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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796903/sibling-species-of-mutualistic-symbiodinium-clade-g-from-bioeroding-sponges-in-the-western-pacific-and-western-atlantic-oceans
#1
Blake D Ramsby, Malcolm S Hill, Daniel J Thornhill, Sieuwkje F Steenhuizen, Michelle Achlatis, Allison M Lewis, Todd C Lajeunesse
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium associate with a broad array of metazoan and protistian hosts. Symbiodinium-based symbioses involving bioeroding sponge hosts have received less attention than those involving scleractinian hosts. Certain species of common Cliona harbor high densities of an ecologically restricted group of Symbiodinium, referred to as Clade G. The relationships of these unusual Clade G Symbiodinium with Foraminifera, sponges, and black coral (Antipatharia) are rarely studied. Nonetheless, analyses of genetic evidence indicate that Clade G likely comprises several distinct species...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782552/a-dynamic-bioenergetic-model-for-coral-symbiodinium-symbioses-and-coral-bleaching-as-an-alternate-stable-state
#2
Ross Cunning, Erik B Muller, Ruth D Gates, Roger M Nisbet
Coral reef ecosystems owe their ecological success - and vulnerability to climate change - to the symbiotic metabolism of corals and Symbiodinium spp. The urgency to understand and predict the stability and breakdown of these symbioses (i.e., coral 'bleaching') demands the development and application of theoretical tools. Here, we develop a dynamic bioenergetic model of coral-Symbiodinium symbioses that demonstrates realistic steady-state patterns in coral growth and symbiont abundance across gradients of light, nutrients, and feeding...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746748/validation-and-description-of-symbiodinium-microadriaticum-the-type-species-of-symbiodinium-dinophyta
#3
Todd C Lajeunesse
It has been 55 years since Hugo Freudenthal described Symbiodinium microadriaticum (Dinophyceae), the type species of this large and important dinoflagellate genus found commonly in mutualistic symbiosis with cnidarians, other invertebrates, and certain protists. However, no type specimen was designated by Freudenthal, thus S. microadriaticum was invalid, as was Symbiodinium and every species subsequently assigned to the genus. The original culture was lost, but since 1977, a different culture, CCMP2464/rt-061, had been considered to represent S...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727232/functional-genomic-analysis-of-corals-from-natural-co2-seeps-reveals-core-molecular-responses-involved-in-acclimatization-to-ocean-acidification
#4
C D Kenkel, A Moya, J Strahl, C Humphrey, L K Bay
Little is known about the potential for acclimatization or adaptation of corals to ocean acidification and even less about the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes. Here we examine global gene expression patterns in corals and their intracellular algal symbionts from two replicate population pairs in Papua New Guinea that have undergone long-term acclimatization to natural variation in pCO2 . In the coral host, only 61 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2 environment, but the pattern of change was highly consistent between replicate populations, likely reflecting the core expression homeostasis response to ocean acidification...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713348/engineering-strategies-to-decode-and-enhance-the-genomes-of-coral-symbionts
#5
Rachel A Levin, Christian R Voolstra, Shobhit Agrawal, Peter D Steinberg, David J Suggett, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Elevated sea surface temperatures from a severe and prolonged El Niño event (2014-2016) fueled by climate change have resulted in mass coral bleaching (loss of dinoflagellate photosymbionts, Symbiodinium spp., from coral tissues) and subsequent coral mortality, devastating reefs worldwide. Genetic variation within and between Symbiodinium species strongly influences the bleaching tolerance of corals, thus recent papers have called for genetic engineering of Symbiodinium to elucidate the genetic basis of bleaching-relevant Symbiodinium traits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710419/generation-of-clade-and-symbiont-specific-antibodies-to-characterize-marker-molecules-during-cnidaria-symbiodinium-endosymbiosis
#6
Kao-Jean Huang, Zi-Yu Huang, Ching-Yen Lin, Li-Hsueh Wang, Pin-Hsiang Chou, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Hsing-Hui Li
The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is responsible for the formation of coral reefs. Changes in molecules have been identified during the process of cnidaria-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, the complexity of the molecular interaction has prevented the establishment of a mechanistic explanation of cellular regulation in this mutualistic symbiosis. To date, no marker molecules have been identified to specifically represent the symbiotic status. Because the endosymbiotic association occurs in the symbiotic gastrodermal cells (SGCs), whole cells of isolated SGCs were used as an antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to screen possible molecular candidates of symbiotic markers...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694432/seasonal-variation-modulates-coral-sensibility-to-heat-stress-and-explains-annual-changes-in-coral-productivity
#7
Tim Scheufen, Wiebke E Krämer, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Susana Enríquez
The potential effects of seasonal acclimatization on coral sensitivity to heat-stress, has received limited attention despite differing bleaching thresholds for summer and winter. In this study, we examined the response of two contrasting phenotypes, termed winter and summer, of four Caribbean reef corals to similar light and heat-stress levels. The four species investigated were categorized into two groups: species with the ability to harbour large number of symbionts, Orbicella annularis and O. faveolata, and species with reduced symbiont density (Montastraea cavernosa and Pseudodiploria strigosa)...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679724/acclimatization-of-symbiotic-corals-to-mesophotic-light-environments-through-wavelength-transformation-by-fluorescent-protein-pigments
#8
Edward G Smith, Cecilia D'Angelo, Yoni Sharon, Dan Tchernov, Joerg Wiedenmann
The depth distribution of reef-building corals exposes their photosynthetic symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium to extreme gradients in the intensity and spectral quality of the ambient light environment. Characterizing the mechanisms used by the coral holobiont to respond to the low intensity and reduced spectral composition of the light environment in deeper reefs (greater than 20 m) is fundamental to our understanding of the functioning and structure of reefs across depth gradients. Here, we demonstrate that host pigments, specifically photoconvertible red fluorescent proteins (pcRFPs), can promote coral adaptation/acclimatization to deeper-water light environments by transforming the prevalent blue light into orange-red light, which can penetrate deeper within zooxanthellae-containing tissues; this facilitates a more homogeneous distribution of photons across symbiont communities...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666005/genetic-structure-of-coral-symbiodinium-symbioses-on-the-world-s-warmest-reefs
#9
Edward G Smith, Benjamin C C Hume, Patrice Delaney, Jörg Wiedenmann, John A Burt
Corals in the Arabian/Persian Gulf (PAG) survive extreme sea temperatures (summer mean: >34°C), and it is unclear whether these corals have genetically adapted or physiologically acclimated to these conditions. In order to elucidate the processes involved in the thermal tolerance of PAG corals, it is essential to understand the connectivity between reefs within and outside of the PAG. To this end, this study set out to investigate the genetic structure of the coral, Platygyra daedalea, and its symbiotic algae in the PAG and neighbouring Gulf of Oman...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654333/identification-of-genes-for-synthesis-of-the-blue-pigment-biliverdin-ix%C3%AE-in-the-blue-coral-heliopora-coerulea
#10
Yuki Hongo, Nina Yasuda, Satoshi NagaI
Heliopora coerulea is the only species in the subclass Octocorallia that has a crystalline aragonite skeleton. The skeleton has been reported to contain the blue pigment, biliverdin IXα, which is formed by heme oxygenase (HO) during heme decomposition. There is little information regarding gene expression in H. coerulea; therefore, the biosynthesis pathway for biliverdin IXα is poorly understood. To identify the genes related to heme synthesis and degradation, metatranscripts of H. coerulea and its symbiont Symbiodinium spp...
April 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654331/effects-of-temperature-and-pco2-on-population-regulation-of-symbiodinium-spp-in-a-tropical-reef-coral
#11
Garen Baghdasarian, Andrew Osberg, Danielle Mihora, Hollie Putnam, Ruth D Gates, Peter J Edmunds
This study tested the bleaching response of the Pacific coral Seriatopora caliendrum to short-term exposure to high temperature and elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Juvenile colonies collected from Nanwan Bay, Taiwan, were used in a factorial experimental design in which 2 temperatures (∼27.6 °C and ∼30.4 °C) and 2 pCO2 values (∼47.2 Pa and ∼90.7 Pa) were crossed to evaluate, over 12 days, the effects on the densities and physiology of the symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) in the corals...
April 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649474/using-high-throughput-sequencing-of-its2-to-describe-symbiodinium-metacommunities-in-st-john-us-virgin-islands
#12
Ross Cunning, Ruth D Gates, Peter J Edmunds
Symbiotic microalgae (Symbiodinium spp.) strongly influence the performance and stress-tolerance of their coral hosts, making the analysis of Symbiodinium communities in corals (and metacommunities on reefs) advantageous for many aspects of coral reef research. High-throughput sequencing of ITS2 nrDNA offers unprecedented scale in describing these communities, yet high intragenomic variability at this locus complicates the resolution of biologically meaningful diversity. Here, we demonstrate that generating operational taxonomic units by clustering ITS2 sequences at 97% similarity within, but not across, samples collapses sequence diversity that is more likely to be intragenomic, while preserving diversity that is more likely interspecific...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642738/distinct-bacterial-communities-associated-with-massive-and-branching-scleractinian-corals-and-potential-linkages-to-coral-susceptibility-to-thermal-or-cold-stress
#13
Jiayuan Liang, Kefu Yu, Yinghui Wang, Xueyong Huang, Wen Huang, Zhenjun Qin, Ziliang Pan, Qiucui Yao, Wenhuan Wang, Zhengchao Wu
It is well known that different coral species have different tolerances to thermal or cold stress, which is presumed to be related to the density of Symbiodinium. However, the intrinsic factors between stress-tolerant characteristics and coral-associated bacteria are rarely studied. In this study, 16 massive coral and 9 branching coral colonies from 6 families, 10 genera, and 18 species were collected at the same time and location (Xinyi Reef) in the South China Sea to investigate the bacterial communities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631353/microbiome-dynamics-in-early-life-stages-of-the-scleractinian-coral-acropora-gemmifera-in-response-to-elevated-pco2
#14
Guowei Zhou, Lin Cai, Tao Yuan, Renmao Tian, Haoya Tong, Weipeng Zhang, Lei Jiang, Minglan Guo, Sheng Liu, Pei-Yuan Qian, Hui Huang
Reef-building coral is a complex holobiont, harbouring diverse microorganisms that play essential roles in maintaining coral health. However, microbiome development in early life stages of coral remains poorly understood. Here, microbiomes of Acropora gemmifera were analysed during spawning and early developmental stages, and also under different seawater partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) conditions, using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and archaea and of ITS2 for Symbiodinium. No remarkable microbiome shift was observed in adults before and after spawning...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607345/coral-lipid-bodies-as-the-relay-center-interconnecting-diel-dependent-lipidomic-changes-in-different-cellular-compartments
#15
Hung-Kai Chen, Li-Hsueh Wang, Wan-Nan U Chen, Anderson B Mayfield, Oren Levy, Chan-Shing Lin, Chii-Shiarng Chen
Lipid bodies (LBs) in the coral gastrodermal tissues are key organelles in the regulation of endosymbiosis and exhibit a diel rhythmicity. Using the scleractinian Euphyllia glabrescens collected across the diel cycle, we observed temporally dynamic lipid profiles in three cellular compartments: host coral gastrodermal cells, LBs, and in hospite Symbiodinium. Particularly, the lipidome varied over time, demonstrating the temporally variable nature of the coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. The lipidome-scale data highlight the dynamic, light-driven metabolism of such associations and reveal that LBs are not only lipid storage organelles but also act as a relay center in metabolic trafficking...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584301/high-resolution-profiling-of-coral-associated-bacterial-communities-using-full-length-16s-rrna-sequence-data-from-pacbio-smrt-sequencing-system
#16
Wirulda Pootakham, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Thippawan Yoocha, Lalita Putchim, Chutima Sonthirod, Chaiwat Naktang, Nalinee Thongtham, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang
Coral reefs are a complex ecosystem consisting of coral animals and a vast array of associated symbionts including the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, fungi, viruses and bacteria. Several studies have highlighted the importance of coral-associated bacteria and their fundamental roles in fitness and survival of the host animal. The scleractinian coral Porites lutea is one of the dominant reef-builders in the Indo-West Pacific. Currently, very little is known about the composition and structure of bacterial communities across P...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579915/microbiome-variation-in-corals-with-distinct-depth-distribution-ranges-across-a-shallow-mesophotic-gradient-15-85%C3%A2-m
#17
Bettina Glasl, Pim Bongaerts, Nathalie H Elisabeth, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Gerhard J Herndl, Pedro R Frade
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) are generally poorly studied, and our knowledge of lower MCEs (below 60 m depth) is largely limited to visual surveys. Here, we provide a first detailed assessment of the prokaryotic community associated with scleractinian corals over a depth gradient to the lower mesophotic realm (15-85 m). Specimens of three Caribbean coral species exhibiting differences in their depth distribution ranges (Agaricia grahamae, Madracis pharensis and Stephanocoenia intersepta) were collected with a manned submersible on the island of Curaçao, and their prokaryotic communities assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis...
2017: Coral Reefs: Journal of the International Society for Reef Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573035/expression-of-a-symbiosis-specific-gene-in-symbiodinium-type-a1-associated-with-coral-nudibranch-and-giant-clam-larvae
#18
M Mies, C R Voolstra, C B Castro, D O Pires, E N Calderon, P Y G Sumida
Symbiodinium are responsible for the majority of primary production in coral reefs and found in a mutualistic symbiosis with multiple animal phyla. However, little is known about the molecular signals involved in the establishment of this symbiosis and whether it initiates during host larval development. To address this question, we monitored the expression of a putative symbiosis-specific gene (H(+)-ATPase) in Symbiodinium A1 ex hospite and in association with larvae of a scleractinian coral (Mussismilia hispida), a nudibranch (Berghia stephanieae) and a giant clam (Tridacna crocea)...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573008/common-reef-building-coral-in-the-northern-red-sea-resistant-to-elevated-temperature-and-acidification
#19
Thomas Krueger, Noa Horwitz, Julia Bodin, Maria-Evangelia Giovani, Stéphane Escrig, Anders Meibom, Maoz Fine
Coral reefs are currently experiencing substantial ecological impoverishment as a result of anthropogenic stressors, and the majority of reefs are facing immediate risk. Increasing ocean surface temperatures induce frequent coral mass bleaching events-the breakdown of the nutritional photo-symbiosis with intracellular algae (genus: Symbiodinium). Here, we report that Stylophora pistillata from a highly diverse reef in the Gulf of Aqaba showed no signs of bleaching despite spending 1.5 months at 1-2°C above their long-term summer maximum (amounting to 11 degree heating weeks) and a seawater pH of 7...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546553/symbiont-community-stability-through-severe-coral-bleaching-in-a-thermally-extreme-lagoon
#20
E G Smith, G O Vaughan, R N Ketchum, D McParland, J A Burt
Coral reefs are threatened by climate change as coral-algal symbioses are currently living close to their upper thermal limits. The resilience of the algal partner plays a key role in determining the thermal tolerance of the coral holobiont and therefore, understanding the acclimatory limits of present day coral-algal symbioses is fundamental to forecasting corals' responses to climate change. This study characterised the symbiont community in a highly variable and thermally extreme (Max = 37.5 °C, Min = 16...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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