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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526200/nickel-and-ocean-warming-affect-scleractinian-coral-growth
#1
T Biscéré, A Lorrain, R Rodolfo-Metalpa, A Gilbert, A Wright, C Devissi, C Peignon, R Farman, E Duvieilbourg, C Payri, F Houlbrèque
The sensitivity of corals and their Symbiodinium to warming has been extensively documented; however very few studies considered that anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution have already an impact on many fringing reefs. Thus, today, nickel releases are common in coastal ecosystems. In this study, two major reef-building species Acropora muricata and Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in situ to ambient and moderate nickel concentrations on a short-term period (1h) using benthic chamber experiments. Simultaneously, we tested in laboratory conditions the combined effects of a chronic exposure (8weeks) to moderate nickel concentrations and ocean warming on A...
May 17, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510705/crystal-structure-of-octocoral-lectin-sll-2-complexed-with-forssman-antigen-tetrasaccharide
#2
Akiko Kita, Mitsuru Jimbo, Ryuichi Sakai, Yukio Morimoto, Ryota Takeuchi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Takashi Takahashi, Kunio Miki
A symbiosis-related lectin, SLL-2, from the octocoral Sinularia lochmodes, distributes densely on the cell surface of microalgae, Symbiodinium sp., an endosymbiotic dinoflagellate of the coral, and is also shown to be a chemical cue that transforms dinoflagellates into a non-motile (coccoid) symbiotic state. SLL-2 binds to the sugar chain of the molecule similar to Forssman antigen pentasaccharide (GalNAcα1-3GalNAcβ1-3 Galα1-4 Galβ1-4Glc) on the surface of microalgae with high affinity. Here we report the crystal structure of the complex between SLL-2 and Forssman antigen tetrasaccharide (GalNAcα1-3GalNAcβ1-3 Galα1-4 Galβ) at 3...
May 16, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501690/toxicity-estimates-for-diuron-and-atrazine-for-the-tropical-marine-cnidarian-exaiptasia-pallida-and-in-hospite-symbiodinium-spp-using-pam-chlorophyll-a-fluorometry
#3
Pelli Louise Howe, Amanda Jean Reichelt-Brushett, Malcolm William Clark, Cliff Ross Seery
Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481198/a-diverse-host-thrombospondin-type-1-repeat-protein-repertoire-promotes-symbiont-colonization-during-establishment-of-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#4
Emilie-Fleur Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Philipp Neubauer, Olivier Detournay, Kenneth Tan, Simon K Davy, Virginia M Weis
The mutualistic endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is mediated by complex inter-partner signaling events, where the host cnidarian innate immune system plays a crucial role in recognition and regulation of symbionts. To date, little is known about the diversity of thrombospondin-type-1 repeat (TSR) domain proteins in basal metazoans and or their potential role in regulation of cnidarian-dinoflagellate mutualisms. We reveal a large and diverse repertoire of TSR proteins in seven anthozoan species, and show that in the model sea anemone Aiptasia pallida the TSR domain promotes colonization of the host by the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum...
May 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464532/correspondence-of-coral-holobiont-metabolome-with-symbiotic-bacteria-archaea-and-symbiodinium-communities
#5
Emilia M Sogin, Hollie M Putnam, Craig E Nelson, Paul Anderson, Ruth D Gates
Microbial symbiotic partners, such as those associated with Scleractinian corals, mediate biochemical transformations that influence host performance and survival. While evidence suggests microbial community composition partly accounts for differences in coral physiology, how these symbionts affect metabolic pathways remains underexplored. We aimed to assess functional implications of variation among coral-associated microbial partners in hospite. To this end, we characterized and compared metabolomic profiles and microbial community composition from nine reef-building coral species...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464391/exploratory-analysis-of-symbiodinium-transcriptomes-reveals-potential-latent-infection-by-large-dsdna-viruses
#6
Scott A Lawrence, Sheri A Floge, Joanne E Davy, Simon K Davy, William H Wilson
Coral reefs are in decline worldwide. Much of this decline is attributable to mass coral bleaching events and disease outbreaks, both of which are linked to anthropogenic climate change. Despite increased research effort, much remains unknown about these phenomena, especially the causative agents of many coral diseases. In particular, coral-associated viruses have received little attention, and their potential roles in coral diseases are largely unknown. Previous microscopy studies have produced evidence of viral infections in Symbiodinium, the endosymbiotic algae critical for coral survival, and more recently molecular evidence of Symbiodinium-infecting viruses has emerged from metagenomic studies of corals...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447372/rapid-thermal-adaptation-in-photosymbionts-of-reef-building-corals
#7
Leela J Chakravarti, Victor H Beltran, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Climate warming is occurring at a rate not experienced by life on Earth for 10 s of millions of years, and it is unknown whether the coral-dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium spp.) symbiosis can evolve fast enough to ensure coral reef persistence. Coral thermal tolerance is partly dependent on the Symbiodinium hosted. Therefore, directed laboratory evolution in Symbiodinium has been proposed as a strategy to enhance coral holobiont thermal tolerance. Using a reciprocal transplant design, we show that the upper temperature tolerance and temperature tolerance range of Symbiodinium C1 increased after ~80 asexual generations (2...
April 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407448/draft-genomes-of-the-corallimorpharians-amplexidiscus-fenestrafer-and-discosoma-sp
#8
Xin Wang, Yi Jin Liew, Yong Li, Didier Zoccola, Sylvie Tambutte, Manuel Aranda
Corallimorpharia are the closest non-calcifying relatives of reef-building corals. Aside from their popularity among aquarium hobbyists, their evolutionary position between the Actiniaria (sea anemones) and the Scleractinia (hard corals) makes them ideal candidates for comparative studies aiming at understanding the evolution of hexacorallian orders in general and reef-building corals in particular. Here we have sequenced and assembled two draft genomes for the Corallimorpharia species Amplexidiscus fenestrafer and Discosoma sp...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390081/symbiodinium-mitigate-the-combined-effects-of-hypoxia-and-acidification-on-a-non-calcifying-cnidarian
#9
Shannon G Klein, Kylie A Pitt, Matthew R Nitschke, Samantha Goyen, David T Welsh, David J Suggett, Anthony R Carroll
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O2 and assimilate CO2 , and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for non-calcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp...
April 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365021/trophic-and-stoichiometric-consequences-of-nutrification-for-the-intertidal-tropical-zoanthid-zoanthus-sociatus
#10
Miguel C Leal, Rui J M Rocha, Jaime M Anaya-Rojas, Igor C S Cruz, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
Zoanthids are conspicuous and abundant members of intertidal environments, where they are exposed to large environmental fluctuations and subject to increasing loads of anthropogenic nutrients. Here we assess the trophic ecology and stoichiometric consequences of nutrient loading for symbiotic zoanthids inhabiting different intertidal habitats. More specifically, we analysed the stable isotope signature (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), elemental composition (C, N and P) and stoichiometry (C:N, C:P, N:P) of Zoanthus sociatus differently exposed to nutrification...
March 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363426/molecular-pathology-of-skeletal-growth-anomalies-in-the-brain-coral-platygyra-carnosa-a-meta-transcriptomic-analysis
#11
Yu Zhang, Jin Sun, Huawei Mu, Janice C Y Lun, Jian-Wen Qiu
Coral skeletal growth anomaly (GA) is a common coral disease. Although extensive ecological characterizations of coral GA have been performed, the molecular pathology of this disease remains largely unknown. We compared the meta-transcriptome of normal and GA-affected polyps of Platygyra carnosa using RNA-Seq. Approximately 50 million sequences were generated from four pairs of normal and GA-affected tissue samples. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in P. carnosa and 31 DEGs in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium sp...
March 28, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355291/site-specific-variation-in-gene-expression-from-symbiodinium-spp-associated-with-offshore-and-inshore-porites-astreoides-in-the-lower-florida-keys-is-lost-with-bleaching-and-disease-stress
#12
Briana Hauff Salas, Joshua A Haslun, Kevin B Strychar, Peggy H Ostrom, James M Cervino
Scleractinian coral are experiencing unprecedented rates of mortality due to increases in sea surface temperatures in response to global climate change. Some coral species however, survive high temperature events due to a reduced susceptibility to bleaching. We investigated the relationship between bleaching susceptibility and expression of five metabolically related genes of Symbiodinium spp. from the coral Porites astreoides originating from an inshore and offshore reef in the Florida Keys. The acclimatization potential of Symbiodinium spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326066/beneficial-microorganisms-for-corals-bmc-proposed-mechanisms-for-coral-health-and-resilience
#13
REVIEW
Raquel S Peixoto, Phillipe M Rosado, Deborah Catharine de Assis Leite, Alexandre S Rosado, David G Bourne
The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium. Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323278/acceptable-symbiont-cell-size-differs-among-cnidarian-species-and-may-limit-symbiont-diversity
#14
Elise Biquand, Nami Okubo, Yusuke Aihara, Vivien Rolland, David C Hayward, Masayuki Hatta, Jun Minagawa, Tadashi Maruyama, Shunichi Takahashi
Reef-building corals form symbiotic relationships with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Symbiodinium are genetically and physiologically diverse, and corals may be able to adapt to different environments by altering their dominant Symbiodinium phylotype. Notably, each coral species associates only with specific Symbiodinium phylotypes, and consequently the diversity of symbionts available to the host is limited by the species specificity. Currently, it is widely presumed that species specificity is determined by the combination of cell-surface molecules on the host and symbiont...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293249/transcriptomic-analysis-of-thermally-stressed-symbiodinium-reveals-differential-expression-of-stress-and-metabolism-genes
#15
Sarah L Gierz, Sylvain Forêt, William Leggat
Endosymbioses between dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and scleractinian coral species form the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. The coral symbiosis is highly susceptible to elevated temperatures, resulting in coral bleaching, where the algal symbiont is released from host cells. This experiment aimed to determine the transcriptional changes in cultured Symbiodinium, to better understand the response of cellular mechanisms under future temperature conditions. Cultures were exposed to elevated temperatures (average 31°C) or control conditions (24...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286360/biogeography-and-molecular-diversity-of-coral-symbionts-in-the-genus-symbiodinium-around-the-arabian-peninsula
#16
Maren Ziegler, Chatchanit Arif, John A Burt, Sergey Dobretsov, Cornelia Roder, Todd C LaJeunesse, Christian R Voolstra
AIM: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. LOCATION: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG)...
March 2017: Journal of Biogeography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272836/mapping-carbon-fate-during-bleaching-in-a-model-cnidarian-symbiosis-the-application-of-13-c-metabolomics
#17
Katie E Hillyer, Daniel A Dias, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Simon K Davy
Coral bleaching is a major threat to the persistence of coral reefs. Yet we lack detailed knowledge of the metabolic interactions that determine symbiosis function and bleaching-induced change. We mapped autotrophic carbon fate within the free metabolite pools of both partners of a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis (Aiptasia-Symbiodinium) during exposure to thermal stress via the stable isotope tracer ((13) C bicarbonate), coupled to GC-MS. Symbiont photodamage and pronounced bleaching coincided with substantial increases in the turnover of non(13) C-labelled pools in the dinoflagellate (lipid and starch store catabolism)...
June 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245292/condition-specific-rna-editing-in-the-coral-symbiont-symbiodinium-microadriaticum
#18
Yi Jin Liew, Yong Li, Sebastian Baumgarten, Christian R Voolstra, Manuel Aranda
RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242282/phosphate-deficiency-promotes-coral-bleaching-and-is-reflected-by-the-ultrastructure-of-symbiotic-dinoflagellates
#19
Sabrina Rosset, Jörg Wiedenmann, Adam J Reed, Cecilia D'Angelo
Enrichment of reef environments with dissolved inorganic nutrients is considered a major threat to the survival of corals living in symbiosis with dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium sp.). We argue, however, that the direct negative effects on the symbiosis are not necessarily caused by the nutrient enrichment itself but by the phosphorus starvation of the algal symbionts that can be caused by skewed nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios. We exposed corals to imbalanced N:P ratios in long-term experiments and found that the undersupply of phosphate severely disturbed the symbiosis, indicated by the loss of coral biomass, malfunctioning of algal photosynthesis and bleaching of the corals...
May 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223979/broadcast-spawning-coral-mussismilia-hispida-can-vertically-transfer-its-associated-bacterial-core
#20
Deborah C A Leite, Pedro Leão, Amana G Garrido, Ulysses Lins, Henrique F Santos, Débora O Pires, Clovis B Castro, Jan D van Elsas, Carla Zilberberg, Alexandre S Rosado, Raquel S Peixoto
The hologenome theory of evolution (HTE), which is under fierce debate, presupposes that parts of the microbiome are transmitted from one generation to the next [vertical transmission (VT)], which may also influence the evolution of the holobiont. Even though bacteria have previously been described in early life stages of corals, these early life stages (larvae) could have been inoculated in the water and not inside the parental colony (through gametes) carrying the parental microbiome. How Symbiodinium is transmitted to offspring is also not clear, as only one study has described this mechanism in spawners...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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