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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223979/broadcast-spawning-coral-mussismilia-hispida-can-vertically-transfer-its-associated-bacterial-core
#1
Deborah C A Leite, Pedro Leão, Amana G Garrido, Ulysses Lins, Henrique F Santos, Débora O Pires, Clovis B Castro, Jan D van Elsas, Carla Zilberberg, Alexandre S Rosado, Raquel S Peixoto
The hologenome theory of evolution (HTE), which is under fierce debate, presupposes that parts of the microbiome are transmitted from one generation to the next [vertical transmission (VT)], which may also influence the evolution of the holobiont. Even though bacteria have previously been described in early life stages of corals, these early life stages (larvae) could have been inoculated in the water and not inside the parental colony (through gametes) carrying the parental microbiome. How Symbiodinium is transmitted to offspring is also not clear, as only one study has described this mechanism in spawners...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211848/host-specificity-of-symbiodinium-variants-revealed-by-an-its2-metahaplotype-approach
#2
Edward G Smith, Remi N Ketchum, John A Burt
Analysis of the widely used ITS region is confounded by the presence of intragenomic variants (IGVs). In Symbiodinium, the algal symbionts of reef building corals, deep-sequencing analyses are used to characterise communities within corals, yet these analyses largely overlook IGVs. Here we consider that distinct ITS2 sequences could represent IGVs rather than distinct symbiont types and argue that symbionts can be distinguished by their proportional composition of IGVs, described as their ITS2 metahaplotype...
February 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203041/body-size-and-symbiotic-status-influence-gonad-development-in-aiptasia-pallida-anemones
#3
Judith F Carlisle, Grant K Murphy, Alison M Roark
Pale anemones (Aiptasia pallida) coexist with dinoflagellates (primarily Symbiodinium minutum) in a mutualistic relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these symbionts in gonad development of anemone hosts. Symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones were subjected to light cycles that induced gametogenesis. These anemones were then sampled weekly for nine weeks, and gonad development was analyzed histologically. Anemone size was measured as mean body column diameter, and oocytes or sperm follicles were counted for each anemone...
2017: Symbiosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196275/symbiodinium-dinophyceae-community-patterns-in-invertebrate-hosts-from-inshore-marginal-reefs-of-the-southern-great-barrier-reef-australia
#4
Linda Tonk, Eugenia M Sampayo, Aaron Chai, Verena Schrameyer, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
The broad range in physiological variation displayed by Symbiodinium spp. has proven imperative during periods of environmental change and contribute to the survival of their coral host. Characterizing how host and Symbiodinium community assemblages differ across environmentally distinct habitats provides useful information to predict how corals will respond to major environmental change. Despite the extensive characterizations of Symbiodinium diversity found amongst reef cnidarians on the Great Barrier Reef substantial biogeographic gaps exist, especially across inshore habitats...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188662/population-genetics-of-reef-coral-endosymbionts-symbiodinium-dinophyceae
#5
D J Thornhill, E J Howells, D C Wham, T D Steury, S R Santos
Symbiodinium is a diverse genus of unicellular dinoflagellate symbionts associating with various marine protists and invertebrates. Although the broad-scale diversity and phylogenetics of the Symbiodinium complex is well established, there have been surprisingly few data on fine-scale population structure and biogeography of these dinoflagellates. Yet population level processes contribute strongly to the biology of Symbiodinium, including how anthropogenic-driven global climate change impacts these symbionts and their host associations...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182684/do-the-shuffle-changes-in-symbiodinium-consortia-throughout-juvenile-coral-development
#6
Hannah G Reich, Deborah L Robertson, Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley
Previous studies of symbiotic associations between scleractinians corals and Symbiodinium have demonstrated that the consortium of symbionts can change in response to environmental conditions. However, less is known about symbiont shuffling during early coral development, particularly in brooding species. This study examined whether Symbiodinium consortia (1) varied in Porites astreoides on shallow (10m) and upper mesophotic (30m) reefs, (2) changed during coral development, and (3) influenced growth of juveniles in different environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181581/transcriptome-profiling-of-galaxea-fascicularis-and-its-endosymbiont-symbiodinium-reveals-chronic-eutrophication-tolerance-pathways-and-metabolic-mutualism-between-partners
#7
Zhenyue Lin, Mingliang Chen, Xu Dong, Xinqing Zheng, Haining Huang, Xun Xu, Jianming Chen
In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174567/in-vivo-microscale-measurements-of-light-and-photosynthesis-during-coral-bleaching-evidence-for-the-optical-feedback-loop
#8
Daniel Wangpraseurt, Jacob B Holm, Anthony W D Larkum, Mathieu Pernice, Peter J Ralph, David J Suggett, Michael Kühl
Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168100/an-updated-assessment-of-symbiodinium-spp-that-associate-with-common-scleractinian-corals-from-moorea-french-polynesia-reveals-high-diversity-among-background-symbionts-and-a-novel-finding-of-clade-b
#9
Héloïse Rouzé, Gaël J Lecellier, Denis Saulnier, Serge Planes, Yannick Gueguen, Herman H Wirshing, Véronique Berteaux-Lecellier
The adaptative bleaching hypothesis (ABH) states that, depending on the symbiotic flexibility of coral hosts (i.e., the ability of corals to "switch" or "shuffle" their algal symbionts), coral bleaching can lead to a change in the composition of their associated Symbiodinium community and, thus, contribute to the coral's overall survival. In order to determine the flexibility of corals, molecular tools are required to provide accurate species delineations and to detect low levels of coral-associated Symbiodinium...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152002/the-effects-of-elevated-seawater-temperatures-on-caribbean-gorgonian-corals-and-their-algal-symbionts-symbiodinium-spp
#10
Tamar L Goulet, Kartick P Shirur, Blake D Ramsby, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto
Global climate change not only leads to elevated seawater temperatures but also to episodic anomalously high or low temperatures lasting for several hours to days. Scleractinian corals are detrimentally affected by thermal fluctuations, which often lead to an uncoupling of their mutualism with Symbiodinium spp. (coral bleaching) and potentially coral death. Consequently, on many Caribbean reefs scleractinian coral cover has plummeted. Conversely, gorgonian corals persist, with their abundance even increasing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133566/symbiodinium-spp-associated-with-scleractinian-corals-from-dongsha-atoll-pratas-taiwan-in-the-south-china-sea
#11
Shashank Keshavmurthy, Kuo-Hsun Tang, Chia-Min Hsu, Chai-Hsia Gan, Chao-Yang Kuo, Keryea Soong, Hong-Nong Chou, Chaolun Allen Chen
Dongsha Atoll (also known as Pratas) in Taiwan is the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea and a designated marine national park since 2007. The marine park's scope of protection covers the bio-resources of its waters in addition to uplands, so it is important to have data logging information and analyses of marine flora and fauna, including their physiology, ecology, and genetics. As part of this effort, we investigated Symbiodinium associations in scleractinian corals from Dongsha Atoll through surveys carried out at two depth ranges (shallow, 1-5 m; and deep, 10-15 m) in 2009 and during a bleaching event in 2010...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120360/expanding-the-symbiodinium-dinophyceae-suessiales-toolkit-through-protoplast-technology
#12
Rachel A Levin, David J Suggett, Matthew R Nitschke, Madeleine J H van Oppen, Peter D Steinberg
Dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium are photosymbionts of many tropical reef invertebrates, including corals, making them central to the health of coral reefs. Symbiodinium have therefore gained significant research attention, though studies have been constrained by technical limitations. In particular, the generation of viable cells with their cell walls removed (termed protoplasts) has enabled a wide range of experimental techniques for bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae such as ultrastructure studies, virus infection studies, patch clamping, genetic transformation, and protoplast fusion...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111719/additive-effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate-and-elevated-temperature-on-the-branched-coral-acropora-formosa-in-nha-trang-vietnam
#13
C Amid, M Olstedt, J S Gunnarsson, H Le Lan, H Tran Thi Minh, P J Van den Brink, M Hellström, M Tedengren
The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the laboratory, branches of the corals were exposed to the herbicide glyphosate at ambient (28 °C) and at 3 °C elevated water temperatures (31 °C). Effects of herbicide and elevated temperature were studied on coral bleaching using photography and digital image analysis (new colorimetric method developed here based on grayscale), chlorophyll a analysis, and symbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium, referred to as zooxanthellae) counts...
January 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108671/tenacious-d-symbiodinium-in-clade-d-remain-in-reef-corals-at-both-high-and-low-temperature-extremes-despite-impairment
#14
Rachel N Silverstein, Ross Cunning, Andrew C Baker
Reef corals are sensitive to thermal stress, which induces coral bleaching (the loss of algal symbionts), often leading to coral mortality. However, corals hosting certain symbionts (notably Symbiodinium in clade D) resist bleaching when exposed to high temperatures. To determine if these symbionts are also cold tolerant, we exposed corals hosting either Symbiodinium C3 or D1a to incremental warming (+1°C week(-1) to 35°C) and cooling (-1°C week(-1) to 15°C), and measured photodamage and symbiont loss. During warming to 33°C, C3-corals were photodamaged and lost >99% of symbionts, while D1a-corals experienced photodamage but did not bleach...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103286/mirnas-do-not-regulate-circadian-protein-synthesis-in-the-dinoflagellate-lingulodinium-polyedrum
#15
Steve Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Mathieu Beauchemin, David Morse
Dinoflagellates have been shown to express miRNA by bioinformatics and RNA blot (Northern) analyses. However, it is not yet known if miRNAs are able to alter gene expression in this class of organisms. We have assessed the possibility that miRNA may mediate circadian regulation of gene expression in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum using the Luciferin Binding Protein (LBP) as a specific example. LBP is a good candidate for regulation by miRNA since mRNA levels are constant over the daily cycle while protein synthesis is restricted by the circadian clock to a period of several hours at the start of the night phase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088106/uv-a-induced-delayed-development-in-the-larvae-of-coral-seriatopora-caliendrum
#16
Jie Zhou, Tung-Yung Fan, John Beardall, Kunshan Gao
Coral reefs are vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400nm). Not only do the fluxes of UVR fluctuate daily, they are also increasing due to global ocean and atmospheric changes. The deleterious effects of UVR on scleractinian corals have been intensively studied, but much less is known about the response of corals in the early pre-settlement phase. In this study, we tested how UVR exposure affects survival and development of Seriatopora caliendrum larvae and examined the photophysiological changes induced in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067273/validation-of-reference-genes-for-cryopreservation-studies-with-the-gorgonian-coral-endosymbiont-symbiodinium
#17
Gabriella Chong, Fu-Wen Kuo, Sujune Tsai, Chiahsin Lin
Quantification by real-time RT-PCR requires a stable internal reference known as a housekeeping gene (HKG) for normalising the mRNA levels of target genes. The present study identified and validated stably expressed HKGs in post-thaw Symbiodinium clade G. Six potential HKGs, namely, pcna, gapdh, 18S rRNA, hsp90, rbcl, and ps1, were analysed using three different algorithms, namely, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The GeNorm algorithm ranked the candidate genes as follows in the order of decreasing stability: pcna and gapdh > ps1 > 18S rRNA > hsp90 > rbcl...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004835/genomes-of-coral-dinoflagellate-symbionts-highlight-evolutionary-adaptations-conducive-to-a-symbiotic-lifestyle
#18
M Aranda, Y Li, Y J Liew, S Baumgarten, O Simakov, M C Wilson, J Piel, H Ashoor, S Bougouffa, V B Bajic, T Ryu, T Ravasi, T Bayer, G Micklem, H Kim, J Bhak, T C LaJeunesse, C R Voolstra
Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980125/warm-preconditioning-protects-against-acute-heat-induced-respiratory-dysfunction-and-delays-bleaching-in-a-symbiotic-sea-anemone
#19
Thomas D Hawkins, Mark E Warner
Preconditioning to non-stressful warming can protect some symbiotic cnidarians against the high temperature-induced collapse of their mutualistic endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.), a process known as bleaching. Here, we sought to determine if such preconditioning is underpinned by differential regulation of aerobic respiration. We quantified in vivo metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity in the naturally symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida preconditioned to 30°C for>7 weeks as well as anemones kept at 26°C...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911439/evidence-for-a-role-of-viruses-in-the-thermal-sensitivity-of-coral-photosymbionts
#20
Rachel Ashley Levin, Christian Robert Voolstra, Karen Dawn Weynberg, Madeleine Josephine Henriette van Oppen
Symbiodinium, the dinoflagellate photosymbiont of corals, is posited to become more susceptible to viral infections when heat-stressed. To investigate this hypothesis, we mined transcriptome data of a thermosensitive and a thermotolerant type C1 Symbiodinium population at ambient (27 °C) and elevated (32°C) temperatures. We uncovered hundreds of transcripts from nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA viruses (NCLDVs) and the genome of a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (+ssRNAV). In the transcriptome of the thermosensitive population only, +ssRNAV transcripts had remarkable expression levels in the top 0...
March 2017: ISME Journal
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