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Iliona Wolfowicz, Sebastian Baumgarten, Philipp A Voss, Elizabeth A Hambleton, Christian R Voolstra, Masayuki Hatta, Annika Guse
Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear...
2016: Scientific Reports
Angela Z Poole, Sheila A Kitchen, Virginia M Weis
The complement system is an innate immune pathway that in vertebrates, is responsible for initial recognition and ultimately phagocytosis and destruction of microbes. Several complement molecules including C3, Factor B, and mannose binding lectin associated serine proteases (MASP) have been characterized in invertebrates and while most studies have focused on their conserved role in defense against pathogens, little is known about their role in managing beneficial microbes. The purpose of this study was to (1) characterize complement pathway genes in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, (2) investigate the evolution of complement genes in invertebrates, and (3) examine the potential dual role of complement genes Factor B and MASP in the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and immune challenge using qPCR based studies...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tamaki Bieri, Masayuki Onishi, Tingting Xiang, Arthur R Grossman, John R Pringle
When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae...
2016: PloS One
Emily S Bellis, Dana K Howe, Dee R Denver
BACKGROUND: Coral reef ecosystems are declining in response to global climate change and anthropogenic impacts. Yet patterns of standing genetic variation within cnidarian species, a major determinant of adaptive potential, are virtually unknown at genome-scale resolution. We explore patterns of genome-wide polymorphism and identify candidate loci under selection in the sea anemone Aiptasia, an important laboratory model system for studying the symbiosis between corals and dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium...
2016: BMC Genomics
Madeline Bucher, Iliona Wolfowicz, Philipp A Voss, Elizabeth A Hambleton, Annika Guse
Symbiosis between photosynthetic algae and heterotrophic organisms is widespread. One prominent example of high ecological relevance is the endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and reef-building corals, which typically acquire symbionts anew each generation during larval stages. The tropical sea anemone Aiptasia sp. is a laboratory model system for this endosymbiosis and, similar to corals, produces non-symbiotic larvae that establish symbiosis by phagocytosing Symbiodinium from the environment into the endoderm...
2016: Scientific Reports
Clinton A Oakley, Michael F Ameismeier, Lifeng Peng, Virginia M Weis, Arthur R Grossman, Simon K Davy
Coral reef ecosystems are metabolically founded on the mutualism between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. The glass anemone Aiptasia sp. has become a tractable model for this symbiosis, and recent advances in genetic information have enabled the use of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in this model. We utilized label-free liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the effects of symbiosis on the proteomes of symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aiptasia...
July 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Katie E Hillyer, Sergey Tumanov, Silas Villas-Bôas, Simon K Davy
Bleaching (dinoflagellate symbiont loss) is one of the greatest threats facing coral reefs. The functional cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, which forms coral reefs, is based on the bi-directional exchange of nutrients. During thermal stress this exchange breaks down; however, major gaps remain in our understanding of the roles of free metabolite pools in symbiosis and homeostasis. In this study we applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to explore thermally induced changes in intracellular pools of amino and non-amino organic acids in each partner of the model sea anemone Aiptasia sp...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jennifer L Matthews, Ashley E Sproles, Clinton A Oakley, Arthur R Grossman, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Experimental manipulation of the symbiosis between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) is crucial to advancing the understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in host-symbiont interactions, and overall coral reef ecology. The anemone Aiptasia sp. is a model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, and notably it can be rendered aposymbiotic (i.e. dinoflagellate-free) and re-infected with a range of Symbiodinium types. Various methods exist for generating aposymbiotic hosts; however, they can be hugely time consuming and not wholly effective...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Liping Wang, Xiaoyi Li, Dong Hu, Qiliang Lai, Zongze Shao
A novel bacterial strain, designated S2-2T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Xiapu, Fujian province, China. Strain S2-2T was found to be aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, pale yellow, rod-shaped, oxidase- and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-36 °C (optimum, 25-32 °C), in the presence of 2-7% sea salt (w/v, optimum, 3-5%) and at pH 6-9 (optimum, pH 7.0). The isolate was able to hydrolyse gelatin, casein and DNA, but unable to degrade Tween 20, 40 and 80, starch and cellulose...
December 2015: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sebastian Baumgarten, Oleg Simakov, Lisl Y Esherick, Yi Jin Liew, Erik M Lehnert, Craig T Michell, Yong Li, Elizabeth A Hambleton, Annika Guse, Matt E Oates, Julian Gough, Virginia M Weis, Manuel Aranda, John R Pringle, Christian R Voolstra
The most diverse marine ecosystems, coral reefs, depend upon a functional symbiosis between a cnidarian animal host (the coral) and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this endosymbiosis are not well understood, in part because of the difficulties of experimental work with corals. The small sea anemone Aiptasia provides a tractable laboratory model for investigating these mechanisms. Here we report on the assembly and analysis of the Aiptasia genome, which will provide a foundation for future studies and has revealed several features that may be key to understanding the evolution and function of the endosymbiosis...
September 22, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Po-Ching Song, Tsung-Meng Wu, Ming-Chang Hong, Ming-Chyuan Chen
Coral bleaching is the consequence of disruption of the mutualistic Cnidaria-dinoflagellate association. Elevated seawater temperatures have been proposed as the most likely cause of coral bleaching whose severity is enhanced by a limitation in the bioavailability of iron. Iron is required by numerous organisms including the zooxanthellae residing inside the symbiosome of cnidarian cells. However, the knowledge of how symbiotic zooxanthellae obtain iron from the host cells and how elevated water temperature affects the association is very limited...
October 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
P L Howe, A J Reichelt-Brushett, R Krassoi, T Micevska
The sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida (formally Aiptasia pulchella) has been identified as a valuable test species for tropical marine ecotoxicology. Here, the sensitivities of newly developed endpoints for E. pallida to two unidentified whole effluents were compared to a standard suite of temperate toxicity test species and endpoints that are commonly used in toxicological risk assessments for tropical marine environments. For whole effluent 1 (WE1), a 96-h lethal concentration 50 % (LC50) of 40 (95 % confidence intervals, 30-54) % v/v and a 12-day LC50 of 12 (9-15) % v/v were estimated for E...
September 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Miguel C Leal, Kenneth Hoadley, D Tye Pettay, Alejandro Grajales, Ricardo Calado, Mark E Warner
The association between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium is a prevalent relationship in tropical and subtropical marine environments. Although the diversity of Symbiodinium provides a possible axis for niche diversification, increased functional range and resilience to physical stressors such as elevated temperature, how such diversity relates to the physiological balance between autotrophy and heterotrophy of the host animal remains unknown. Here, we experimentally show interspecific and intraspecific variability of photosynthetic carbon fixation and subsequent translocation by Symbiodinium to the model cnidarian host Aiptasia pallida...
March 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jörg Frommlet, Bárbara Guimarães, Lígia Sousa, João Serôdio, Artur Alves
A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain SYM1(T), was isolated from a culture of Symbiodinium sp., an algal symbiont of the sea anemone Aiptasia tagetes collected in Puerto Rico. Growth was observed at 4-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and with 0.5-8 % (optimum 2 %) (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SYM1(T) was a member of the genus Neptunomonas with the type strain of Neptunomonas naphthovorans as the closest phylogenetic relative with a pairwise sequence similarity of 98...
March 2015: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Pelli L Howe, Amanda J Reichelt-Brushett, Malcolm W Clark
Currently few studies present sub-lethal toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there are no routine toxicity tests using marine cnidarians. The symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella has been identified as a useful species for ecotoxicological risk assessment, and would provide a tropical marine cnidarian representative. Chronic sub-lethal toxicity tests assessing the effects of 28-day trace metal exposure on asexual reproduction in A. pulchella were investigated, and concentration-dependant reductions in the number of offspring that were produced were evident for all metal exposures...
November 2014: Ecotoxicology
Li-Chi Weng, Buntora Pasaribu, I-Ping Lin, Ching-Hsiu Tsai, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Pei-Luen Jiang
The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example...
2014: Scientific Reports
Alejandro Grajales, Estefanía Rodríguez
Sea anemones of the genus Aiptasia Gosse, 1858 are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments worldwide and serve as a model system for studies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. However, to date there have been no comprehensive analyses investigating the systematics of the group. In addition, previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones have shown that the genus is not monophyletic. Herein we revise the genus Aiptasia and the family Aiptasiidae Carlgren, 1924 using newly-collected material...
2014: Zootaxa
Cory J Krediet, Julie L Meyer, Nicholas Gimbrone, Roy Yanong, Ilze Berzins, Ali Alagely, Herman Castro, Kim B Ritchie, Valerie J Paul, Max Teplitski
Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A. pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues...
June 2014: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Rachel Armoza-Zvuloni, Esti Kramarsky-Winter, Yossi Loya, Ami Schlesinger, Hanna Rosenfeld
Reproductive development of anthozoans reveals wide range of breeding strategies. Here, we report the occurrence of trioecy in the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana (co-occurrence of males, females, and hermaphrodites), which so far was well documented only in plants. Age-homogeneous populations were obtained from pedal lacerates (asexual propagules) and cultured under control conditions. Careful documentation of growth, gamete morphology, and vertebrate-like steroid (i.e., progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol) levels were carried out over a 9-wk period between 4 and 12 wk postlaceration (wpl)...
June 2014: Biology of Reproduction
Nir Nesher, Eliahu Zlotkin, Binyamin Hochner
AdE-1, a cardiotonic peptide recently isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana, contains 44 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 4907 Da. It was previously found to resemble other sea anemone type 1 and 2 Na+ channel toxins, enhancing contractions of rat cardiomyocytes and slowing their twitch relaxation; however, it did not induce spontaneous twitches. AdE-1 increased the duration of the cardiomyocyte action potential and decreased its amplitude and its time-to-peak in a concentration-dependent manner, without affecting its threshold and cell resting potential...
July 1, 2014: Biochemical Journal
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