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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407448/draft-genomes-of-the-corallimorpharians-amplexidiscus-fenestrafer-and-discosoma-sp
#1
Xin Wang, Yi Jin Liew, Yong Li, Didier Zoccola, Sylvie Tambutte, Manuel Aranda
Corallimorpharia are the closest non-calcifying relatives of reef-building corals. Aside from their popularity among aquarium hobbyists, their evolutionary position between the Actiniaria (sea anemones) and the Scleractinia (hard corals) makes them ideal candidates for comparative studies aiming at understanding the evolution of hexacorallian orders in general and reef-building corals in particular. Here we have sequenced and assembled two draft genomes for the Corallimorpharia species Amplexidiscus fenestrafer and Discosoma sp...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390081/symbiodinium-mitigate-the-combined-effects-of-hypoxia-and-acidification-on-a-non-calcifying-cnidarian
#2
Shannon G Klein, Kylie A Pitt, Matthew R Nitschke, Samantha Goyen, David T Welsh, David J Suggett, Anthony R Carroll
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O2 and assimilate CO2 , and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for non-calcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp...
April 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365021/trophic-and-stoichiometric-consequences-of-nutrification-for-the-intertidal-tropical-zoanthid-zoanthus-sociatus
#3
Miguel C Leal, Rui J M Rocha, Jaime M Anaya-Rojas, Igor C S Cruz, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
Zoanthids are conspicuous and abundant members of intertidal environments, where they are exposed to large environmental fluctuations and subject to increasing loads of anthropogenic nutrients. Here we assess the trophic ecology and stoichiometric consequences of nutrient loading for symbiotic zoanthids inhabiting different intertidal habitats. More specifically, we analysed the stable isotope signature (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), elemental composition (C, N and P) and stoichiometry (C:N, C:P, N:P) of Zoanthus sociatus differently exposed to nutrification...
March 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363426/molecular-pathology-of-skeletal-growth-anomalies-in-the-brain-coral-platygyra-carnosa-a-meta-transcriptomic-analysis
#4
Yu Zhang, Jin Sun, Huawei Mu, Janice C Y Lun, Jian-Wen Qiu
Coral skeletal growth anomaly (GA) is a common coral disease. Although extensive ecological characterizations of coral GA have been performed, the molecular pathology of this disease remains largely unknown. We compared the meta-transcriptome of normal and GA-affected polyps of Platygyra carnosa using RNA-Seq. Approximately 50 million sequences were generated from four pairs of normal and GA-affected tissue samples. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in P. carnosa and 31 DEGs in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium sp...
March 28, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355291/site-specific-variation-in-gene-expression-from-symbiodinium-spp-associated-with-offshore-and-inshore-porites-astreoides-in-the-lower-florida-keys-is-lost-with-bleaching-and-disease-stress
#5
Briana Hauff Salas, Joshua A Haslun, Kevin B Strychar, Peggy H Ostrom, James M Cervino
Scleractinian coral are experiencing unprecedented rates of mortality due to increases in sea surface temperatures in response to global climate change. Some coral species however, survive high temperature events due to a reduced susceptibility to bleaching. We investigated the relationship between bleaching susceptibility and expression of five metabolically related genes of Symbiodinium spp. from the coral Porites astreoides originating from an inshore and offshore reef in the Florida Keys. The acclimatization potential of Symbiodinium spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326066/beneficial-microorganisms-for-corals-bmc-proposed-mechanisms-for-coral-health-and-resilience
#6
REVIEW
Raquel S Peixoto, Phillipe M Rosado, Deborah Catharine de Assis Leite, Alexandre S Rosado, David G Bourne
The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium. Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323278/acceptable-symbiont-cell-size-differs-among-cnidarian-species-and-may-limit-symbiont-diversity
#7
Elise Biquand, Nami Okubo, Yusuke Aihara, Vivien Rolland, David C Hayward, Masayuki Hatta, Jun Minagawa, Tadashi Maruyama, Shunichi Takahashi
Reef-building corals form symbiotic relationships with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Symbiodinium are genetically and physiologically diverse, and corals may be able to adapt to different environments by altering their dominant Symbiodinium phylotype. Notably, each coral species associates only with specific Symbiodinium phylotypes, and consequently the diversity of symbionts available to the host is limited by the species specificity. Currently, it is widely presumed that species specificity is determined by the combination of cell-surface molecules on the host and symbiont...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293249/transcriptomic-analysis-of-thermally-stressed-symbiodinium-reveals-differential-expression-of-stress-and-metabolism-genes
#8
Sarah L Gierz, Sylvain Forêt, William Leggat
Endosymbioses between dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and scleractinian coral species form the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. The coral symbiosis is highly susceptible to elevated temperatures, resulting in coral bleaching, where the algal symbiont is released from host cells. This experiment aimed to determine the transcriptional changes in cultured Symbiodinium, to better understand the response of cellular mechanisms under future temperature conditions. Cultures were exposed to elevated temperatures (average 31°C) or control conditions (24...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286360/biogeography-and-molecular-diversity-of-coral-symbionts-in-the-genus-symbiodinium-around-the-arabian-peninsula
#9
Maren Ziegler, Chatchanit Arif, John A Burt, Sergey Dobretsov, Cornelia Roder, Todd C LaJeunesse, Christian R Voolstra
AIM: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. LOCATION: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG)...
March 2017: Journal of Biogeography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272836/mapping-carbon-fate-during-bleaching-in-a-model-cnidarian-symbiosis-the-application-of-13-c-metabolomics
#10
Katie E Hillyer, Daniel A Dias, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Simon K Davy
Coral bleaching is a major threat to the persistence of coral reefs. Yet we lack detailed knowledge of the metabolic interactions that determine symbiosis function and bleaching-induced change. We mapped autotrophic carbon fate within the free metabolite pools of both partners of a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis (Aiptasia-Symbiodinium) during exposure to thermal stress via the stable isotope tracer ((13) C bicarbonate), coupled to GC-MS. Symbiont photodamage and pronounced bleaching coincided with substantial increases in the turnover of non(13) C-labelled pools in the dinoflagellate (lipid and starch store catabolism)...
March 8, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245292/condition-specific-rna-editing-in-the-coral-symbiont-symbiodinium-microadriaticum
#11
Yi Jin Liew, Yong Li, Sebastian Baumgarten, Christian R Voolstra, Manuel Aranda
RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242282/phosphate-deficiency-promotes-coral-bleaching-and-is-reflected-by-the-ultrastructure-of-symbiotic-dinoflagellates
#12
Sabrina Rosset, Jörg Wiedenmann, Adam J Reed, Cecilia D'Angelo
Enrichment of reef environments with dissolved inorganic nutrients is considered a major threat to the survival of corals living in symbiosis with dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium sp.). We argue, however, that the direct negative effects on the symbiosis are not necessarily caused by the nutrient enrichment itself but by the phosphorus starvation of the algal symbionts that can be caused by skewed nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios. We exposed corals to imbalanced N:P ratios in long-term experiments and found that the undersupply of phosphate severely disturbed the symbiosis, indicated by the loss of coral biomass, malfunctioning of algal photosynthesis and bleaching of the corals...
February 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223979/broadcast-spawning-coral-mussismilia-hispida-can-vertically-transfer-its-associated-bacterial-core
#13
Deborah C A Leite, Pedro Leão, Amana G Garrido, Ulysses Lins, Henrique F Santos, Débora O Pires, Clovis B Castro, Jan D van Elsas, Carla Zilberberg, Alexandre S Rosado, Raquel S Peixoto
The hologenome theory of evolution (HTE), which is under fierce debate, presupposes that parts of the microbiome are transmitted from one generation to the next [vertical transmission (VT)], which may also influence the evolution of the holobiont. Even though bacteria have previously been described in early life stages of corals, these early life stages (larvae) could have been inoculated in the water and not inside the parental colony (through gametes) carrying the parental microbiome. How Symbiodinium is transmitted to offspring is also not clear, as only one study has described this mechanism in spawners...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211848/host-specificity-of-symbiodinium-variants-revealed-by-an-its2-metahaplotype-approach
#14
Edward G Smith, Remi N Ketchum, John A Burt
Analysis of the widely used ITS region is confounded by the presence of intragenomic variants (IGVs). In Symbiodinium, the algal symbionts of reef building corals, deep-sequencing analyses are used to characterise communities within corals, yet these analyses largely overlook IGVs. Here we consider that distinct ITS2 sequences could represent IGVs rather than distinct symbiont types and argue that symbionts can be distinguished by their proportional composition of IGVs, described as their ITS2 metahaplotype...
February 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203041/body-size-and-symbiotic-status-influence-gonad-development-in-aiptasia-pallida-anemones
#15
Judith F Carlisle, Grant K Murphy, Alison M Roark
Pale anemones (Aiptasia pallida) coexist with dinoflagellates (primarily Symbiodinium minutum) in a mutualistic relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these symbionts in gonad development of anemone hosts. Symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones were subjected to light cycles that induced gametogenesis. These anemones were then sampled weekly for nine weeks, and gonad development was analyzed histologically. Anemone size was measured as mean body column diameter, and oocytes or sperm follicles were counted for each anemone...
2017: Symbiosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196275/symbiodinium-dinophyceae-community-patterns-in-invertebrate-hosts-from-inshore-marginal-reefs-of-the-southern-great-barrier-reef-australia
#16
Linda Tonk, Eugenia M Sampayo, Aaron Chai, Verena Schrameyer, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
The broad range in physiological variation displayed by Symbiodinium spp. has proven imperative during periods of environmental change and contribute to the survival of their coral host. Characterizing how host and Symbiodinium community assemblages differ across environmentally distinct habitats provides useful information to predict how corals will respond to major environmental change. Despite the extensive characterizations of Symbiodinium diversity found amongst reef cnidarians on the Great Barrier Reef substantial biogeographic gaps exist, especially across inshore habitats...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188662/population-genetics-of-reef-coral-endosymbionts-symbiodinium-dinophyceae
#17
D J Thornhill, E J Howells, D C Wham, T D Steury, S R Santos
Symbiodinium is a diverse genus of unicellular dinoflagellate symbionts associating with various marine protists and invertebrates. Although the broad-scale diversity and phylogenetics of the Symbiodinium complex is well established, there have been surprisingly few data on fine-scale population structure and biogeography of these dinoflagellates. Yet population level processes contribute strongly to the biology of Symbiodinium, including how anthropogenic-driven global climate change impacts these symbionts and their host associations...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182684/do-the-shuffle-changes-in-symbiodinium-consortia-throughout-juvenile-coral-development
#18
Hannah G Reich, Deborah L Robertson, Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley
Previous studies of symbiotic associations between scleractinians corals and Symbiodinium have demonstrated that the consortium of symbionts can change in response to environmental conditions. However, less is known about symbiont shuffling during early coral development, particularly in brooding species. This study examined whether Symbiodinium consortia (1) varied in Porites astreoides on shallow (10m) and upper mesophotic (30m) reefs, (2) changed during coral development, and (3) influenced growth of juveniles in different environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181581/transcriptome-profiling-of-galaxea-fascicularis-and-its-endosymbiont-symbiodinium-reveals-chronic-eutrophication-tolerance-pathways-and-metabolic-mutualism-between-partners
#19
Zhenyue Lin, Mingliang Chen, Xu Dong, Xinqing Zheng, Haining Huang, Xun Xu, Jianming Chen
In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174567/in-vivo-microscale-measurements-of-light-and-photosynthesis-during-coral-bleaching-evidence-for-the-optical-feedback-loop
#20
Daniel Wangpraseurt, Jacob B Holm, Anthony W D Larkum, Mathieu Pernice, Peter J Ralph, David J Suggett, Michael Kühl
Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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