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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523001/the-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-in-pulmonary-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Rachel G Scheraga, Brian D Southern, Lisa M Grove, Mitchell A Olman
Ion channels/pumps are essential regulators of organ homeostasis and disease. In the present review, we discuss the role of the mechanosensitive cation channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), in cytokine secretion and pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). TRPV4 has been shown to play a role in lung diseases associated with lung parenchymal stretch or stiffness. TRPV4 indirectly mediates hypotonicity-induced smooth muscle contraction and airway remodeling in asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513198/cleaning-and-infection-control-of-airway-clearance-devices-used-by-cf-patients
#2
Eynav Manor, Michal Gur, Yuval Geffen, Lea Bentur
Respiratory treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients includes use of respiratory devices. Contamination of airway clearance devices has not been adequately explored. We aimed to determine whether airway clearance devices are contaminated after use and whether cleaning guidelines for nebulizers are as effective for airway clearance devices. Patients brought their airway clearance devices to the clinic. Swabs from the devices were taken before and after cleaning and were cultured for bacterial counts. Total colony-forming units (CFU) was determined, and predominant colonies were identified using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry technology...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511651/high-resolution-mucociliary-transport-measurement-in-live-excised-large-animal-trachea-using-synchrotron-x-ray-imaging
#3
Martin Donnelley, Kaye S Morgan, Maged Awadalla, Nigel R Farrow, Chris Hall, David W Parsons
BACKGROUND: The Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) was designed as the world's widest synchrotron X-ray beam, enabling both clinical imaging and therapeutic applications for humans as well as the imaging of large animal models. Our group is developing methods for imaging the airways of newly developed CF animal models that display human-like lung disease, such as the CF pig, and we expect that the IMBL can be utilised to image airways in animals of this size. METHODS: This study utilised samples of excised tracheal tissue to assess the feasibility, logistics and protocols required for airway imaging in large animal models such as pigs and sheep at the IMBL...
May 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497033/intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-as-an-airway-clearance-technique-during-venoarterial-extracorporeal-life-support-in-an-infant-with-pertussis
#4
Conrad Krawiec, Ken Ballinger, E Scott Halstead
Initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is often followed by complete opacification of pulmonary parenchyma and volume loss. The optimal mechanical ventilator management and lung recruitment strategy of a pediatric patient requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is not known. We present a case of a 4-week old infant who developed a severe pertussis infection requiring ECLS. The severity of his illness and pertussis infection-associated intraluminal bronchiole obstruction made medical management challenging...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493047/effects-of-cpap-in-patients-with-obstructive-apnoea-is-the-presence-of-allergic-rhinitis-relevant
#5
A Cisternas, F Aguilar, J M Montserrat, M Àvila, M Torres, A Iranzo, J Berenguer, I Vilaseca
PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to compare the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the nasal cavities of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and with or without allergic rhinitis (AR/nonAR). METHODS: This paper is a prospective, longitudinal study. Thirty-four consecutive CPAP treatment-adherent patients with OSA (17 AR and 17 nonAR) were evaluated before and 2 months after treatment, by means of clinical (otorhinolaryngological symptoms, daytime sleepiness, overall and rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life), anatomical (otorhinolaryngological examination), functional (auditory function, tubal function, nasal airflow, and mucociliary clearance), and biological variables (nasal cytology)...
May 10, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489239/therapeutic-effect-of-hyaluronic-acid-in-reducing-nasal-mucosa-recovery-time-after-septoplasty
#6
Francesco Klinger, Fabio Caviggioli, Andrea Vittorio Lisa, Luca Maione, Valeriano Vinci, Mattia Siliprandi, Federico Barbera, Marco Klinger, Luca Malvezzi
Mucociliary clearance represents a host defense mechanism of airways that can be compromised by various pathologic conditions, such as nasal septal deviation. Although septoplasty can resolve obstruction, it impairs mucociliary clearance in the immediate postoperative period. Clinical studies have demonstrated how hyaluronic acid can interfere with this function. Our study aims to provide evidence of a therapeutic effect of hyaluronic acid on nasal mucosa recovery after septoplasy. Sixty-five patients underwent septoplasty...
April 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486753/small-airway-function-before-and-after-cold-dry-air-challenge-in-pediatric-asthma-patients-during-remission
#7
Michael Steinbacher, Andreas Pfleger, Gerold Schwantzer, Stefanie Jauk, Elisabeth Weinhandl, Ernst Eber
BACKGROUND: We wanted to compare cold dry air challenge (CACh) induced changes in spirometric parameters with changes in nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2 MBW) parameters in pediatric asthma patients during clinical remission over the past year (ie, with "inactive asthma"). As N2 MBW assesses ventilation heterogeneity we expected to gain detailed information about peripheral airways contribution. METHODS: In subjects with normal spirometry N2 MBW, spirometry and body plethysmography were performed at baseline, after CACh, and after salbutamol inhalation...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481660/spx-101-is-a-novel-enac-targeted-therapeutic-for-cystic-fibrosis-that-restores-mucus-transport
#8
David W Scott, Matthew P Walker, Juliana Sesma, Bryant Wu, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Juan R Sabater, William M Abraham, Timothy M Crowder, Dale J Christensen, Robert Tarran
RATIONALE: Cystic Fibrosis lung disease (CF) is caused by the loss of function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) combined with hyperactivation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). In the lung, ENaC is responsible for movement of sodium which creates an osmotic gradient that pulls fluid out of the airway. Hyperactivation of ENaC contributes to reduced airway hydration causing mucus dehydration, decreased mucociliary clearance, and chronic bacterial infections...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481640/multiple-breath-washout-outcomes-are-sensitive-to-inflammation-and-infection-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Kathryn A Ramsey, Rachel E Foong, Jasmine Grdosic, Alana Harper, Billy Skoric, Charles Clem, Miriam Davis, Lidija Turkovic, Stephen M Stick, Stephanie D Davis, Sarath C Ranganathan, Graham L Hall
RATIONALE: The lung clearance index is a measure of ventilation distribution from the multiple breath washout technique. The lung clearance index is increased in the presence of lower respiratory tract inflammation and infection in infants with cystic fibrosis, however the associations during the preschool years are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the ability of the lung clearance index to detect the presence and extent of lower respiratory tract inflammation and infection in preschool children with cystic fibrosis...
May 8, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471492/oscillating-devices-for-airway-clearance-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Lisa Morrison, Stephanie Innes
BACKGROUND: Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. Oscillating devices generate intra- or extra-thoracic oscillations orally or external to the chest wall. Internally they create variable resistances within the airways, generating controlled oscillating positive pressure which mobilises mucus. Extra-thoracic oscillations are generated by forces outside the respiratory system, e.g. high frequency chest wall oscillation...
May 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470140/temporal-structure-function-variation-in-cultured-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelium-associated-with-acute-single-exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-or-e-cigarette-vapor
#11
Johnny L Carson, Laura Zhou, Luisa Brighton, Katherine H Mills, Haibo Zhou, Ilona Jaspers, Milan Hazucha
OBJECTIVE: Mucociliary clearance sustains a baseline functionality and an "on demand" capability to upregulate clearance upon irritant exposure involving mucus hypersecretion and accelerated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) modulated by nitric oxide (NO). This study characterized these elements as well as cellular and exogenous NO concentrations subsequent to a single exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) or e-cigarette vapor (EV) on cultured human airway epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-liquid interface (ALI) airway epithelial cultures per nonsmoking human subjects were subjected to single TS or EV exposures...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459282/use-of-nasal-high-flow-in-stable-copd-rationale-and-physiology
#12
Lara Pisani, Maria Laura Vega
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a device able to deliver heated and humidified oxygen at high flows (up to 60 L/minutes). Potential benefits of HFNC are several and include the improvement of lung mucociliary clearance, the washout of upper airway dead space, the generation of a low level of positive airway pressure (PEEP effect), the decrease in inspiratory resistance and at the same time the increase in expiratory resistance. The present review aimed to describe the evidence surrounding the use of HFNC in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
May 1, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459101/innate-immunity-and-chronic-rhinosinusitis-what-we-have-learned-from-animal-models
#13
Nyall R London, Andrew P Lane
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease characterized by dysregulated inflammation. Abnormalities in innate immune function including sinonasal epithelial cell barrier function, mucociliary clearance, response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and the contribution of innate immune cells will be highlighted in this review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature review...
June 2016: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449098/insights-on-persistent-airway-infection-by-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Christian P Ahearn, Mary C Gallo, Timothy F Murphy
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common bacterial cause of infection of the lower airways in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Infection of the COPD airways causes acute exacerbations, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. NTHi has evolved multiple mechanisms to establish infection in the hostile environment of the COPD airways, allowing the pathogen to persist in the airways for months to years. Persistent infection of the COPD airways contributes to chronic airway inflammation that increases symptoms and accelerates the progressive loss of pulmonary function, which is a hallmark of the disease...
June 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448535/alpha-1-antitrypsin-supplementation-improves-alveolar-macrophages-efferocytosis-and-phagocytosis-following-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#15
Karina A Serban, Daniela N Petrusca, Andrew Mikosz, Christophe Poirier, Angelia D Lockett, Lauren Saint, Matthew J Justice, Homer L Twigg, Michael A Campos, Irina Petrache
Cigarette smoking (CS), the main risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in developed countries, decreases alveolar macrophages (AM) clearance of both apoptotic cells and bacterial pathogens. This global deficit of AM engulfment may explain why active smokers have worse outcomes of COPD exacerbations, episodes characterized by airway infection and inflammation that carry high morbidity and healthcare cost. When administered as intravenous supplementation, the acute phase-reactant alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) reduces the severity of COPD exacerbations in A1AT deficient (AATD) individuals and of bacterial pneumonia in murine models, but the effect of A1AT on AM scavenging functions has not been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446427/airway-epithelial-anion-secretion-and-barrier-function-following-exposure-to-fungal-aeroallergens-role-of-oxidative-stress
#16
Nathan A Zaidman, Kelly E O'Grady, Nandadevi Patil, Francesca Milavetz, Peter J Maniak, Hirohito Kita, Scott M O'Grady
Aeroallergens produced by Alternaria alternata can elicit life-threatening exacerbations of asthma in patients sensitized to this fungus. In this study, the effect of Alternaria on ion transport mechanisms underlying mucociliary clearance and airway epithelial barrier function was investigated in human airway epithelial cells. Apical exposure to Alternaria induced an increase in anion secretion that was inhibited by blockers of CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. Stimulation of anion secretion was dependent on Ca(2+) uptake from the apical solution...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444078/expiratory-rib-cage-compression-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#17
Lúcia Faria Borges, Mateus Sasso Saraiva, Marcos Ariel Sasso Saraiva, Fabrício Edler Macagnan, Adriana Kessler
Objective: To review the literature on the effects of expiratory rib cage compression on ventilatory mechanics, airway clearance, and oxygen and hemodynamic indices in mechanically ventilated adults. Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PEDro, and LILACS. Studies on adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units and under mechanical ventilation that analyzed the effects of expiratory rib cage compression with respect to a control group (without expiratory rib cage compression) and evaluated the outcomes static and dynamic compliance, sputum volume, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen were included...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442070/comparing-airways-clearance-techniques-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-bronchiectasis-positive-expiratory-pressure-or-temporary-positive-expiratory-pressure-a-retrospective-study
#18
Francesco D'Abrosca, Barbara Garabelli, Gloria Savio, Agnese Barison, Lorenzo Appendini, Luis V F Oliveira, Paola Baiardi, Bruno Balbi
BACKGROUND: Airway clearance techniques include positive expiratory pressure, commonly used in our clinical practice, and a recently introduced temporary positive expiratory pressure device called UNIKO(®). It is unclear which one provides the best benefit to patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this observational 4-year study was to retrospectively compare the efficacy of and specific indications for temporary positive expiratory pressure compared to positive expiratory pressure in a standard rehabilitation program...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435870/nanoparticles-that-do-not-adhere-to-mucus-provide-uniform-and-long-lasting-drug-delivery-to-airways-following-inhalation
#19
Craig S Schneider, Qingguo Xu, Nicholas J Boylan, Jane Chisholm, Benjamin C Tang, Benjamin S Schuster, Andreas Henning, Laura M Ensign, Ethan Lee, Pichet Adstamongkonkul, Brian W Simons, Sho-Yu S Wang, Xiaoqun Gong, Tao Yu, Michael P Boyle, Jung Soo Suk, Justin Hanes
Mucoadhesive particles (MAP) have been widely explored for pulmonary drug delivery because of their perceived benefits in improving particle residence in the lungs. However, retention of particles adhesively trapped in airway mucus may be limited by physiologic mucus clearance mechanisms. In contrast, particles that avoid mucoadhesion and have diameters smaller than mucus mesh spacings rapidly penetrate mucus layers [mucus-penetrating particles (MPP)], which we hypothesized would provide prolonged lung retention compared to MAP...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431414/intratracheal-instillation-of-neutrophils-rescues-bacterial-overgrowth-initiated-by-trauma-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#20
Kiyoshi Itagaki, Ingred Riça, Jing Zhang, Dave Gallo, Melissa DePrato, Leo E Otterbein, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonias are common in trauma patients and so interventions to prevent and treat nosocomial pneumonia may improve outcomes. Our prior work strongly suggests that tissue injury predisposes to infections like nosocomial pneumonia because mitochondrial debris originating from injured cells contains damage-associated molecular patterns that can reduce neutrophil (PMN) migration into the airway and diminish PMN function in response to bacterial inoculation of the airway...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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