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Rachel A Levin, Victor H Beltran, Ross Hill, Staffan Kjelleberg, Diane McDougald, Peter D Steinberg, Madeleine J H van Oppen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Roberto Arrigoni, Francesca Benzoni, Tullia I Terraneo, Annalisa Caragnano, Michael L Berumen
Reticulate evolution, introgressive hybridisation, and phenotypic plasticity have been documented in scleractinian corals and have challenged our ability to interpret speciation processes. Stylophora is a key model system in coral biology and physiology, but genetic analyses have revealed that cryptic lineages concealed by morphological stasis exist in the Stylophora pistillata species complex. The Red Sea represents a hotspot for Stylophora biodiversity with six morphospecies described, two of which are regionally endemic...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shelby E McIlroy, Phillip Gillette, Ross Cunning, Anke Klueter, Tom Capo, Mary Alice Coffroth
For many coral species, the obligate association with phylogenetically diverse algal endosymbiont species is dynamic in time and space. Here, we used controlled laboratory inoculations of newly settled, aposymbiotic corals (Orbicella faveolata) with two cultured species of algal symbiont (Symbiodinium microadriaticum and S. minutum) to examine the role of symbiont identity on growth, survivorship, and thermal tolerance of the coral holobiont. We evaluated these data in the context of Symbiodinium photophysiology for nine months post-settlement and also during a 5-day period of elevated temperatures...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Naohisa Wada, Frederic J Pollock, Bette L Willis, Tracy Ainsworth, Nobuhiro Mano, David G Bourne
In situ visualization of microbial communities within their natural habitats provides a powerful approach to explore complex interactions between microorganisms and their macroscopic hosts. Specifically, the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously identify and visualize diverse microbial taxa associated with coral hosts, including symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium), Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and protists, could help untangle the structure and function of these diverse taxa within the coral holobiont...
2016: PeerJ
Thomas D Hawkins, Julia C G Hagemeyer, Mark E Warner
Symbioses between cnidarians and symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) are ecologically important and physiologically diverse. This diversity contributes to the spatial distribution of specific cnidarian-Symbiodinium associations. Physiological variability also exists within Symbiodinium species, yet we know little regarding its relevance for the establishment of symbiosis under different environmental conditions. Two putatively conspecific Symbiodinium strains (both ITS2-type A4) were isolated from the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida and placed into unialgal culture...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Wan-Nan U Chen, Ya-Ju Hsiao, Anderson B Mayfield, Ryan Young, Ling-Lan Hsu, Shao-En Peng
Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1) populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1). We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration)...
2016: PeerJ
Yohan D Louis, Ranjeet Bhagooli, Carly D Kenkel, Andrew C Baker, Sabrina D Dyall
Gene expression biomarkers (GEBs) are emerging as powerful diagnostic tools for identifying and characterizing coral stress. Their capacity to detect sublethal stress prior to the onset of signs at the organismal level that might already indicate significant damage makes them more precise and proactive compared to traditional monitoring techniques. A high number of candidate GEBs, including certain heat shock protein genes, metabolic genes, oxidative stress genes, immune response genes, ion transport genes, and structural genes have been investigated, and some genes, including hsp16, Cacna1, MnSOD, SLC26, and Nf-kB, are already showing excellent potential as reliable indicators of thermal stress in corals...
August 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Iliona Wolfowicz, Sebastian Baumgarten, Philipp A Voss, Elizabeth A Hambleton, Christian R Voolstra, Masayuki Hatta, Annika Guse
Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Roberty, P Furla, J-C Plumier
High sea surface temperature accompanied by high levels of solar irradiance are responsible for the disruption of the symbiosis between cnidarians and their symbiotic dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. This phenomenon, known as coral bleaching, is one of the major threats affecting coral reefs around the world. Since an important molecular trigger to bleaching appears related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) it is critical to understand the function of the antioxidant network of Symbiodinium species...
August 31, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Vaimiti Dubousquet, Emmanuelle Gros, Véronique Berteaux-Lecellier, Bruno Viguier, Phila Raharivelomanana, Cédric Bertrand, Gaël J Lecellier
Temperature can modify membrane fluidity and thus affects cellular functions and physiological activities. This study examines lipid remodelling in the marine symbiotic organism, Tridacna maxima, during a time series of induced thermal stress, with an emphasis on the morphology of their symbiont Symbiodinium First, we show that the French Polynesian giant clams harbour an important proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which reflects their tropical location. Second, in contrast to most marine organisms, the total lipid content in giant clams remained constant under stress, though some changes in their composition were shown...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Ikuko Yuyama, Tomihiko Higuchi, Yoshio Takei
Sulfur-containing compounds are important components of all organisms, but few studies have explored sulfate utilization in corals. Our previous study found that the expression of a sulfur transporter (SLC26A11) was upregulated in the presence of Symbiodinium cells in juveniles of the reef-building coral Acropora tenuis In this study, we performed autoradiography using (35)S-labeled sulfate ions ((35)SO4  (2-)) to examine the localization and amount of incorporated radioactive sulfate in the coral tissues and symbiotic algae...
September 15, 2016: Biology Open
Gizele D Garcia, Eidy de O Santos, Gabriele V Sousa, Russolina B Zingali, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson
Infectious diseases such as white plague syndrome (WPS) and black band disease (BBD) have caused massive coral loss worldwide. We performed a metaproteomic study on the Abrolhos coral Mussismilia braziliensis to define the types of proteins expressed in healthy corals compared to WPS- and BBD-affected corals. A total of 6363 MS/MS spectra were identified as 361 different proteins. Healthy corals had a set of proteins that may be considered markers of holobiont homoeostasis, including tubulin, histone, Rab family, ribosomal, peridinin-chlorophyll a-binding protein, F0F1-type ATP synthase, alpha-iG protein, calmodulin and ADP-ribosylation factor...
September 2016: Molecular Ecology
Tamer A Mansour, Joshua J C Rosenthal, C Titus Brown, Loretta M Roberson
BACKGROUND: Porites astreoides is a ubiquitous species of coral on modern Caribbean reefs that is resistant to increasing temperatures, overfishing, and other anthropogenic impacts that have threatened most other coral species. We assembled and annotated a transcriptome from this coral using Illumina sequences from three different developmental stages collected over several years: free-swimming larvae, newly settled larvae, and adults (>10 cm in diameter). This resource will aid understanding of coral calcification, larval settlement, and host-symbiont interactions...
2016: GigaScience
Line K Bay, Jason Doyle, Murray Logan, Ray Berkelmans
Sensitive molecular analyses show that most corals host a complement of Symbiodinium genotypes that includes thermo-tolerant types in low abundance. While tolerant symbiont types are hypothesized to facilitate tolerance to temperature and recovery from bleaching, empirical data on their distribution and relative abundance in corals under ambient and stress conditions are still rare. We quantified visual bleaching and mortality of coral hosts, along with relative abundance of C- and D-type Symbiodinium cells in 82 Acropora millepora colonies from three locations on the Great Barrier Reef transplanted to a central inshore site over a 13 month period...
June 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Javier Del Campo, Jean-François Pombert, Jan Šlapeta, Anthony Larkum, Patrick J Keeling
Ostreobium is an endolithic algal genus thought to be an early-diverging lineage of the Bryopsidales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). Ostreobium can live in low-light conditions on calcium carbonate substrata in tropical conditions. It is best known as a symbiont of corals, where it lives deep within the animal skeleton and exchanges nitrogen and carbon, as well as providing nutrients and photoassimilates. In contrast to the relatively well-studied role of the photosynthetic zooxanthellae symbionts in coral (Symbiodinium), Ostreobium phylogeny, diversity and distribution are all poorly understood...
July 15, 2016: ISME Journal
Ateeq Ur Rehman, Milán Szabó, Zsuzsanna Deák, László Sass, Anthony Larkum, Peter Ralph, Imre Vass
Coral bleaching is an important environmental phenomenon, whose mechanism has not yet been clarified. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated, but direct evidence of what species are involved, their location and their mechanisms of production remains unknown. Histidine-mediated chemical trapping and singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) were used to detect intra- and extracellular singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) in Symbiodinium cultures. Inhibition of the Calvin-Benson cycle by thermal stress or high light promotes intracellular (1) O2 formation...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Rachel A Levin, Victor H Beltran, Ross Hill, Staffan Kjelleberg, Diane McDougald, Peter D Steinberg, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Corals rely on photosynthesis by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) to form the basis of tropical coral reefs. High sea surface temperatures driven by climate change can trigger the loss of Symbiodinium from corals (coral bleaching), leading to declines in coral health. Different putative species (genetically distinct types) as well as conspecific populations of Symbiodinium can confer differing levels of thermal tolerance to their coral host, but the genes that govern dinoflagellate thermal tolerance are unknown...
September 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Herman H Wirshing, Andrew C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Molecular Ecology
E J Howells, B L Willis, L K Bay, M J H van Oppen
Symbiodinium are a diverse group of unicellular dinoflagellates that are important nutritional symbionts of reef-building corals. Symbiodinium putative species ('types') are commonly identified with genetic markers, mostly nuclear and chloroplast encoded ribosomal DNA regions. Population genetic analyses using microsatellite loci have provided insights into Symbiodinium biogeography, connectivity and phenotypic plasticity, but are complicated by: (i) a lack of consensus criteria used to delineate inter- vs...
June 2016: Molecular Ecology
Laetitia Hédouin, Marc Metian, Jean-Louis Teyssié, François Oberhänsli, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Michel Warnau
Development of nickel mining activities along the New Caledonia coasts threatens the biodiversity of coral reefs. Although the validation of tropical marine organisms as bioindicators of metal mining contamination has received much attention in the literature over the last decade, few studies have examined the potential of corals, the fundamental organisms of coral reefs, to monitor nickel (Ni) contamination in tropical marine ecosystems. In an effort to bridge this gap, the present work investigated the bioaccumulation of (63)Ni in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata and in its isolated zooxanthellae Symbiodinium, using radiotracer techniques...
August 2016: Chemosphere
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