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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919883/a-pcr-based-assay-targeting-the-major-capsid-protein-gene-of-a-dinorna-like-ssrna-virus-that-infects-coral-photosymbionts
#1
Jose Montalvo-Proaño, Patrick Buerger, Karen D Weynberg, Madeleine J H van Oppen
The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching), and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915923/season-but-not-symbiont-state-drives-microbiome-structure-in-the-temperate-coral-astrangia-poculata
#2
Koty H Sharp, Zoe A Pratte, Allison H Kerwin, Randi D Rotjan, Frank J Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding the associations among corals, their photosynthetic zooxanthella symbionts (Symbiodinium), and coral-associated prokaryotic microbiomes is critical for predicting the fidelity and strength of coral symbioses in the face of growing environmental threats. Most coral-microbiome associations are beneficial, yet the mechanisms that determine the composition of the coral microbiome remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized microbiome diversity in the temperate, facultatively symbiotic coral Astrangia poculata at four seasonal time points near the northernmost limit of the species range...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903461/comparative-genomics-reveals-two-major-bouts-of-gene-retroposition-coinciding-with-crucial-periods-of-symbiodinium-evolution
#3
Bo Song, David Morse, Yue Song, Yuan Fu, Xin Lin, Wenliang Wang, Shifeng Cheng, Wenbin Chen, Xin Liu, Senjie Lin
Gene retroposition is an important mechanism of genome evolution but the role it plays in dinoflagellates, a critical player in marine ecosystems, is not known. Until recently, when the genomes of two coral-symbiotic dinoflagellate genomes, Symbiodinium kawagutii and S. minutum, were released, it has not been possible to systematically study these retrogenes. Here we examine the abundant retrogenes (∼23% of the total genes) in these species. The hallmark of retrogenes in the genome is the presence of DCCGTAGCCATTTTGGCTCAAG, a spliced leader (DinoSL) constitutively trans-spliced to the 5'-end of all nucleus-encoded mRNAs...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894640/coral-larvae-for-restoration-and-research-a-large-scale-method-for-rearing-acropora-millepora-larvae-inducing-settlement-and-establishing-symbiosis
#4
F Joseph Pollock, Sefano M Katz, Jeroen A J M van de Water, Sarah W Davies, Margaux Hein, Gergely Torda, Mikhail V Matz, Victor H Beltran, Patrick Buerger, Eneour Puill-Stephan, David Abrego, David G Bourne, Bette L Willis
Here we describe an efficient and effective technique for rearing sexually-derived coral propagules from spawning through larval settlement and symbiont uptake with minimal impact on natural coral populations. We sought to maximize larval survival while minimizing expense and daily husbandry maintenance by experimentally determining optimized conditions and protocols for gamete fertilization, larval cultivation, induction of larval settlement by crustose coralline algae, and inoculation of newly settled juveniles with their dinoflagellate symbiont Symbiodinium...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888836/transcriptome-sequencing-and-characterization-of-symbiodinium-muscatinei-and-elliptochloris-marina-symbionts-found-within-the-aggregating-sea-anemone-anthopleura-elegantissima
#5
Jason C Macrander, James L Dimond, Brian L Bingham, Adam M Reitzel
There is a growing body of literature using transcriptomic data to study how tropical cnidarians and their photosynthetic endosymbionts respond to environmental stressors and participate in metabolic exchange. Despite these efforts, our understanding of how essential genes function to facilitate symbiosis establishment and maintenance remains limited. The inclusion of taxonomically and ecologically diverse endosymbionts will enhance our understanding of these interactions. Here we characterize the transcriptomes of two very different symbionts found within the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima: the chlorophyte Elliptochloris marina and the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium muscatinei...
September 6, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867132/symbiont-dynamics-during-thermal-acclimation-using-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-model-holobionts
#6
Laura Núñez-Pons, Iacopo Bertocci, Garen Baghdasarian
Warming oceans menace reef ecosystems by disrupting symbiosis between cnidarians and Symbiodinium zooxanthellae, thus triggering bleach episodes. Temperature fluctuations promote adjustments in physiological variables and symbiont composition, which can cause stress responses, but can also yield adaptation if fitter host-symbiont homeostasis are achieved. To understand such processes manipulative studies are required, but many reef-building cnidarians pose limitations to experimental prospects. We exposed Exaiptasia anemones to Gradual Thermal Stress (GTS) and Heat Shock (HS) exposures and monitored chlorophyll and symbiont dynamics to test the phenotypic plasticity of these photosynthetic holobionts...
August 24, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855618/the-molecular-basis-of-differential-morphology-and-bleaching-thresholds-in-two-morphs-of-the-coral-pocillopora-acuta
#7
Hillary Smith, Hannah Epstein, Gergely Torda
Processes of cnidarian evolution, including hybridization and phenotypic plasticity, have complicated the clear diagnosis of species boundaries within the phylum. Pocillopora acuta, a species of scleractinian coral that was recently split from the widespread Pocillopora damicornis species complex, occurs in at least two distinct morphs on the Great Barrier Reef. Contrasting morphology combined with evidence of differential bleaching thresholds among sympatrically distributed colonies suggest that the taxonomy of this recently described species is not fully resolved and may represent its own species complex...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843439/symbiotic-dinoflagellate-functional-diversity-mediates-coral-survival-under-ecological-crisis
#8
REVIEW
David J Suggett, Mark E Warner, William Leggat
Coral reefs have entered an era of 'ecological crisis' as climate change drives catastrophic reef loss worldwide. Coral growth and stress susceptibility are regulated by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium). The phylogenetic diversity of Symbiodinium frequently corresponds to patterns of coral health and survival, but knowledge of functional diversity is ultimately necessary to reconcile broader ecological success over space and time. We explore here functional traits underpinning the complex biology of Symbiodinium that spans free-living algae to coral endosymbionts...
August 23, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835914/the-role-of-floridoside-in-osmoadaptation-of-coral-associated-algal-endosymbionts-to-high-salinity-conditions
#9
Michael A Ochsenkühn, Till Röthig, Cecilia D'Angelo, Jörg Wiedenmann, Christian R Voolstra
The endosymbiosis between Symbiodinium dinoflagellates and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. The survival of these ecosystems is under threat at a global scale, and better knowledge is needed to conceive strategies for mitigating future reef loss. Environmental disturbance imposing temperature, salinity, and nutrient stress can lead to the loss of the Symbiodinium partner, causing so-called coral bleaching. Some of the most thermotolerant coral-Symbiodinium associations occur in the Persian/Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, which also represent the most saline coral habitats...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828283/exposure-to-elevated-sea-surface-temperatures-below-the-bleaching-threshold-impairs-coral-recovery-and-regeneration-following-injury
#10
Joshua Louis Bonesso, William Leggat, Tracy Danielle Ainsworth
Elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are linked to an increase in the frequency and severity of bleaching events due to temperatures exceeding corals' upper thermal limits. The temperatures at which a breakdown of the coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis (coral bleaching) occurs are referred to as the upper thermal limits for the coral species. This breakdown of the endosymbiosis results in a reduction of corals' nutritional uptake, growth, and tissue integrity. Periods of elevated sea surface temperature, thermal stress and coral bleaching are also linked to increased disease susceptibility and an increased frequency of storms which cause injury and physical damage to corals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818037/association-of-coral-algal-symbionts-with-a-diverse-viral-community-responsive-to-heat-shock
#11
Jan D Brüwer, Shobhit Agrawal, Yi Jin Liew, Manuel Aranda, Christian R Voolstra
BACKGROUND: Stony corals provide the structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are termed holobionts given they engage in symbioses, in particular with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Besides Symbiodinium, corals also engage with bacteria affecting metabolism, immunity, and resilience of the coral holobiont, but the role of associated viruses is largely unknown. In this regard, the increase of studies using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess gene expression provides an opportunity to elucidate viral signatures encompassed within the data via careful delineation of sequence reads and their source of origin...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812568/gene-expression-plasticity-as-a-mechanism-of-coral-adaptation-to-a-variable-environment
#12
Carly D Kenkel, Mikhail V Matz
Local adaptation is ubiquitous, but the molecular mechanisms that give rise to this ecological phenomenon remain largely unknown. A year-long reciprocal transplant of mustard hill coral (Porites astreoides) between a highly environmentally variable inshore habitat and a more stable offshore habitat demonstrated that populations exhibit phenotypic signatures that are consistent with local adaptation. We characterized the genomic basis of this adaptation in both coral hosts and their intracellular symbionts (Symbiodinium sp...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811517/heritability-of-the-symbiodinium-community-in-vertically-and-horizontally-transmitting-broadcast-spawning-corals
#13
Kate M Quigley, Bette L Willis, Line K Bay
The dinoflagellate-coral partnership influences the coral holobiont's tolerance to thermal stress and bleaching. However, the comparative roles of host genetic versus environmental factors in determining the composition of this symbiosis are largely unknown. Here we quantify the heritability of the initial Symbiodinium communities for two broadcast-spawning corals with different symbiont transmission modes: Acropora tenuis has environmental acquisition, whereas Montipora digitata has maternal transmission. Using high throughput sequencing of the ITS-2 region to characterize communities in parents, juveniles and eggs, we describe previously undocumented Symbiodinium diversity and dynamics in both corals...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796903/sibling-species-of-mutualistic-symbiodinium-clade-g-from-bioeroding-sponges-in-the-western-pacific-and-western-atlantic-oceans
#14
Blake D Ramsby, Malcolm S Hill, Daniel J Thornhill, Sieuwkje F Steenhuizen, Michelle Achlatis, Allison M Lewis, Todd C LaJeunesse
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium associate with a broad array of metazoan and protistian hosts. Symbiodinium-based symbioses involving bioeroding sponge hosts have received less attention than those involving popular scleractinian hosts. Certain species of common Cliona harbor high densities of an ecologically restricted group of Symbiodinium, referred to as Clade G. Clade G Symbiodinium are also known to form stable and functionally important associations with Foraminifera and black corals (Antipatharia) Analyses of genetic evidence indicate that Clade G likely comprises several distinct species...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782552/a-dynamic-bioenergetic-model-for-coral-symbiodinium-symbioses-and-coral-bleaching-as-an-alternate-stable-state
#15
Ross Cunning, Erik B Muller, Ruth D Gates, Roger M Nisbet
Coral reef ecosystems owe their ecological success - and vulnerability to climate change - to the symbiotic metabolism of corals and Symbiodinium spp. The urgency to understand and predict the stability and breakdown of these symbioses (i.e., coral 'bleaching') demands the development and application of theoretical tools. Here, we develop a dynamic bioenergetic model of coral-Symbiodinium symbioses that demonstrates realistic steady-state patterns in coral growth and symbiont abundance across gradients of light, nutrients, and feeding...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746748/validation-and-description-of-symbiodinium-microadriaticum-the-type-species-of-symbiodinium-dinophyta
#16
Todd C Lajeunesse
It has been 55 years since Hugo Freudenthal described Symbiodinium microadriaticum (Dinophyceae), the type species of this large and important dinoflagellate genus found commonly in mutualistic symbiosis with cnidarians, other invertebrates, and certain protists. However, no type specimen was designated by Freudenthal, thus S. microadriaticum was invalid, as was Symbiodinium and every species subsequently assigned to the genus. The original culture was lost, but since 1979, a different culture, CCMP2464/rt-061, had been considered to represent S...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727232/functional-genomic-analysis-of-corals-from-natural-co2-seeps-reveals-core-molecular-responses-involved-in-acclimatization-to-ocean-acidification
#17
C D Kenkel, A Moya, J Strahl, C Humphrey, L K Bay
Little is known about the potential for acclimatization or adaptation of corals to ocean acidification and even less about the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes. Here we examine global gene expression patterns in corals and their intracellular algal symbionts from two replicate population pairs in Papua New Guinea that have undergone long-term acclimatization to natural variation in pCO2 . In the coral host, only 61 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2 environment, but the pattern of change was highly consistent between replicate populations, likely reflecting the core expression homeostasis response to ocean acidification...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713348/engineering-strategies-to-decode-and-enhance-the-genomes-of-coral-symbionts
#18
Rachel A Levin, Christian R Voolstra, Shobhit Agrawal, Peter D Steinberg, David J Suggett, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Elevated sea surface temperatures from a severe and prolonged El Niño event (2014-2016) fueled by climate change have resulted in mass coral bleaching (loss of dinoflagellate photosymbionts, Symbiodinium spp., from coral tissues) and subsequent coral mortality, devastating reefs worldwide. Genetic variation within and between Symbiodinium species strongly influences the bleaching tolerance of corals, thus recent papers have called for genetic engineering of Symbiodinium to elucidate the genetic basis of bleaching-relevant Symbiodinium traits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710419/generation-of-clade-and-symbiont-specific-antibodies-to-characterize-marker-molecules-during-cnidaria-symbiodinium-endosymbiosis
#19
Kao-Jean Huang, Zi-Yu Huang, Ching-Yen Lin, Li-Hsueh Wang, Pin-Hsiang Chou, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Hsing-Hui Li
The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is responsible for the formation of coral reefs. Changes in molecules have been identified during the process of cnidaria-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, the complexity of the molecular interaction has prevented the establishment of a mechanistic explanation of cellular regulation in this mutualistic symbiosis. To date, no marker molecules have been identified to specifically represent the symbiotic status. Because the endosymbiotic association occurs in the symbiotic gastrodermal cells (SGCs), whole cells of isolated SGCs were used as an antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to screen possible molecular candidates of symbiotic markers...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694432/seasonal-variation-modulates-coral-sensibility-to-heat-stress-and-explains-annual-changes-in-coral-productivity
#20
Tim Scheufen, Wiebke E Krämer, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Susana Enríquez
The potential effects of seasonal acclimatization on coral sensitivity to heat-stress, has received limited attention despite differing bleaching thresholds for summer and winter. In this study, we examined the response of two contrasting phenotypes, termed winter and summer, of four Caribbean reef corals to similar light and heat-stress levels. The four species investigated were categorized into two groups: species with the ability to harbour large number of symbionts, Orbicella annularis and O. faveolata, and species with reduced symbiont density (Montastraea cavernosa and Pseudodiploria strigosa)...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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