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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817121/meganuclease-assisted-generation-of-stable-transgenics-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#1
Eduard Renfer, Ulrich Technau
The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a model system used by a rapidly growing research community for comparative genomics, developmental biology and ecology. Here, we describe a microinjection procedure for creating stable transgenic lines in Nematostella based on meganuclease (I-SceI)-assisted integration of a transgenic cassette into the genome. The procedure describes the preparation of the reagents, microinjection of the transgenesis vector and the husbandry of transgenic animals. The microinjection setup differs from those of previously published protocols by the use of a holding capillary mounted on an inverted fluorescence microscope...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796817/histological-study-on-maturation-fertilization-and-the-state-of-gonadal-region-following-spawning-in-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#2
Elizabeth Moiseeva, Claudette Rabinowitz, Guy Paz, Baruch Rinkevich
The starlet sea-anemone Nematostella vectensis has emerged as a model organism in developmental biology. Still, our understanding of various biological features, including reproductive biology of this model species are in its infancy. Consequently, through histological sections, we study here key stages of the oogenesis (oocyte maturation/fertilization), as the state of the gonad region immediately after natural spawning. Germ cells develop in a secluded mesenterial gastrodermal zone, where the developing oocytes are surrounded by mucoid glandular cells and trophocytes (accessory cells)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783426/characterization-of-the-pirna-pathway-during-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#3
Daniela Praher, Bob Zimmermann, Grigory Genikhovich, Yaara Columbus-Shenkar, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Reuven Aharoni, Yehu Moran, Ulrich Technau
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and associated proteins comprise a conserved pathway for silencing transposons in metazoan germlines. piRNA pathway components are also expressed in multipotent somatic stem cells in various organisms. piRNA functions have been extensively explored in bilaterian model systems, however, comprehensive studies in non-bilaterian phyla remain limited. Here we investigate the piRNA pathway during the development of Nematostella vectensis, a well-established model system belonging to Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria...
August 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775320/modulation-of-activation-and-inactivation-by-ca-2-and-2-apb-in-the-pore-of-an-archetypal-trpm-channel-from-nematostella-vectensis
#4
Frank J P Kühn, Winking Mathis, Kühn Cornelia, Daniel C Hoffmann, Andreas Lückhoff
The archetypal TRPM2-like channel of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is gated by ADPR like its human orthologue but additionally exhibits properties of other vertebrate TRPM channels. Thus it can help towards an understanding of gating and regulation of the whole subfamily. To elucidate further the role of Ca(2+) as a co-factor of ADPR, we exploited 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB), previously shown to exert either inhibitory or stimulatory effects on diverse TRPM channels, or both in a concentration-dependent manner...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774820/identification-of-cyp443d1-cyp74-clan-of-nematostella-vectensis-as-a-first-cnidarian-epoxyalcohol-synthase-and-insights-into-its-catalytic-mechanism
#5
Yana Y Toporkova, Svetlana S Gorina, Fakhima K Mukhitova, Mats Hamberg, Tatyana M Ilyina, Lucia S Mukhtarova, Alexander N Grechkin
The CYP74 clan enzymes are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive oxylipins in higher plants, some Proteobacteria, brown and green algae, and Metazoa. A novel putative CYP74 clan gene CYP443D1 of the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Cnidaria) has been cloned, and the properties of the corresponding recombinant protein have been studied in the present work. The recombinant CYP443D1 was incubated with the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids (9-HPOD, 13-HPOD, 9-HPOT, and 13-HPOT, respectively), as well as with the 9-hydroperoxide of γ-linolenic acid (γ-9-HPOT) and 15-hydroperoxide of eicosapentaenoic acid (15-HPEPE)...
August 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705897/cas9-mediated-excision-of-nematostella-brachyury-disrupts-endoderm-development-pharynx-formation-and-oral-aboral-patterning
#6
Marc D Servetnick, Bailey Steinworth, Leslie S Babonis, David Simmons, Miguel Salinas-Saavedra, Mark Q Martindale
The mesoderm is a key novelty in animal evolution, although we understand little of how the mesoderm arose. brachyury, the founding member of the T-box gene family, is a key gene in chordate mesoderm development. However, the brachyury gene was present in the common ancestor of fungi and animals long before mesoderm appeared. To explore ancestral roles of brachyury prior to the evolution of definitive mesoderm, we excised the gene using CRISPR/Cas9 in the diploblastic cnidarian Nematostella vectensisNvbrachyury is normally expressed in precursors of the pharynx, which separates endoderm from ectoderm...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662520/regulation-of-ap-1-by-mapk-signaling-in-metal-stressed-sea-anemone
#7
Maayan Agron, Vera Brekhman, David Morgenstern, Tamar Lotan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: AP-1 transcription factor plays a conserved role in the immediate response to stress. Activation of AP-1 members jun and fos is mediated by complex signaling cascades to control cell proliferation and survival. To understand the evolution of this broadly-shared pathway, we studied AP-1 regulation by MAPK signaling in a basal metazoan. METHODS: Metal- stressed cnidarian Nematostella vectensis anemones were tested with kinase inhibitors and analyzed for gene expression levels and protein phosphorylation...
June 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652368/antagonistic-bmp-cwnt-signaling-in-the-cnidarian-nematostella-vectensis-reveals-insight-into-the-evolution-of-mesoderm
#8
Naveen Wijesena, David K Simmons, Mark Q Martindale
Gastrulation was arguably the key evolutionary innovation that enabled metazoan diversification, leading to the formation of distinct germ layers and specialized tissues. Differential gene expression specifying cell fate is governed by the inputs of intracellular and/or extracellular signals. Beta-catenin/Tcf and the TGF-beta bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) provide critical molecular signaling inputs during germ layer specification in bilaterian metazoans, but there has been no direct experimental evidence for a specific role for BMP signaling during endomesoderm specification in the early branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis (an anthozoan cnidarian)...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633361/evolution-of-mirna-tailing-by-3-terminal-uridylyl-transferases-in-metazoa
#9
Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Yehu Moran
In bilaterian animals the 3' ends of microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently modified by tailing and trimming. These modifications affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation by modulating miRNA stability. Here we analyzed data from three non-bilaterian animals: two cnidarians (Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata) and one poriferan (Amphimedon queenslandica). Our analysis revealed that non-bilaterian miRNAs frequently undergo modifications like the bilaterian counterparts: the majority are expressed as different length isoforms and frequent modifications of the 3' end by mono U or mono A tailing are observed...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621408/a-brief-history-of-developmental-biology-in-israel
#10
Dalit Sela-Donenfeld, Dale Frank
While the history of developmental biology in Israel is relatively short, its impact is far-reaching, so we wanted to present a concise perspective on the Israeli developmental biology community, past-present-future. This community has undergone a wonderful, nearly exponential growth over the last three decades. How exactly did this happen? There are approximately fifty research groups that focus on developmental biology questions in Israel today that are members of the Israel Society of Developmental Biology (IsSDB; http://issdb...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602952/a-novel-technique-to-combine-and-analyse-spatial-and-temporal-expression-datasets-a-case-study-with-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis-to-identify-potential-gene-interactions
#11
Amir M Abdol, Eric Röttinger, Fredrik Jansson, Jaap A Kaandorp
Understanding genetic interactions during early development of a given organism, is the first step toward unveiling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern a biological process of interest. Predicting such interactions from large expression datasets by performing targeted knock-down/knock-out approaches is a challenging task. We use the currently available expression datasets (in situ hybridization images & qPCR time series) for a basal anthozoan the sea anemone N. vectensis to construct continuous spatiotemporal gene expression patterns during its early development...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601529/functional-studies-on-the-role-of-notch-signaling-in-hydractinia-development
#12
James M Gahan, Christine E Schnitzler, Timothy Q DuBuc, Liam B Doonan, Justyna Kanska, Sebastian G Gornik, Sofia Barreira, Kerry Thompson, Philipp Schiffer, Andreas D Baxevanis, Uri Frank
The function of Notch signaling was previously studied in two cnidarians, Hydra and Nematostella, representing the lineages Hydrozoa and Anthozoa, respectively. Using pharmacological inhibition in Hydra and a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches in Nematostella, it was shown in both animals that Notch is required for tentacle morphogenesis and for late stages of stinging cell maturation. Surprisingly, a role for Notch in neural development, which is well documented in bilaterians, was evident in embryonic Nematostella but not in adult Hydra...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457868/cell-cycle-coupled-oscillations-in-apical-polarity-and-intercellular-contact-maintain-order-in-embryonic-epithelia
#13
Katerina Ragkousi, Kendra Marr, Sean McKinney, Lacey Ellington, Matthew C Gibson
Throughout animals, embryonic cells must ultimately organize into polarized epithelial layers that provide the structural basis for gastrulation or subsequent developmental events [1]. Precisely how this primary epithelium maintains continuous integrity during rapid and repeated cell divisions has never been directly addressed, particularly in cases where early cleavages are driven in synchrony. Representing the early-branching non-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria, embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis undergo rapid synchronous cell divisions and ultimately give rise to a diploblastic epithelial body plan after gastrulation [2, 3]...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315771/evidence-for-two-populations-of-hair-bundles-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#14
Shelcie S Menard, Glen M Watson
Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length...
June 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286876/diversity-as-opportunity-insights-from-600-million-years-of-ahr-evolution
#15
Mark E Hahn, Sibel I Karchner, Rebeka R Merson
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was for many years of interest only to pharmacologists and toxicologists. However, this protein has fundamental roles in biology that are being revealed through studies in diverse animal species. The AHR is an ancient protein. AHR homologs exist in most major groups of modern bilaterian animals, including deuterostomes (chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms) and the two major clades of protostome invertebrates [ecdysozoans (e.g. arthropods and nematodes) and lophotrochozoans (e...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117771/inducing-complete-polyp-regeneration-from-the-aboral-physa-of-the-starlet-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#16
Patricia Bossert, Gerald H Thomsen
Cnidarians, and specifically Hydra, were the first animals shown to regenerate damaged or severed structures, and indeed such studies arguably launched modern biological inquiry through the work of Trembley more than 250 years ago. Presently the study of regeneration has seen a resurgence using both "classic" regenerative organisms, such as the Hydra, planaria and Urodeles, as well as a widening spectrum of species spanning the range of metazoa, from sponges through mammals. Besides its intrinsic interest as a biological phenomenon, understanding how regeneration works in a variety of species will inform us about whether regenerative processes share common features and/or species or context-specific cellular and molecular mechanisms...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941639/evolution-of-the-cytolytic-pore-forming-proteins-actinoporins-in-sea-anemones
#17
Jason Macrander, Marymegan Daly
Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria) use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach to investigate how actinoporins have evolved across three superfamilies of sea anemones (Actinioidea, Metridioidea, and Actinostoloidea)...
December 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718022/erratum-to-in-vitro-cultures-of-ectodermal-monolayers-from-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#19
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623804/in-vitro-cultures-of-ectodermal-monolayers-from-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#20
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
We report here a novel approach for the extraction, isolation and culturing of intact ectodermal tissue layers from a model marine invertebrate, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. A methodology is described in which a brief exposure of the animal to the mucolytic agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) solution triggers the dislodging of the ectodermis from its underlying basement membrane and mesoglea. These extracted fragments of cell sheets adherent to culture-dish substrates, initially form 2D monolayers that are transformed within 24 h post-isolation into 3D structures...
December 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
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