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Philip Mercurio, Geoff Eaglesham, Stephen Parks, Matt Kenway, Victor Beltran, Florita Flores, Jochen F Mueller, Andrew P Negri
The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/Fm ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sheila A Kitchen, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis
In host-microbe interactions, signaling lipids function in interpartner communication during both the establishment and maintenance of associations. Previous evidence suggests that sphingolipids play a role in the mutualistic cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbiosis. Exogenously applied sphingolipids have been shown to alter this partnership, though endogenous host regulation of sphingolipids by the sphingosine rheostat under different symbiotic conditions has not been characterized. The rheostat regulates levels of pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and pro-apoptotic sphingosine (Sph) through catalytic activities of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and S1P phosphatase (SGPP)...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
Christabel Y L Chan, Kum C Hiong, Mel V Boo, Celine Y L Choo, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
Giant clams live in nutrient-poor reef waters of the Indo-Pacific and rely on symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium spp., also known as zooxanthellae) for nutrients. As the symbionts are nitrogen deficient, the host clam has to absorb exogenous nitrogen and supply it to them. This study aimed to demonstrate light-enhanced urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa , and to clone and characterize the urea active transporter, DUR3-like, from its ctenidium (gill). Results indicate that T. squamosa could absorb exogenous urea, and the rate of urea uptake in light was significantly higher than that in darkness...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jan D Brüwer, Christian R Voolstra
Current research posits that all multicellular organisms live in symbioses with associated microorganisms and form so-called metaorganisms or holobionts. Cnidarian metaorganisms are of specific interest given that stony corals provide the foundation of the globally threatened coral reef ecosystems. To gain first insight into viruses associated with the coral model system Aiptasia ( sensu Exaiptasia pallida ), we analyzed an existing RNA-Seq dataset of aposymbiotic, partially populated, and fully symbiotic Aiptasia CC7 anemones with Symbiodinium ...
2018: PeerJ
Rachel R S Fam, Kum C Hiong, Celine Y L Choo, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
Giant clams harbor symbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium), which are nitrogen-deficient, mainly in the fleshy and colorful outer mantle. This study aimed to sequence and characterize the algal Glutamine Synthetase (GS) and Glutamate Synthase (GLT), which constitute the glutamate synthase cycle (or GS-GOGAT cycle, whereby GOGAT is the protein acronym of GLT) of nitrogen assimilation, from the outer mantle of the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa. We had identified a novel GS-like cDNA coding sequence of 2325 bp, and named it as T...
February 26, 2018: Gene
Blake D Ramsby, Mia O Hoogenboom, Steve Whalan, Nicole S Webster
Bioeroding sponges break down calcium carbonate substratum, including coral skeleton, and their capacity for reef erosion is expected to increase in warmer and more acidic oceans. However, elevated temperature can disrupt the functionally important microbial symbionts of some sponge species, often with adverse consequences for host health. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the microbial community of the bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis and assess how the community responds to seawater temperatures incrementally increasing from 23°C to 32°C...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Anny Cárdenas, Astrid Gärdes, Christian Wild, Christian R Voolstra
The importance of Symbiodinium algal endosymbionts and a diverse suite of bacteria for coral holobiont health and functioning are widely acknowledged. Yet, we know surprisingly little about microbial community dynamics and the stability of host-microbe associations under adverse environmental conditions. To gain insight into the stability of coral host-microbe associations and holobiont structure, we assessed changes in the community structure of Symbiodinium and bacteria associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa under excess organic nutrient conditions...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Irene B Rodriguez, Tung-Yuan Ho
Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniel Aagren Nielsen, Katherina Petrou, Ruth D Gates
Ocean warming is resulting in increased occurrence of mass coral bleaching; a response in which the intracellular algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium sp.) are expelled from the coral host due to physiological stress. This detrimental process is often attributed to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leak out of the endosymbionts and causes damage to the host cell, though direct evidence validating this link is limited. Here, for the first time, we used confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes to investigate if endosymbiont ROS production significantly and predictably affects physiological parameters in its host cell...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
Kelly Brener-Raffalli, Camille Clerissi, Jeremie Vidal-Dupiol, Mehdi Adjeroud, François Bonhomme, Marine Pratlong, Didier Aurelle, Guillaume Mitta, Eve Toulza
BACKGROUND: Although the term holobiont has been popularized in corals with the advent of the hologenome theory of evolution, the underlying concepts are still a matter of debate. Indeed, the relative contribution of host and environment and especially thermal regime in shaping the microbial communities should be examined carefully to evaluate the potential role of symbionts for holobiont adaptation in the context of global changes. We used the sessile, long-lived, symbiotic and environmentally sensitive reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis to address these issues...
February 20, 2018: Microbiome
Yuu Ishii, Shinichiro Maruyama, Konomi Fujimura-Kamada, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Shunichi Takahashi, Masakado Kawata, Jun Minagawa
Coral reef ecosystems rely on stable symbiotic relationship between the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. and host cnidarian animals. The collapse of such symbiosis could cause coral 'bleaching' and subsequent host death. Despite huge interest on Symbiodinium, lack of mutant strains and readily available genetic tools have hampered molecular research. A major issue was the tolerance to marker antibiotics. Here, we isolated Symbiodinium mutants requiring uracil for growth, and hence, useful in transformation screening...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kate M Quigley, Patricia A Warner, Line K Bay, Bette L Willis
Determining the extent to which Symbiodinium communities in corals are inherited versus environmentally acquired is fundamental to understanding coral resilience and to predicting coral responses to stressors like warming oceans that disrupt this critical endosymbiosis. We examined the fidelity with which Symbiodinium communities in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix are vertically transmitted and the extent to which communities are genetically regulated, by genotyping the symbiont communities within 60 larvae and their parents (9 maternal and 45 paternal colonies) using high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 locus...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
Michelle Achlatis, Mathieu Pernice, Kathryn Green, Paul Guagliardo, Matthew R Kilburn, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Sophie Dove
Some of the most aggressive coral-excavating sponges host intracellular dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium, which are hypothesized to provide the sponges with autotrophic energy that powers bioerosion. Investigations of the contribution of Symbiodinium to host metabolism and particularly inorganic nutrient recycling are complicated, however, by the presence of alternative prokaryotic candidates for this role. Here, novel methods are used to study nutrient assimilation and transfer within and between the outer-layer cells of the Indopacific bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis...
January 31, 2018: ISME Journal
Anderson B Mayfield, Yi-Jyun Chen, Chi-Yu Lu, Chii-Shiarng Chen
Although most reef-building corals live near the upper threshold of their thermotolerance, some scleractinians are resilient to temperature increases. For instance, Pocillopora acuta specimens from an upwelling habitat in Southern Taiwan survived a nine-month experimental exposure to 30°C, a temperature hypothesized to induce stress. To gain a greater understanding of the molecular pathways underlying such high-temperature acclimation, the protein profiles of experimental controls incubated at 27°C were compared to those of conspecific P...
2018: PloS One
David M Baker, Christopher J Freeman, Jane C Y Wong, Marilyn L Fogel, Nancy Knowlton
Coastal oceans are increasingly eutrophic, warm and acidic through the addition of anthropogenic nitrogen and carbon, respectively. Among the most sensitive taxa to these changes are scleractinian corals, which engineer the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth. Corals' sensitivity is a consequence of their evolutionary investment in symbiosis with the dinoflagellate alga, Symbiodinium. Together, the coral holobiont has dominated oligotrophic tropical marine habitats. However, warming destabilizes this association and reduces coral fitness...
January 29, 2018: ISME Journal
Emily S Bellis, Dee R Denver
Rising ocean temperatures disrupt the symbiosis between corals and their microalgae, accelerating global decline of coral reef ecosystems. Because of the difficulty of performing laboratory experiments with corals, the sea anemone Aiptasia has emerged as an important model system for molecular studies of coral bleaching and symbiosis. Here, we investigate natural variation in bleaching responses among different genetic lineages of Aiptasia. Both heat- and cold-induced paths to symbiosis breakdown were analyzed...
October 2017: Biological Bulletin
Mario Fernando Ortiz-Matamoros, Marco A Villanueva, Tania Islas-Flores
Transformation techniques are a fundamental tool for functional genomics studies. These techniques are routinely used in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, but in eukaryotes that are surrounded by a cell wall, these protocols have proven difficult to successfully deliver heterologous or homologous DNA within their cytoplasm and nucleus. Such cell-walled organisms represent a challenge that requires the development of genetic transformation techniques that are able to overcome their natural barrier, to achieve targeted gene expression...
January 1, 2018: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Andréa G Grottoli, Paula Dalcin Martins, Michael J Wilkins, Michael D Johnston, Mark E Warner, Wei-Jun Cai, Todd F Melman, Kenneth D Hoadley, D Tye Pettay, Stephen Levas, Verena Schoepf
Rising seawater temperature and ocean acidification threaten the survival of coral reefs. The relationship between coral physiology and its microbiome may reveal why some corals are more resilient to these global change conditions. Here, we conducted the first experiment to simultaneously investigate changes in the coral microbiome and coral physiology in response to the dual stress of elevated seawater temperature and ocean acidification expected by the end of this century. Two species of corals, Acropora millepora containing the thermally sensitive endosymbiont C21a and Turbinaria reniformis containing the thermally tolerant endosymbiont Symbiodinium trenchi, were exposed to control (26...
2018: PloS One
Jeroen A J M van de Water, Maryam Chaib De Mares, Groves B Dixon, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Bette L Willis, David G Bourne, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Global increases in coral disease prevalence have been linked to ocean warming through changes in coral-associated bacterial communities, pathogen virulence and immune system function. However, the interactive effects of temperature and pathogens on the coral holobiont are poorly understood. Here, we assessed three compartments of the holobiont (host, Symbiodinium, bacterial community) of the coral Montipora aequituberculata challenged with the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus and the commensal bacterium Oceanospirillales sp...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Amin R Mohamed, Vivian R Cumbo, Saki Harii, Chuya Shinzato, Cheong Xin Chan, Mark A Ragan, Nori Satoh, Eldon E Ball, David J Miller
Since the discovery of Chromera velia as a novel coral-associated microalga, this organism has attracted interest because of its unique evolutionary position between the photosynthetic dinoflagellates and the parasitic apicomplexans. The nature of the relationship between Chromera and its coral host is controversial. Is it a mutualism, from which both participants benefit, a parasitic relationship, or a chance association? To better understand the interaction, larvae of the common Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora digitifera were experimentally infected with Chromera, and the impact on the host transcriptome was assessed at 4, 12, and 48 h post-infection using Illumina RNA-Seq technology...
January 10, 2018: ISME Journal
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