...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745897/structure-of-a-trpm2-channel-in-complex-with-ca-2-explains-unique-gating-regulation
#3
Zhe Zhang, Balázs Tóth, Andras Szollosi, Jue Chen, László Csanády
Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable cation channel required for immune cell activation, insulin secretion, and body heat control. TRPM2 is activated by cytosolic Ca2+ , phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate and ADP ribose. Here we present the ~3Å resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure of TRPM2 from Nematostella vectensis , 63% similar in sequence to human TRPM2, in the Ca2+ -bound closed state. Compared to other TRPM channels, TRPM2 exhibits unique structural features that correlate with its function...
May 10, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740401/predicted-bacterial-interactions-affect-in-vivo-microbial-colonization-dynamics-in-nematostella
#4
Hanna Domin, Yazmín H Zurita-Gutiérrez, Marco Scotti, Jann Buttlar, Ute Hentschel Humeida, Sebastian Fraune
The maintenance and resilience of host-associated microbiota during development is a fundamental process influencing the fitness of many organisms. Several host properties were identified as influencing factors on bacterial colonization, including the innate immune system, mucus composition, and diet. In contrast, the importance of bacteria-bacteria interactions on host colonization is less understood. Here, we use bacterial abundance data of the marine model organism Nematostella vectensis to reconstruct potential bacteria-bacteria interactions through co-occurrence networks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739837/nvertx-a-gene-expression-database-to-compare-embryogenesis-and-regeneration-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#5
Jacob F Warner, Vincent Guerlais, Aldine R Amiel, Hereroa Johnston, Karine Nedoncelle, Eric Röttinger
For over a century researchers have been comparing embryogenesis and regeneration hoping that lessons learned from embryonic development will unlock hidden regenerative potential. This problem has historically been a difficult one to investigate since the best regenerative model systems are poor embryonic models and vice versa. Recently however, this question has seen renewed interest as emerging models have allowed researchers to investigate these processes in the same organism. This interest has been further fueled by the advent of high-throughput transcriptomic analyses that provide virtual mountains of data...
May 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696514/characterizing-functional-differences-in-sea-anemone-hsp70-isoforms-using-budding-yeast
#6
Shawn J Waller, Laura E Knighton, Lenora M Crabtree, Abigail L Perkins, Adam M Reitzel, Andrew W Truman
Marine organisms experience abiotic stressors such as fluctuations in temperature, UV radiation, salinity, and oxygen concentration. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) assist in the response of cells to these stressors by refolding and maintaining the activity of damaged proteins. The well-conserved Hsp70 chaperone family is essential for cell viability as well as the response to stress. Organisms possess a variety of Hsp70 isoforms that differ slightly in amino acid sequence, yet very little is known about their functional relevance...
April 25, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623791/first-detailed-record-of-symbiosis-between-a-sea-anemone-and-homoscleromorph-sponge-with-a-description-of-tempuractis-rinkai-gen-et-sp-nov-cnidaria-anthozoa-actiniaria-edwardsiidae
#7
Takato Izumi, Yuji Ise, Kensuke Yanagi, Daisuke Shibata, Rei Ueshima
A new species in a new genus of sea anemone, Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov., was discovered at several localities along the temperate rocky shores of Japan. The new species is approximately 4 mm in length and has been assigned to family Edwardsiidae, because it has eight macrocnemes, lacks sphincter and basal muscles, and possesses rounded aboral end. The sea anemone, however, also has a peculiar body shape unlike that of any other known taxa. This new species resembles some genera, especially Drillactis and Nematostella, in smooth column surface without nemathybomes or tenaculi, but is distinguishable from them by several morphological features: the presence of holotrichs and absence of nematosomes...
April 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605490/transcriptome-wide-analysis-of-differential-gene-expression-in-response-to-light-dark-cycles-in-a-model-cnidarian
#8
W B Leach, J Macrander, R Peres, A M Reitzel
Animals respond to diurnal shifts in their environment with a combination of behavioral, physiological, and molecular changes to synchronize with regularly-timed external cues. Reproduction, movement, and metabolism in cnidarians have all been shown to be regulated by diurnal lighting, but the molecular mechanisms that may be responsible for these phenotypes remain largely unknown. The starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, has oscillating patterns of locomotion and respiration, as well as the molecular components of a putative circadian clock that may provide a mechanism for these light-induced responses...
March 22, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567405/phylogenetic-analysis-of-cnidarian-peroxiredoxins-and-stress-responsive-expression-in-the-estuarine-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#9
Rebecca R Helm, Maria Laura Martín-Díaz, Ann M Tarrant
Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes present in all domains of life. To date, the diversity and function of peroxiredoxins within animals has only been studied in a few model species. Thus, we sought to characterize peroxiredoxin diversity in cnidarians and to gain insight into their function in one cnidarian-the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis using all six known PRX subfamilies (PRX1-4, PRX5, PRX6, PRXQ/AHPE1, TPX, BCP-PRXQ) revealed that like bilaterians, cnidarians contain representatives from three subfamilies (PRX1-4, PRX5, PRX6)...
March 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482548/an-adaptable-chromosome-preparation-methodology-for-use-in-invertebrate-research-organisms
#10
Longhua Guo, Alice Accorsi, Shuonan He, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Shamilene Sivagnanam, Sean McKinney, Matthew Gibson, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
BACKGROUND: The ability to efficiently visualize and manipulate chromosomes is fundamental to understanding the genome architecture of organisms. Conventional chromosome preparation protocols developed for mammalian cells and those relying on species-specific conditions are not suitable for many invertebrates. Hence, a simple and inexpensive chromosome preparation protocol, adaptable to multiple invertebrate species, is needed. RESULTS: We optimized a chromosome preparation protocol and applied it to several planarian species (phylum Platyhelminthes), the freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (phylum Mollusca), and the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria)...
February 26, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442315/cnidarian-zic-genes
#11
Michael J Layden
To understand the ancestral and evolved roles of zic homologs, it is important to reconstruct the putative roles of ancient zic homologs in the animal phylogeny. Most studies of zic genes have been conducted in model systems that are members of the bilaterian phylum. However, two additional phyla have zic homologs encoded in their genomes. The three animal phyla that contain zic homologs all share a common ancestor and collectively are termed the parahoxozoans (cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish), placozoans (Trichoplax adhaerens), and bilaterians (chordates, insects, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, etc...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424690/dynamics-of-venom-composition-across-a-complex-life-cycle
#12
Yaara Y Columbus-Shenkar, Maria Y Sachkova, Jason Macrander, Arie Fridrich, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Adam M Reitzel, Kartik Sunagar, Yehu Moran
Little is known about venom in young developmental stages of animals. The appearance of toxins and stinging cells during early embryonic stages in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis suggests that venom is already expressed in eggs and larvae of this species. Here, we harness transcriptomic, biochemical and transgenic tools to study venom production dynamics in Nematostella . We find that venom composition and arsenal of toxin-producing cells change dramatically between developmental stages of this species...
February 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373572/intraspecific-variation-in-oxidative-stress-tolerance-in-a-model-cnidarian-differences-in-peroxide-sensitivity-between-and-within-populations-of-nematostella-vectensis
#13
Lauren E Friedman, Thomas D Gilmore, John R Finnerty
Nematostella vectensis is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, a lineage that includes anemones, corals, hydras, and jellyfishes. This estuarine anemone is an excellent model system for investigating the evolution of stress tolerance because it is easy to collect in its natural habitat and to culture in the laboratory, and it has a sequenced genome. Additionally, there is evidence of local adaptation to environmental stress in different N. vectensis populations, and abundant protein-coding polymorphisms have been identified, including polymorphisms in proteins that are implicated in stress responses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336831/ultraviolet-radiation-significantly-enhances-the-molecular-response-to-dispersant-and-sweet-crude-oil-exposure-in-nematostella-vectensis
#14
Ann M Tarrant, Samantha L Payton, Adam M Reitzel, Danielle T Porter, Matthew J Jenny
Estuarine organisms are subjected to combinations of anthropogenic and natural stressors, which together can reduce an organisms' ability to respond to either stress or can potentiate or synergize the cellular impacts for individual stressors. Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone) is a useful model for investigating novel and evolutionarily conserved cellular and molecular responses to environmental stress. Using RNA-seq, we assessed global changes in gene expression in Nematostella in response to dispersant and/or sweet crude oil exposure alone or combined with ultraviolet radiation (UV)...
March 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324689/characterization-of-translationally-controlled-tumour-protein-from-the-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis-and-transcriptome-wide-identification-of-cnidarian-homologues
#15
Aldo Nicosia, Carmelo Bennici, Girolama Biondo, Salvatore Costa, Marilena Di Natale, Tiziana Masullo, Calogera Monastero, Maria Antonietta Ragusa, Marcello Tagliavia, Angela Cuttitta
Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis . The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera , Exaiptasia pallida , Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure...
January 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185520/gut-like-ectodermal-tissue-in-a-sea-anemone-challenges-germ-layer-homology
#16
Patrick R H Steinmetz, Andy Aman, Johanna E M Kraus, Ulrich Technau
Cnidarians (for example, sea anemones and jellyfish) develop from an outer ectodermal and inner endodermal germ layer, whereas bilaterians (for example, vertebrates and flies) additionally have a mesodermal layer as intermediate germ layer. Currently, cnidarian endoderm (that is, 'mesendoderm') is considered homologous to both bilaterian endoderm and mesoderm. Here we test this hypothesis by studying the fate of germ layers, the localization of gut cell types, and the expression of numerous 'endodermal' and 'mesodermal' transcription factor orthologues in the anthozoan sea anemone Nematostella vectensis...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163217/different-principles-of-adp-ribose-mediated-activation-and-opposite-roles-of-the-nudt9-homology-domain-in-the-trpm2-orthologs-of-man-and-sea-anemone
#17
REVIEW
Frank Kühn, Cornelia Kühn, Andreas Lückhoff
A decisive element in the human cation channel TRPM2 is a region in its cytosolic C-terminus named NUDT9H because of its homology to the NUDT9 enzyme, a pyrophosphatase degrading ADP-ribose (ADPR). In h TRPM2, however, the NUDT9H domain has lost its enzymatic activity but serves as a binding domain for ADPR. As consequence of binding, gating of the channel is initiated. Since ADPR is produced after oxidative DNA damage, h TRPM2 mediates Ca2+ influx in response to oxidative stress which may lead to cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122675/high-throughput-method-for-extracting-and-visualizing-the-spatial-gene-expressions-from-in-situ-hybridization-images-a-case-study-of-the-early-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#18
A M Abdol, Andrew Bedard, Imke Lánský, J A Kaandorp
Studying the spatial gene expression profiles from in situ hybridization images of the embryo is one of the first steps toward the comprehensive understanding of gene interactions in an organism. In the case of N. vectensis, extracting and collecting these data is a challenging task due to the difficulty of detecting the cell layer through the transparent body plan and changing morphology during the blastula and gastrula stages. Here, first, we introduce a method to algorithmically identify and track the cell layer in N...
January 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109290/sea-anemone-model-has-a-single-toll-like-receptor-that-can-function-in-pathogen-detection-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-transduction-and-development
#19
Joseph J Brennan, Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Leah M Williams, Bryan J Matthews, Marinaliz Reynoso, Thomas D Gilmore
In organisms from insects to vertebrates, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are primary pathogen detectors that activate downstream pathways, specifically those that direct expression of innate immune effector genes. TLRs also have roles in development in many species. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a useful cnidarian model to study the origins of TLR signaling because its genome encodes a single TLR and homologs of many downstream signaling components, including the NF-κB pathway. We have characterized the single N...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888696/characterization-of-nvlwamide-like-neurons-reveals-stereotypy-in-nematostella-nerve-net-development
#20
Jamie A Havrilak, Dylan Faltine-Gonzalez, Yiling Wen, Daniella Fodera, Ayanna C Simpson, Craig R Magie, Michael J Layden
The organization of cnidarian nerve nets is traditionally described as diffuse with randomly arranged neurites that show minimal reproducibility between animals. However, most observations of nerve nets are conducted using cross-reactive antibodies that broadly label neurons, which potentially masks stereotyped patterns produced by individual neuronal subtypes. Additionally, many cnidarians species have overt structures such as a nerve ring, suggesting higher levels of organization and stereotypy exist, but mechanisms that generated that stereotypy are unknown...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
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