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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158383/optimal-nutrient-exchange-and-immune-responses-operate-in-partner-specificity-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#1
Jennifer L Matthews, Camerron M Crowder, Clinton A Oakley, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Eli Meyer, Arthur R Grossman, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
The relationship between reef-building corals and phototrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is fundamental to the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. It has been suggested that reef corals may adapt to climate change by changing their dominant symbiont type to a more thermally tolerant one, although the capacity for such a community shift is potentially hindered by the compatibility of different host-symbiont pairings. Here we combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to characterize the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that underlie this compatibility, with a particular focus on Symbiodinium trenchii, an opportunistic, thermally tolerant symbiont that flourishes in coral tissues after bleaching events...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150733/correction-to-coral-symbiodinium-community-composition-across-the-belize-mesoamerican-barrier-reef-system-is-influenced-by-host-species-and-thermal-variability
#2
J H Baumann, S W Davies, H E Aichelman, K D Castillo
The authors regret that acknowledgment for Dr. Adrian Marchetti was omitted from the manuscript. The correct acknowledgment is written below.
November 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124895/defining-the-core-microbiome-of-the-symbiotic-dinoflagellate-symbiodinium
#3
Caitlin A Lawson, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Tim Kahlke, Justin R Seymour, David J Suggett
Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium underpin the survival and ecological success of corals. The use of cultured strains has been particularly important to disentangle the complex life history of Symbiodinium and their contribution to coral host physiology. However, these cultures typically harbour abundant bacterial communities which likely play important, but currently unknown, roles in Symbiodinium biology. We characterised the bacterial communities living in association with a wide phylogenetic diversity of Symbiodinium cultures (18 types spanning 5 clades) to define the core Symbiodinium microbiome...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108677/salinity-stress-results-in-differential-hsp70-expression-in-the-exaiptasia-pallida-and-symbiodinium-symbiosis
#4
Mitchell A Ellison, M Drew Ferrier, Susan L Carney
Abiotic factors affect cnidarian-algal symbiosis and, if severe enough, can result in bleaching. Increased temperature and light are well characterized causes of bleaching, but other factors like salinity can also stress the holobiont. In cnidarian-dinoflagellate systems, the expression of host genes, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), changes due to thermal and light stress. In this experiment, we characterized to what extent salinity stress affects Hsp70 expression in the holobiont by simultaneously measuring host and symbiont Hsp70 expression in response to up to 8 h of hypo- and hypersaline conditions in the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida and its intracellular symbiont Symbiodinium minutum...
October 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101370/signatures-of-adaptation-and-symbiosis-in-genomes-and-transcriptomes-of-symbiodinium
#5
Raúl A González-Pech, Mark A Ragan, Cheong Xin Chan
Symbiodinium is best-known as the photosynthetic symbiont of corals, but some clades are symbiotic in other organisms or include free-living forms. Identifying similarities and differences among these clades can help us understand their relationship with corals, and thereby inform on measures to manage coral reefs in a changing environment. Here, using sequences from 24 publicly available transcriptomes and genomes of Symbiodinium, we assessed 78,389 gene families in Symbiodinium clades and the immediate outgroup Polarella glacialis, and identified putative overrepresented functions in gene families that (1) distinguish Symbiodinium from other members of Order Suessiales, (2) are shared by all of the Symbiodinium clades for which we have data, and (3) based on available information, are specific to each clade...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098358/coral-symbiodinium-community-composition-across-the-belize-mesoamerican-barrier-reef-system-is-influenced-by-host-species-and-thermal-variability
#6
J H Baumann, S W Davies, H E Aichelman, K D Castillo
Reef-building corals maintain a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and this symbiosis is vital for the survival of the coral holobiont. Symbiodinium community composition within the coral host has been shown to influence a coral's ability to resist and recover from stress. A multitude of stressors including ocean warming, ocean acidification, and eutrophication have been linked to global scale decline in coral health and cover in recent decades. Three distinct thermal regimes (highTP, modTP, and lowTP) following an inshore-offshore gradient of declining average temperatures and thermal variation were identified on the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS)...
November 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091723/biomarker-profiling-in-reef-corals-of-tonga-s-ha-apai-and-vava-u-archipelagos
#7
Anderson B Mayfield, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Alexandra C Dempsey
Given the significant threats towards Earth's coral reefs, there is an urgent need to document the current physiological condition of the resident organisms, particularly the reef-building scleractinians themselves. Unfortunately, most of the planet's reefs are understudied, and some have yet to be seen. For instance, the Kingdom of Tonga possesses an extensive reef system, with thousands of hectares of unobserved reefs; little is known about their ecology, nor is there any information on the health of the resident corals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064560/chemical-imaging-of-a-symbiodinium-sp-cell-using-synchrotron-infrared-microspectroscopy-a-feasibility-study
#8
B R Gordon, D E Martin, K R Bambery, C A Motti
The symbiotic relationship between corals and Symbiodinium spp. is the key to the success and survival of coral reef ecosystems the world over. Nutrient exchange and chemical communication between the two partners provides the foundation of this key relationship, yet we are far from a complete understanding of these processes. This is due, in part, to the difficulties associated with studying an intracellular symbiosis at the small spatial scales required to elucidate metabolic interactions between the two partners...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053149/recent-expansion-of-heat-activated-retrotransposons-in-the-coral-symbiont-symbiodinium-microadriaticum
#9
Jit Ern Chen, Guoxin Cui, Xin Wang, Yi Jin Liew, Manuel Aranda
Rising sea surface temperature is the main cause of global coral reef decline. Abnormally high temperatures trigger the breakdown of the symbiotic association between corals and their photosynthetic symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium. Higher genetic variation resulting from shorter generation times has previously been proposed to provide increased adaptability to Symbiodinium compared to the host. Retrotransposition is a significant source of genetic variation in eukaryotes and some transposable elements are specifically expressed under adverse environmental conditions...
October 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018600/diverse-responses-of-symbiodinium-types-to-menthol-and-dcmu-treatment
#10
Jih-Terng Wang, Shashank Keshavmurthy, Tzu-Ying Chu, Chaolun Allen Chen
To understand the mechanism of photosynthetic inhibition and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Symbiodinium types under stress, chemicals such as dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (DCMU) are widely used. Moreover, DCMU and recently menthol were used to generate aposymbiotic cnidarian hosts. While the effects of DCMU on Symbiodinium cells have been extensively studied, no studies have shown the mechanism behind menthol-induced coral bleaching. Moreover, no study has compared the effects of DCMU and menthol treatments on photosystem II (PSII) activity and generation of ROS in different Symbiodinium types...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018596/a-preliminary-survey-of-zoantharian-endosymbionts-shows-high-genetic-variation-over-small-geographic-scales-on-okinawa-jima-island-japan
#11
Hatsuko Noda, John Everett Parkinson, Sung-Yin Yang, James Davis Reimer
Symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) shape the responses of their host reef organisms to environmental variability and climate change. To date, the biogeography of Symbiodinium has been investigated primarily through phylogenetic analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region. Although the marker can approximate species-level diversity, recent work has demonstrated that faster-evolving genes can resolve otherwise hidden species and population lineages, and that this diversity is often distributed over much finer geographical and environmental scales than previously recognized...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919883/a-pcr-based-assay-targeting-the-major-capsid-protein-gene-of-a-dinorna-like-ssrna-virus-that-infects-coral-photosymbionts
#12
Jose Montalvo-Proaño, Patrick Buerger, Karen D Weynberg, Madeleine J H van Oppen
The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching), and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915923/season-but-not-symbiont-state-drives-microbiome-structure-in-the-temperate-coral-astrangia-poculata
#13
Koty H Sharp, Zoe A Pratte, Allison H Kerwin, Randi D Rotjan, Frank J Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding the associations among corals, their photosynthetic zooxanthella symbionts (Symbiodinium), and coral-associated prokaryotic microbiomes is critical for predicting the fidelity and strength of coral symbioses in the face of growing environmental threats. Most coral-microbiome associations are beneficial, yet the mechanisms that determine the composition of the coral microbiome remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized microbiome diversity in the temperate, facultatively symbiotic coral Astrangia poculata at four seasonal time points near the northernmost limit of the species range...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903461/comparative-genomics-reveals-two-major-bouts-of-gene-retroposition-coinciding-with-crucial-periods-of-symbiodinium-evolution
#14
Bo Song, David Morse, Yue Song, Yuan Fu, Xin Lin, Wenliang Wang, Shifeng Cheng, Wenbin Chen, Xin Liu, Senjie Lin
Gene retroposition is an important mechanism of genome evolution but the role it plays in dinoflagellates, a critical player in marine ecosystems, is not known. Until recently, when the genomes of two coral-symbiotic dinoflagellate genomes, Symbiodinium kawagutii and S. minutum, were released, it has not been possible to systematically study these retrogenes. Here we examine the abundant retrogenes (∼23% of the total genes) in these species. The hallmark of retrogenes in the genome is the presence of DCCGTAGCCATTTTGGCTCAAG, a spliced leader (DinoSL) constitutively trans-spliced to the 5'-end of all nucleus-encoded mRNAs...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894640/coral-larvae-for-restoration-and-research-a-large-scale-method-for-rearing-acropora-millepora-larvae-inducing-settlement-and-establishing-symbiosis
#15
F Joseph Pollock, Sefano M Katz, Jeroen A J M van de Water, Sarah W Davies, Margaux Hein, Gergely Torda, Mikhail V Matz, Victor H Beltran, Patrick Buerger, Eneour Puill-Stephan, David Abrego, David G Bourne, Bette L Willis
Here we describe an efficient and effective technique for rearing sexually-derived coral propagules from spawning through larval settlement and symbiont uptake with minimal impact on natural coral populations. We sought to maximize larval survival while minimizing expense and daily husbandry maintenance by experimentally determining optimized conditions and protocols for gamete fertilization, larval cultivation, induction of larval settlement by crustose coralline algae, and inoculation of newly settled juveniles with their dinoflagellate symbiont Symbiodinium...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888836/transcriptome-sequencing-and-characterization-of-symbiodinium-muscatinei-and-elliptochloris-marina-symbionts-found-within-the-aggregating-sea-anemone-anthopleura-elegantissima
#16
Jason C Macrander, James L Dimond, Brian L Bingham, Adam M Reitzel
There is a growing body of literature using transcriptomic data to study how tropical cnidarians and their photosynthetic endosymbionts respond to environmental stressors and participate in metabolic exchange. Despite these efforts, our understanding of how essential genes function to facilitate symbiosis establishment and maintenance remains limited. The inclusion of taxonomically and ecologically diverse endosymbionts will enhance our understanding of these interactions. Here we characterize the transcriptomes of two very different symbionts found within the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima: the chlorophyte Elliptochloris marina and the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium muscatinei...
September 6, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867132/symbiont-dynamics-during-thermal-acclimation-using-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-model-holobionts
#17
Laura Núñez-Pons, Iacopo Bertocci, Garen Baghdasarian
Warming oceans menace reef ecosystems by disrupting symbiosis between cnidarians and Symbiodinium zooxanthellae, thus triggering bleach episodes. Temperature fluctuations promote adjustments in physiological variables and symbiont composition, which can cause stress responses, but can also yield adaptation if fitter host-symbiont homeostasis are achieved. To understand such processes manipulative studies are required, but many reef-building cnidarians pose limitations to experimental prospects. We exposed Exaiptasia anemones to Gradual Thermal Stress (GTS) and Heat Shock (HS) exposures and monitored chlorophyll and symbiont dynamics to test the phenotypic plasticity of these photosynthetic holobionts...
August 24, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855618/the-molecular-basis-of-differential-morphology-and-bleaching-thresholds-in-two-morphs-of-the-coral-pocillopora-acuta
#18
Hillary Smith, Hannah Epstein, Gergely Torda
Processes of cnidarian evolution, including hybridization and phenotypic plasticity, have complicated the clear diagnosis of species boundaries within the phylum. Pocillopora acuta, a species of scleractinian coral that was recently split from the widespread Pocillopora damicornis species complex, occurs in at least two distinct morphs on the Great Barrier Reef. Contrasting morphology combined with evidence of differential bleaching thresholds among sympatrically distributed colonies suggest that the taxonomy of this recently described species is not fully resolved and may represent its own species complex...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843439/symbiotic-dinoflagellate-functional-diversity-mediates-coral-survival-under-ecological-crisis
#19
REVIEW
David J Suggett, Mark E Warner, William Leggat
Coral reefs have entered an era of 'ecological crisis' as climate change drives catastrophic reef loss worldwide. Coral growth and stress susceptibility are regulated by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium). The phylogenetic diversity of Symbiodinium frequently corresponds to patterns of coral health and survival, but knowledge of functional diversity is ultimately necessary to reconcile broader ecological success over space and time. We explore here functional traits underpinning the complex biology of Symbiodinium that spans free-living algae to coral endosymbionts...
October 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835914/the-role-of-floridoside-in-osmoadaptation-of-coral-associated-algal-endosymbionts-to-high-salinity-conditions
#20
Michael A Ochsenkühn, Till Röthig, Cecilia D'Angelo, Jörg Wiedenmann, Christian R Voolstra
The endosymbiosis between Symbiodinium dinoflagellates and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. The survival of these ecosystems is under threat at a global scale, and better knowledge is needed to conceive strategies for mitigating future reef loss. Environmental disturbance imposing temperature, salinity, and nutrient stress can lead to the loss of the Symbiodinium partner, causing so-called coral bleaching. Some of the most thermotolerant coral-Symbiodinium associations occur in the Persian/Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, which also represent the most saline coral habitats...
August 2017: Science Advances
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