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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345431/the-effect-of-diuresis-on-extravascular-lung-water-and-pulmonary-function-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#1
Steven C Chase, Caitlin C Fermoyle, Courtney M Wheatley, Jacob J Schaefer, Lyle J Olson, Bruce D Johnson
AIMS: The effect of extravascular lung water (EVLW) and relationship to functional status as a result of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are not well understood. We sought to quantify changes in clinical variables, EVLW, airway anatomy, spirometry, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide before and after treatment for ADHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen patients were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission. Spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and surrogates of EVLW by computed tomography were measured and were then repeated within 24 h of discharge...
January 18, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326322/eltgol-airway-clearance-in-bronchiectasis-laying-the-bricks-of-evidence
#2
EDITORIAL
Conroy Wong, Cameron Sullivan, Lata Jayaram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326318/long-term-benefits-of-airway-clearance-in-bronchiectasis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
Gerard Muñoz, Javier de Gracia, Maria Buxó, Antonio Alvarez, Montserrat Vendrell
Keeping airways clear of mucus by airway clearance techniques seems essential in bronchiectasis treatment, although no placebo-controlled trials or any studies lasting longer than 3 months have been conducted. We evaluate the efficacy of the ELTGOL (slow expiration with the glottis opened in the lateral posture) technique over a 1-year period in bronchiectasis patients with chronic expectoration in a randomised placebo-controlled trial.Patients were randomised to perform the ELTGOL technique (n=22) or placebo exercises (n=22) twice-daily (ClinicalTrials...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321377/development-of-an-airway-mucus-defect-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-rat
#4
Susan E Birket, Joy M Davis, Courtney M Fernandez, Katherine L Tuggle, Ashley M Oden, Kengyeh K Chu, Guillermo J Tearney, Michelle V Fanucchi, Eric J Sorscher, Steven M Rowe
The mechanisms underlying the development and natural progression of the airway mucus defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) remain largely unclear. New animal models of CF, coupled with imaging using micro-optical coherence tomography, can lead to insights regarding these questions. The Cftr-/- (KO) rat allows for longitudinal examination of the development and progression of airway mucus abnormalities. The KO rat exhibits decreased periciliary depth, hyperacidic pH, and increased mucus solid content percentage; however, the transport rates and viscoelastic properties of the mucus are unaffected until the KO rat ages...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319936/submucosal-gland-mucus-strand-velocity-is-decreased-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#5
Kiranya E Tipirneni, Shaoyan Zhang, Do-Yeon Cho, Jessica Grayson, Daniel F Skinner, Calvin Mackey, Lindsay Moore, Denzel Cole, Catherine G Banks, Bradford A Woodworth
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be initiated by innately impaired host defense mechanisms that predispose the upper airways to infection. Recent evidence suggests tethering of submucosal gland mucus strands represents an inciting event within cystic fibrosis (CF) airways, occurring prior to onset of chronic infection. Submucosal gland hypertrophy and defective mucociliary clearance (MCC) are present in actively inflamed sinuses, but mucus strand velocity may also be affected as a secondary event, further contributing to chronic disease...
January 10, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311363/il-1-signaling-prevents-alveolar-macrophage-depletion-during-influenza-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-coinfection
#6
Shruti Bansal, Vijaya Kumar Yajjala, Christopher Bauer, Keer Sun
Influenza and bacterial coinfection is a significant cause of hospitalization and death in humans during influenza epidemics and pandemics. However, the fundamental protective and pathogenic mechanisms involved in this complex virus-host-bacterium interaction remain incompletely understood. In this study, we have developed mild to lethal influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection models for comparative analyses of disease pathogenesis. Specifically, wild-type and IL-1R type 1-deficient (Il1r1-/- ) mice were infected with influenza virus and then superchallenged with noninvasive S...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303285/-non-cf-bronchiectasis-of-adults-short-review-for-clinical-practice-position-paper-of-board-of-disease-with-bronchial-obstruction-czech-pulmonological-and-phthiseological-society-czech-medical-association-of-j-e-purkyne
#7
Zuzana Antušová, Libor Fila, Vladimír Herout, Eva Kočová, Kateřina Neumannová, Jaromír Zatloukal, Vladimír Koblížek
Bronchiectasis is a clinically important, but poorly understood, pulmonary condition characterized by dilated and thick-walled bronchi. Bronchiectasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Targeted effort to early high-resolution computed tomography diagnosis and detailed confirmation of causation are in the spotlight of respiratory physicians in the developed countries. The risk population consists of subjects with persistent and/or productive cough, where another clear diagnosis has not been performed...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289553/advanced-aging-causes-diaphragm-functional-abnormalities-global-proteome-remodeling-and-loss-of-mitochondrial-cysteine-redox-flexibility-in-mice
#8
Rachel C Kelley, Brian McDonagh, Leonardo F Ferreira
AIM: Inspiratory muscle (diaphragm) function declines with age, contributing to exercise intolerance and impaired airway clearance. Studies of diaphragm dysfunction in rodents have focused on moderate aging (~24months); thus, the impact of advanced age on the diaphragm and potential mechanisms of dysfunction are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to define the effects of advanced age on the mechanics, morphology, and global and redox proteome of the diaphragm. METHODS: We studied diaphragm from young (6months) and very old male mice (30months)...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284856/proseal-laryngeal-mask-airway-versus-cuffed-endotracheal-tube-for-laparoscopic-surgical-procedures-under-general-anesthesia-a-random-comparative-study
#9
Suchita Shailesh Parikh, Shivam Bipin Parekh, Chaula Doshi, Varsha Vyas
Context: The Proseal LMA(PLMA), which has been designed especially for positive pressure ventilation and protection against aspiration can act as an alternative to Endotracheal Tube (ETT) as an effective airway device for patients undergoing elective Laparoscopic surgeries. Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of PLMA with ETT in patients undergoing Laparoscopic surgeries under general anaesthesia. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital with 60 patients of ASA grade I/II undergoing elective Laparoscopic surgery under general anaesthesia...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284507/a-pediatric-disease-to-keep-in-mind-diagnostic-tools-and-management-of-bronchiectasis-in-pediatric-age
#10
REVIEW
Marcella Gallucci, Emanuela di Palmo, Luca Bertelli, Federica Camela, Giampaolo Ricci, Andrea Pession
Bronchiectasis in pediatric age is a heterogeneous disease associated with significant morbidity.The most common medical conditions leading to bronchial damage are previous pneumonia and recurrent lower airway infections followed by underlying diseases such as immune-deficiencies, congenital airway defects, recurrent aspirations and mucociliary clearance disorders.The most frequent symptom is chronic wet cough. The introduction of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has improved the time of diagnosis allowing earlier treatment...
December 29, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281691/impaired-pge2-stimulated-cl-and-hco3-secretion-contributes-to-cystic-fibrosis-airway-disease
#11
Zachary M Sellers, Beate Illek, Miriam Frankenthal Figueira, Gopika Hari, Nam Soo Joo, Eric Sibley, Jackson Souza-Menezes, Marcelo M Morales, Horst Fischer, Jeffrey J Wine
BACKGROUND: Airway mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important defense mechanism against pulmonary infections and is compromised in cystic fibrosis (CF). Cl- and HCO3- epithelial transport are integral to MCC. During pulmonary infections prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is abundant. AIM: To determine the effect of PGE2 on airway Cl- and HCO3- secretion and MCC in normal and CF airways. METHODS: We examined PGE2 stimulated MCC, Cl- and HCO3- secretion using ferret trachea, human bronchial epithelial cell cultures (CFBE41o- with wildtype CFTR (CFBE41 WT) or homozygous F508del CFTR (CFBE41 CF) and human normal bronchial submucosal gland cell line (Calu-3) in Ussing chambers with or without pH-stat...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275133/inert-gas-washout-in-bronchiolitis-obliterans-following-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#12
Sylvia Nyilas, Luzia Baumeler, Michael Tamm, Jörg P Halter, Spasenija Savic, Insa Korten, Anja Meyer, Florian Singer, Jakob R Passweg, Philipp Latzin, Daiana Stolz
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) syndrome is a leading cause of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) and is associated with mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). Nitrogen multiple breath washout test (N2-MBW) measures ventilation inhomogeneity, a biomarker of central and peripheral airways obstruction. The aim of the study was to examine ventilation inhomogeneity according to cGvHD score and histologically defined BO. METHODS: This single center prospective cross-sectional study included 225 adults (mean age 52...
December 21, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246855/technological-strategies-to-estimate-and-control-diffusive-passage-times-through-the-mucus-barrier-in-mucosal-drug-delivery
#13
Jay M Newby, Ian Seim, Martin Lysy, Yun Ling, Justin Huckaby, Samuel K Lai, M Gregory Forest
In mucosal drug delivery, two design goals are desirable: 1) insure drug passage through the mucosal barrier to the epithelium prior to drug removal from the respective organ via mucus clearance; and 2) design carrier particles to achieve a prescribed arrival time and drug uptake schedule at the epithelium. Both goals are achievable if one can control "one-sided" diffusive passage times of drug carrier particles: from deposition at the mucus interface, through the mucosal barrier, to the epithelium. The passage time distribution must be, with high confidence, shorter than the timescales of mucus clearance to maximize drug uptake...
December 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246444/cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-attaches-tumor-suppressor-pten-to-the-membrane-and-promotes-anti-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-immunity
#14
Sebastián A Riquelme, Benjamin D Hopkins, Andrew L Wolfe, Emily DiMango, Kipyegon Kitur, Ramon Parsons, Alice Prince
The tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell proliferation by regulating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but the participation of PTEN in host defense against bacterial infection is less well understood. Anti-inflammatory PI3K-Akt signaling is suppressed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease characterized by hyper-inflammatory responses to airway infection. We found that Ptenl-/- mice, which lack the NH2-amino terminal splice variant of PTEN, were unable to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the airways and could not generate sufficient anti-inflammatory PI3K activity, similar to what is observed in CF...
December 11, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244804/conditional-knockout-mice-for-the-distal-appendage-protein-cep164-reveal-its-essential-roles-in-airway-multiciliated-cell-differentiation
#15
Saul S Siller, Himanshu Sharma, Shuai Li, June Yang, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Wipawee Winuthayanon, Holly Colognato, Bernadette C Holdener, Feng-Qian Li, Ken-Ichi Takemaru
Multiciliated cells of the airways, brain ventricles, and female reproductive tract provide the motive force for mucociliary clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and ovum transport. Despite their clear importance to human biology and health, the molecular mechanisms underlying multiciliated cell differentiation are poorly understood. Prior studies implicate the distal appendage/transition fiber protein CEP164 as a central regulator of primary ciliogenesis; however, its role in multiciliogenesis remains unknown...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234083/nod2-is-required-for-the-early-innate-immune-clearance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-the-lungs
#16
Sandeep D Kale, Neha Dikshit, Pankaj Kumar, Vanniarajan Balamuralidhar, Hanif Javanmard Khameneh, Najib Bin Abdul Malik, Tse Hsien Koh, Gladys Gek Yen Tan, Thuan Tong Tan, Alessandra Mortellaro, Bindu Sukumaran
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a significant cause of severe nosocomial pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals world-wide. With limited treatment options available, a better understanding of host immnity to A. baumannii infection is critical to devise alternative control strategies. Our previous study has identified that intracellular Nod1/Nod2 signaling pathway is required for the immune control of A. baumannii in airway epithelial cells in vitro. In the current study, using Nod2-/- mice and an in vivo sublethal model of pulmonary infection, we show that Nod2 contributes to the early lung defense against A...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#17
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214159/quality-of-care-during-neonatal-resuscitation-in-kakamega-county-general-hospital-kenya-a-direct-observation-study
#18
Duncan N Shikuku, Benson Milimo, Elizabeth Ayebare, Peter Gisore, Gorrette Nalwadda
Background: Birth asphyxia is the leading cause of neonatal mortality in Kenya. Quality care during neonatal resuscitation (NR) can contribute to a reduction in neonatal mortality related to birth asphyxia by 30 percent. This study assessed the quality of care (QoC) during NR for newborns with birth asphyxia. Methods: Direct observations of 138 newborn resuscitations were done in labor ward and maternity theatre. Twenty-eight healthcare providers were observed 3-5 times using a structured checklist...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201634/innovative-chest-physiotherapy-techniques-the-metaneb%C3%A2-system-in-the-intubated-child-with-extensive-burns
#19
Alexandra Ferguson, Sarah Wright
Introduction: The Metaneb® is a new generation Intrapulmonary Percussive Ventilation device utilised by the physiotherapist to assist airway clearance by providing calibrated oscillations during inspiration up to 3.8Hz. Predominantly used in the adult chronic respiratory patient, with anecdotal evidence in intubated patients, it was also proven to be safe in a paediatric lung model lab study. This case report outlines the first use of the Metaneb® with an intubated child in Australia...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198088/-efficacy-of-ivig-treatment-in-bronchiectasis-associated-with-igg-subclass-deficiency
#20
REVIEW
Yael Shostak, Mordechai R Kramer
Bronchiectasis is characterized by an abnormal dilatation of the bronchi leading to a chronic inflammatory process, airway blockage and impaired clearance of secretions. The damage to the airways is usually progressive and is the result of several pathogenic processes. In the past, healing of infections (especially pulmonary tuberculosis) was the main cause of airway dilatation and progression of chronic inflammation. Today, congenital illnesses, anatomical defects and immune deficiency play an important role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis formation...
November 2017: Harefuah
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