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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719135/multiple-breath-washout-in-paediatric-patients-after-lung-transplantation
#1
Sylvia Nyilas, Julia Carlens, Timothy Price, Florian Singer, Carsten Müller, Gesine Hansen, Gregor Warnecke, Philipp Latzin, Nicolaus Schwerk
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) from spirometry, is the most commonly used parameter to detect early allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation (LTx). There are concerns regarding its sensitivity. Nitrogen-multiple breath washout (N2 -MBW) is sensitive at detecting early global (lung clearance index; LCI), and acinar (Sacin ) airway inhomogeneity. We investigated whether N2 -MBW indices indicate small airways pathology after LTx in children with stable spirometry. Thirty-seven children without BOS on median 1...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718995/a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-and-impact-of-urinary-incontinence-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Katherine B Frayman, Traci M Kazmerski, Susan M Sawyer
This systematic review synthesizes published articles investigating the prevalence, severity and impact of urinary incontinence (UI), a condition associated with cystic fibrosis (CF). References were identified through searching Medline, Embase and PubMed using the medical subject headings 'cystic fibrosis' AND 'urinary incontinence'. Articles were included if UI prevalence was investigated as an outcome. Twelve studies met selection criteria. The prevalence of UI ranged from 5% to 76%. Age and gender contributed to this variability...
July 18, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708889/a-new-index-for-characterizing-micro-bead-motion-in-a-flow-induced-by-ciliary-beating-part-i-experimental-analysis
#3
Mathieu Bottier, Sylvain Blanchon, Gabriel Pelle, Emilie Bequignon, Daniel Isabey, André Coste, Estelle Escudier, James B Grotberg, Jean-François Papon, Marcel Filoche, Bruno Louis
Mucociliary clearance is one of the major lines of defense of the respiratory system. The mucus layer coating the pulmonary airways is moved along and out of the lung by the activity of motile cilia, thus expelling the particles trapped in it. Here we compare ex vivo measurements of a Newtonian flow induced by cilia beating (using micro-beads as tracers) and a mathematical model of this fluid flow, presented in greater detail in a second companion article. Samples of nasal epithelial cells placed in water are recorded by high-speed video-microscopy and ciliary beat pattern is inferred...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708866/a-new-index-for-characterizing-micro-bead-motion-in-a-flow-induced-by-ciliary-beating-part-ii-modeling
#4
Mathieu Bottier, Marta Peña Fernández, Gabriel Pelle, Daniel Isabey, Bruno Louis, James B Grotberg, Marcel Filoche
Mucociliary clearance is one of the major lines of defense of the human respiratory system. The mucus layer coating the airways is constantly moved along and out of the lung by the activity of motile cilia, expelling at the same time particles trapped in it. The efficiency of the cilia motion can experimentally be assessed by measuring the velocity of micro-beads traveling through the fluid surrounding the cilia. Here we present a mathematical model of the fluid flow and of the micro-beads motion. The coordinated movement of the ciliated edge is represented as a continuous envelope imposing a periodic moving velocity boundary condition on the surrounding fluid...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708440/model-calculations-of-regional-deposition-and-disposition-for-single-doses-of-inhaled-liposomal-and-dry-powder-ciprofloxacin
#5
Andrew R Martin, Warren H Finlay
BACKGROUND: Model predictions of regional deposition in the respiratory tract are useful in assessing factors that influence the effectiveness of aerosol delivery. Regional deposition models have previously been coupled with models of mucous production and clearance to estimate initial concentrations of drug deposited in the airway surface liquid (ASL) lining tracheobronchial airways. METHODS: Established models of regional deposition and ASL volumes were used to provide input to a new model evaluating the disposition of drug resulting from dissolution or release, absorption, and mucociliary clearance...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708417/association-of-antibiotics-airway-microbiome-and-inflammation-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Jessica E Pittman, Kristine M Wylie, Kathryn Akers, Gregory A Storch, Joseph Hatch, Jane Quante, Katherine B Frayman, Nadeene Clarke, Miriam Davis, Stephen M Stick, Graham L Hall, Gregory Montgomery, Sarath Ranganathan, Stephanie D Davis, Thomas W Ferkol
RATIONALE: The underlying defect in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway leads to defective mucociliary clearance and impaired bacterial killing, resulting in endobronchial infection and inflammation that contributes to progressive lung disease. Little is known about the respiratory microbiota in the early CF airway and its relationship to inflammation. OBJECTIVES: To examine the bacterial microbiota and inflammatory profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and oropharyngeal secretions in infants with CF...
July 14, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705303/nonpharmacologic-airway-clearance-techniques-is-there-trustworthy-evidence-for-their-clinical-usefulness
#7
EDITORIAL
Kazuhiro Yamaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703794/impaired-autophagosome-clearance-contributes-to-neuronal-death-in-a-piglet-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#8
Derong Cui, Dawei Sun, Xintao Wang, Liye Yi, Ewa Kulikowicz, Michael Reyes, Junchao Zhu, Zeng-Jin Yang, Wei Jiang, Raymond C Koehler
To examine the temporal relationship of cortical autophagic flux with delayed neuronal cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal piglets. HI was produced with 45-min hypoxia and 7-min airway occlusion in 3-5-day-old piglets. Markers of autophagic, lysosomal and cell death signaling were studied via immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and histochemistry in piglet brains. In vitro, autophagy was impaired in cultured mouse cortical neurons treated with chloroquine with or without rapamycin for 1 d in the presence of Z-VAD-fmk, cyclosporine A, or vehicle control, and cell viability was assessed with the MTT assay...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696180/epithelial-na-channel-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Nichola J Smith, Catherine F Solovay
The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) is a key regulator of the volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) and is found in the human airway epithelium. In cystic fibrosis (CF), Na(+) hyperabsorption through ENaC, in the absence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mediated anion secretion, results in the dehydration of respiratory secretions and the impairment of mucociliary clearance. The hypothesis of utilizing an ENaC blocking molecule to facilitate restoration of the airway surface liquid volume sufficiently to allow normal mucociliary clearance is of interest in the management of lung disease in CF patients...
July 11, 2017: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682006/air-trapping-in-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-does-ct-tell-the-full-story
#10
Tim Rosenow, Kathryn Ramsey, Lidija Turkovic, Conor P Murray, L Clara Mok, Graham L Hall, Stephen M Stick
INTRODUCTION: Mosaic attenuation on expiratory chest computed tomography (CT) is common in early life cystic fibrosis (CF) and often referred to as "air trapping". It is presumed to be localized hyperinflation due to small airway obstruction. In order to test this assumption, we compared air trapping extent to lung volumes measured on CT in young children with CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children aged below 7 years undergoing inspiratory/expiratory CT were recruited from the Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis cohort...
July 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680497/late-term-effects-of-surgery-on-nasal-functions-in-patients-who-underwent-total-laryngectomy-surgery
#11
Deniz Karaoglu, Murat Kocyigit, Safiye Giran Ortekin, Mustafa Kemal Adali
Introduction  There is a common opinion that losing airway functions in total laryngectomy patients cause changes in nasal physiological rates. Studies conducted to review the subject present gaps, especially in terms of objective measurements. Objective  We evaluated late-term effects of surgery on nasal functions in patients who underwent total laryngectomy surgery more than two years ago. Methods  We included in the study 22 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy, as well as 24 healthy subjects with similar demographic characteristics as the control group...
July 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676846/inactivation-of-the-thymidylate-synthase-thya-in-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-modulates-antibiotic-resistance-and-has-a-strong-impact-on-its-interplay-with-the-host-airways
#12
Irene Rodríguez-Arce, Sara Martí, Begoña Euba, Ariadna Fernández-Calvet, Javier Moleres, Nahikari López-López, Montserrat Barberán, José Ramos-Vivas, Fe Tubau, Carmen Losa, Carmen Ardanuy, José Leiva, José E Yuste, Junkal Garmendia
Antibacterial treatment with cotrimoxazol (TxS), a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, generates resistance by, among others, acquisition of thymidine auxotrophy associated with mutations in the thymidylate synthase gene thyA, which can modify the biology of infection. The opportunistic pathogen non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is frequently encountered in the lower airways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, and associated with acute exacerbation of COPD symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670393/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-decreases-pulmonary-clearance-of-99m-tc-labelled-particulate-matter-in-mice
#13
Cuiping Fu, Huan Lu, Xu Wu, Jie Liu, Chengying Liu, Zilong Liu, Wei Yuan, Jian Zhou, Shanqun Li
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) could cause systematic inflammation including pulmonary inflammatory response, whereas the influence of OSAHS in pulmonary clearance ability remains unknown. The main pathophysiological feature of OSAHS is chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The goal of this study is to clarify the airway clearance of particulate matter (PM) in CIH mice, and to explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into a CIH group and a control group, exposed to intermittent hypoxia and air chamber, respectively...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667160/early-postnatal-secondhand-smoke-exposure-disrupts-bacterial-clearance-and-abolishes-immune-responses-in-muco-obstructive-lung-disease
#14
Brandon W Lewis, Razia Sultana, Rahul Sharma, Alexandra Noël, Ingeborg Langohr, Sonika Patial, Arthur L Penn, Yogesh Saini
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has been linked to the worsening of ongoing lung diseases. However, whether SHS exposure affects the manifestation and natural history of imminent pediatric muco-obstructive airway diseases such as cystic fibrosis remains unclear. To address these questions, we exposed Scnn1b transgenic (Scnn1b-Tg(+)) mice to SHS from postnatal day (PND) 3-21 and lung phenotypes were examined at PND22. Although a majority of filtered air (FA)-exposed Scnn1b-Tg(+) (FA-Tg(+)) mice successfully cleared spontaneous bacterial infections by PND22, the SHS-exposed Scnn1b-Tg(+) (SHS-Tg(+)) mice failed to resolve these infections...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666954/1700012b09rik-a-foxj1-effector-gene-active-in-ciliated-tissues-of-the-mouse-but-not-essential-for-motile-ciliogenesis
#15
Michael Stauber, Karsten Boldt, Christoph Wrede, Marina Weidemann, Manuela Kellner, Karin Schuster-Gossler, Mark Philipp Kühnel, Jan Hegermann, Marius Ueffing, Achim Gossler
In humans and mice, motile cilia occur on the surface of the embryonic ventral node, on respiratory and ependymal epithelia and in reproductive organs where they ensure normal left-right asymmetry of the organism, mucociliary clearance of airways, homeostasis of the cerebrospinal fluid and fertility. The genetic programme for the formation of motile cilia, thus critical for normal development and health, is switched on by the key transcription factor FOXJ1. In previous microarray screens for murine FOXJ1 effectors, we identified candidates for novel factors involved in motile ciliogenesis, including both genes that are well conserved throughout metazoa and beyond, like FOXJ1 itself, and genes without overt homologues outside higher vertebrates...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665939/the-rna-uridyltransferase-zcchc6-is-expressed-in-macrophages-and-impacts-innate-immune-responses
#16
Elyse Kozlowski, Gregory A Wasserman, Marcos Morgan, Dónal O'Carroll, Nora-Guadalupe P Ramirez, Suryaram Gummuluru, Jasmine Y Rah, Adam C Gower, Michael Ieong, Lee J Quinton, Joseph P Mizgerd, Matthew R Jones
Alveolar macrophages orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity and are essential for early immune surveillance and clearance of microorganisms in the airways. Inflammatory signaling must be sufficiently robust to promote host defense but limited enough to prevent excessive tissue injury. Macrophages in the lungs utilize multiple transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms of inflammatory gene expression to delicately balance the elaboration of immune mediators. RNA terminal uridyltransferases (TUTs), including the closely homologous family members Zcchc6 (TUT7) and Zcchc11 (TUT4), have been implicated in the post-transcriptional regulation of inflammation from studies conducted in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665556/comparison-of-effectiveness-of-temporary-positive-expirayory-pressure-versus-oscillatory-positive-expiratory-pressure-in-severe-copd-patients
#17
Nicolini Antonello, Mascardi Valentina, Grecchi Bruna, Ferrari-Bravo Maura, Paolo Banfi, Barlascini Cornelius
INTRODUCTION: Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) is one of the most used technique of airway clearance for chronic pulmonary obstructive diseases. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two devices which use PEP: Temporary -PEP (T-PEP) and Oscillatory -PEP (O-PEP) .Both therapies apply a low expiratory pressure of 1 cm H2 O creating oscillations that decrease bronchial obstruction . METHODS: A twenty-six week randomized controlled two arm parallel study evaluated their efficacy to reduce exacerbations and to improve health status assessment tests as well as respiratory function parameters in severe to very severe COPD patients ...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663335/mitochondrial-quality-control-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells-damaged-by-s-aureus-pneumonia-in-mice
#18
Hagir B Suliman, Bryan D Kraft, Raquel R Bartz, Lingye Chen, Karen E Welty-Wolf, Claude A Piantadosi
(242 words) Mitochondrial damage is often overlooked in acute lung injury (ALI), but most of the lung's physiological processes, such as airway tone, muco-ciliary clearance, Va/Q matching, and immune surveillance require aerobic energy provision. Because the cell's processes of mitochondrial quality control (QC) regulate the elimination and replacement of damaged mitochondria to support cell survival, we evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in the alveolar region of mice in a validated S. aureus pneumonia model...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662942/secretion-clearance-strategies-in-australian-and-new-zealand-intensive-care-units
#19
George Ntoumenopoulos, Naomi Hammond, Nicola R Watts, Kelly Thompson, Gabrielle Hanlon, Jennifer D Paratz, Peter Thomas
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: To describe the processes of care for secretion clearance in adult, intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units (ICUs). METHODS/RESULTS: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted through the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) Point Prevalence Program. Forty-seven ICUs collected data from 230 patients intubated and ventilated on the study day...
June 26, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659360/lung-ultrasound-immediately-after-birth-to-describe-normal-neonatal-transition-an-observational-study
#20
Douglas A Blank, C Omar Farouk Kamlin, Sheryle R Rogerson, Lisa M Fox, Laila Lorenz, Stefan Charles Kane, Graeme R Polglase, Stuart B Hooper, Peter G Davis
OBJECTIVE: Lung ultrasound (LUS) has shown promise as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of the newborn with respiratory distress. No study has described LUS during 'normal' transition. Our goal was to characterise the appearance of serial LUS in healthy newborns from the first minutes after birth until airway liquid clearance is achieved. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Single-centre tertiary perinatal centre in Australia...
June 28, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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