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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911439/evidence-for-a-role-of-viruses-in-the-thermal-sensitivity-of-coral-photosymbionts
#1
Rachel Ashley Levin, Christian Robert Voolstra, Karen Dawn Weynberg, Madeleine Josephine Henriette van Oppen
Symbiodinium, the dinoflagellate photosymbiont of corals, is posited to become more susceptible to viral infections when heat-stressed. To investigate this hypothesis, we mined transcriptome data of a thermosensitive and a thermotolerant type C1 Symbiodinium population at ambient (27 °C) and elevated (32°C) temperatures. We uncovered hundreds of transcripts from nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA viruses (NCLDVs) and the genome of a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (+ssRNAV). In the transcriptome of the thermosensitive population only, +ssRNAV transcripts had remarkable expression levels in the top 0...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896028/the-scavenger-receptor-repertoire-in-six-cnidarian-species-and-its-putative-role-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#2
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR) are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870065/photoacclimatory-and-photoprotective-responses-to-cold-versus-heat-stress-in-high-latitude-reef-corals
#3
Stefanie Pontasch, Paul L Fisher, Thomas Krueger, Sophie Dove, William Leggat, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Simon K Davy
Corals at the world's southernmost coral reef of Lord Howe Island (LHI) experience large temperature and light fluctuations and need to deal with periods of cold temperature (< 18 °C), but few studies have investigated how corals are able to cope with these conditions. Our study characterized the response of key photophysiological parameters, as well as photoacclimatory and photoprotective pigments (chlorophylls, xanthophylls and β-carotene), to short-term (5-day) cold stress (~ 15 °C; 7 °C below control) in three LHI coral species hosting distinct Symbiodinium ITS2 types, and compared the coral-symbiont response to that under elevated temperature (~ 29 °C; 7 °C above control)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853562/maternal-effects-and-symbiodinium-community-composition-drive-differential-patterns-in-juvenile-survival-in-the-coral-acropora-tenuis
#4
Kate M Quigley, Bette L Willis, Line K Bay
Coral endosymbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium are known to impact host physiology and have led to the evolution of reef-building, but less is known about how symbiotic communities in early life-history stages and their interactions with host parental identity shape the structure of coral communities on reefs. Differentiating the roles of environmental and biological factors driving variation in population demographic processes, particularly larval settlement, early juvenile survival and the onset of symbiosis is key to understanding how coral communities are structured and to predicting how they are likely to respond to climate change...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833038/characterization-of-glutathione-peroxidase-diversity-in-the-symbiotic-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis
#5
Alexis Pey, Thamilla Zamoum, Richard Christen, Pierre-Laurent Merle, Paola Furla
Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (commonly named zooxanthellae) are exposed to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon illumination. To quench ROS production, both the cnidarian host and zooxanthellae express a full suite of antioxidant enzymes. Studying antioxidative balance is therefore crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. We characterized glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in the symbiotic cnidarian Anemonia viridis by analysis of their isoform diversity, their activity distribution in the three cellular compartments (ectoderm, endoderm and zooxanthellae) and their involvement in the response to thermal stress...
November 7, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816812/a-transcriptome-based-perspective-of-cell-cycle-regulation-in-dinoflagellates
#6
David Morse, Philip Daoust, Siham Benribague
Dinoflagellates are a group of unicellular and generally marine protists, of interest to many because of their ability to form the large algal blooms commonly called "red tides". The large algal concentrations in these blooms require sustained cell replication, yet to date little is known about cell cycle regulation in these organisms. To address this issue, we have screened the transcriptomes of two dinoflagellates, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium sp., with budding yeast cell cycle pathway components...
October 17, 2016: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811803/copepods-associated-with-scleractinian-corals-a-worldwide-checklist-and-a-case-study-of-their-impact-on-the-reef-building-coral-pocillopora-damicornis-linnaeus-1758-pocilloporidae
#7
Yu Rong Cheng, Anderson B Mayfield, Pei Jie Meng, Chang Feng Dai, Rony Huys
The Cnidaria have more symbiotic copepods than any other group of invertebrates, and the greatest numbers of these associates occur on hard corals. A review of the scattered literature on the diversity and taxonomic composition of scleractinian-associated copepods and their hosts revealed a total of 148 coral species, representing 66 genera and 15 families that serve as hosts to copepods. At present, 363 copepod species, representing 99 genera, 19 families and three orders, have been recorded as associates of scleractinian corals...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807263/symbiodinium-biogeography-tracks-environmental-patterns-rather-than-host-genetics-in-a-key-caribbean-reef-builder-orbicella-annularis
#8
Emma V Kennedy, Linda Tonk, Nicola L Foster, Iliana Chollett, Juan-Carlos Ortiz, Sophie Dove, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Peter J Mumby, Jamie R Stevens
The physiological performance of a reef-building coral is a combined outcome of both the coral host and its algal endosymbionts, Symbiodinium While Orbicella annularis-a dominant reef-building coral in the Wider Caribbean-is known to be a flexible host in terms of the diversity of Symbiodinium types it can associate with, it is uncertain how this diversity varies across the Caribbean, and whether spatial variability in the symbiont community is related to either O. annularis genotype or environment. Here, we target the Symbiodinium-ITS2 gene to characterize and map dominant Symbiodinium hosted by O...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805069/coral-symbioses-under-prolonged-environmental-change-living-near-tolerance-range-limits
#9
Eugenia M Sampayo, Tyrone Ridgway, Lorenzo Franceschinis, George Roff, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Sophie Dove
As climate change progresses, understanding the long-term response of corals and their endosymbionts (Symbiodinium) to prolonged environmental change is of immediate importance. Here, a total of 1152 fragments from 72 colonies of three common coral species (Stylophora pistillata, Pocillopora damicornis, Seriatopora hystrix) underwent a 32-month reciprocal depth transplantation. Genetic analysis showed that while S. hystrix maintained its generalist symbiont, some S. pistillata and P. damicornis underwent temporary changes in resident symbionts immediately after stress (transplantation; natural bleaching)...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738273/sex-scavengers-and-chaperones-transcriptome-secrets-of-divergent-symbiodinium-thermal-tolerances
#10
Rachel A Levin, Victor H Beltran, Ross Hill, Staffan Kjelleberg, Diane McDougald, Peter D Steinberg, Madeleine J H van Oppen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713475/recent-origin-and-semi-permeable-species-boundaries-in-the-scleractinian-coral-genus-stylophora-from-the-red-sea
#11
Roberto Arrigoni, Francesca Benzoni, Tullia I Terraneo, Annalisa Caragnano, Michael L Berumen
Reticulate evolution, introgressive hybridisation, and phenotypic plasticity have been documented in scleractinian corals and have challenged our ability to interpret speciation processes. Stylophora is a key model system in coral biology and physiology, but genetic analyses have revealed that cryptic lineages concealed by morphological stasis exist in the Stylophora pistillata species complex. The Red Sea represents a hotspot for Stylophora biodiversity with six morphospecies described, two of which are regionally endemic...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690269/the-effects-of-symbiodinium-pyrrhophyta-identity-on-growth-survivorship-and-thermal-tolerance-of-newly-settled-coral-recruits
#12
Shelby E McIlroy, Phillip Gillette, Ross Cunning, Anke Klueter, Tom Capo, Andrew C Baker, Mary Alice Coffroth
For many coral species, the obligate association with phylogenetically diverse algal endosymbiont species is dynamic in time and space. Here, we used controlled laboratory inoculations of newly settled, aposymbiotic corals (Orbicella faveolata) with two cultured species of algal symbiont (Symbiodinium microadriaticum and S. minutum) to examine the role of symbiont identity on growth, survivorship, and thermal tolerance of the coral holobiont. We evaluated these data in the context of Symbiodinium photophysiology for 9 months post-settlement and also during a 5-d period of elevated temperatures Our data show that recruits that were inoculated with S...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688961/in-situ-visualization-of-bacterial-populations-in-coral-tissues-pitfalls-and-solutions
#13
Naohisa Wada, Frederic J Pollock, Bette L Willis, Tracy Ainsworth, Nobuhiro Mano, David G Bourne
In situ visualization of microbial communities within their natural habitats provides a powerful approach to explore complex interactions between microorganisms and their macroscopic hosts. Specifically, the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously identify and visualize diverse microbial taxa associated with coral hosts, including symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium), Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and protists, could help untangle the structure and function of these diverse taxa within the coral holobiont...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648935/temperature-moderates-the-infectiousness-of-two-conspecific-symbiodinium-strains-isolated-from-the-same-host-population
#14
Thomas D Hawkins, Julia C G Hagemeyer, Mark E Warner
Symbioses between cnidarians and symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) are ecologically important and physiologically diverse. This diversity contributes to the spatial distribution of specific cnidarian-Symbiodinium associations. Physiological variability also exists within Symbiodinium species, yet we know little regarding its relevance for the establishment of symbiosis under different environmental conditions. Two putatively conspecific Symbiodinium strains (both ITS2-type A4) were isolated from the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida and placed into unialgal culture...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635330/transmission-of-a-heterologous-clade-c-symbiodinium-in-a-model-anemone-infection-system-via-asexual-reproduction
#15
Wan-Nan U Chen, Ya-Ju Hsiao, Anderson B Mayfield, Ryan Young, Ling-Lan Hsu, Shao-En Peng
Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1) populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1). We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585119/gene-expression-biomarkers-of-heat-stress-in-scleractinian-corals-promises-and-limitations
#16
REVIEW
Yohan D Louis, Ranjeet Bhagooli, Carly D Kenkel, Andrew C Baker, Sabrina D Dyall
Gene expression biomarkers (GEBs) are emerging as powerful diagnostic tools for identifying and characterizing coral stress. Their capacity to detect sublethal stress prior to the onset of signs at the organismal level that might already indicate significant damage makes them more precise and proactive compared to traditional monitoring techniques. A high number of candidate GEBs, including certain heat shock protein genes, metabolic genes, oxidative stress genes, immune response genes, ion transport genes, and structural genes have been investigated, and some genes, including hsp16, Cacna1, MnSOD, SLC26, and Nf-kB, are already showing excellent potential as reliable indicators of thermal stress in corals...
August 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582179/aiptasia-sp-larvae-as-a-model-to-reveal-mechanisms-of-symbiont-selection-in-cnidarians
#17
Iliona Wolfowicz, Sebastian Baumgarten, Philipp A Voss, Elizabeth A Hambleton, Christian R Voolstra, Masayuki Hatta, Annika Guse
Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577027/differential-antioxidant-response-between-two-symbiodinium-species-from-contrasting-environments
#18
S Roberty, P Furla, J-C Plumier
High sea surface temperature accompanied by high levels of solar irradiance is responsible for the disruption of the symbiosis between cnidarians and their symbiotic dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. This phenomenon, known as coral bleaching, is one of the major threats affecting coral reefs around the world. Because an important molecular trigger to bleaching appears related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), it is critical to understand the function of the antioxidant network of Symbiodinium species...
August 31, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543058/changes-in-fatty-acid-composition-in-the-giant-clam-tridacna-maxima-in-response-to-thermal-stress
#19
Vaimiti Dubousquet, Emmanuelle Gros, Véronique Berteaux-Lecellier, Bruno Viguier, Phila Raharivelomanana, Cédric Bertrand, Gaël J Lecellier
Temperature can modify membrane fluidity and thus affects cellular functions and physiological activities. This study examines lipid remodelling in the marine symbiotic organism, Tridacna maxima, during a time series of induced thermal stress, with an emphasis on the morphology of their symbiont Symbiodinium First, we show that the French Polynesian giant clams harbour an important proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which reflects their tropical location. Second, in contrast to most marine organisms, the total lipid content in giant clams remained constant under stress, though some changes in their composition were shown...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493203/sulfur-utilization-of-corals-is-enhanced-by-endosymbiotic-algae
#20
Ikuko Yuyama, Tomihiko Higuchi, Yoshio Takei
Sulfur-containing compounds are important components of all organisms, but few studies have explored sulfate utilization in corals. Our previous study found that the expression of a sulfur transporter (SLC26A11) was upregulated in the presence of Symbiodinium cells in juveniles of the reef-building coral Acropora tenuis In this study, we performed autoradiography using (35)S-labeled sulfate ions ((35)SO4  (2-)) to examine the localization and amount of incorporated radioactive sulfate in the coral tissues and symbiotic algae...
September 15, 2016: Biology Open
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