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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938325/the-effect-of-dexpanthenol-vitamin-a-nazalnem-on-silastic-splints-after-nasal-septal-surgery
#1
Güven Yildirim, Tolgar Lütfi Kumral, Cem Altindağ, Erdi Özdemir, Yavuz Uyar
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dexpanthenol-vitamin A (Nazalnem) ointment applied to the surface of silastic splints with an airway immediately after nasal septal surgery on postoperative complaints and nasal mucosa function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 60 patients undergoing nasal septoplasty surgery. Group 1 (n = 30) received silastic splints with ointment containing dexpanthenol-vitamin A (Nazalnem), and Group 2 (n = 30), the control group, received silastic splints with vaseline...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934992/breast-cancer-metastases-to-the-thyroid-gland-an-uncommon-sentinel-for-diffuse-metastatic-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Agata M Plonczak, Aimee N DiMarco, Roberto Dina, Dorothy J Gujral, Fausto F Palazzo
BACKGROUND: Metastases to the thyroid are rare. The most common primary cancer to metastasize to the thyroid is renal cell carcinoma, followed by malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin, with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid being rare. Overall, the outcomes in malignancies that have metastasized to the thyroid are poor. There are no prospective studies addressing the role of surgery in metastatic disease of the thyroid. Isolated thyroidectomy has been proposed as a local disease control option to palliate and prevent the potential morbidity of tumor extension related to the airway...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927491/effectiveness-of-intranasal-sodium-hyaluronate-in-mitigating-adverse-effects-of-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-therapy
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in moderate-to-severe cases of obstructive sleep apnea cancause nasal discomfort and other undesirable problems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to test the effects of sodium hyaluronate on nasal problems that patients experienced in their daily lives, sleepiness, nasal resistance to airflow, nasal mucociliary clearance, changes in inflammatory markers, and compliance to CPAP in three groups of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on CPAP therapy...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920925/expression-of-piwi-protein-miwi2-defines-a-distinct-population-of-multiciliated-cells
#4
Gregory A Wasserman, Aleksander D Szymaniak, Anne C Hinds, Kazuko Yamamoto, Hirofumi Kamata, Nicole Ms Smith, Kristie L Hilliard, Claudia Carrieri, Adam T Labadorf, Lee J Quinton, Xingbin Ai, Xaralabos Varelas, Felicia Chen, Joseph P Mizgerd, Alan Fine, Dónal O'Carroll, Matthew R Jones
P-element-induced wimpy testes (Piwi) proteins are known for suppressing retrotransposon activation in the mammalian germline. However, whether Piwi protein or Piwi-dependent functions occur in the mammalian soma is unclear. Contrary to germline-restricted expression, we observed that Piwi-like Miwi2 mRNA is indeed expressed in epithelial cells of the lung in adult mice and that it is induced during pneumonia. Further investigation revealed that MIWI2 protein localized to the cytoplasm of a discrete population of multiciliated airway epithelial cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918395/non-invasive-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-preterm-infants-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#5
Daniel Klotz, Hendryk Schneider, Stefan Schumann, Benjamin Mayer, Hans Fuchs
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) has recently been described as a novel mode of respiratory support for premature infants. This study was designed to determine whether nHFOV decreases CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in premature infants more effectively than non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). DESIGN: Non-blinded prospective randomised controlled cross-over study. SETTING: University Medical Center tertiary neonatal intensive care unit...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894819/computational-modelling-of-cough-function-and-airway-penetrant-behavior-in-patients-with-disorders-of-laryngeal-function
#6
Bari Hoffman Ruddy, Don Nadun Kuruppumullage, Giselle Carnaby, Michael Crary, Jeffery Lehman, Olusegun J Ilegbusi
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with laryngeal disorders often exhibit changes to cough function contributing to aspiration episodes. Two primary cough variables (peak cough flow: PCF and compression phase duration: CPD) were examined within a biomechanical model to determine their impact on characteristics that impact airway compromise. STUDY DESIGN: Computational study. METHODS: A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was used to simulate fluid flow within an upper airway model reconstructed from patient CT images...
February 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889999/humoral-immune-responses-during-asthma-and-influenza-co-morbidity-in-mice
#7
Laura A Doorley, Kim S LeMessurier, Amy R Iverson, Maneesha Palipane, Amali E Samarasinghe
Humoral immunity serve dual functions of direct pathogen neutralization and enhancement of leukocyte function. Antibody classes are determined by antigen triggers, and the resulting antibodies can contribute to disease pathogenesis and host defense. Although asthma and influenza are immunologically distinct diseases, since we have found that allergic asthma exacerbation promotes antiviral host responses to influenza A virus, we hypothesized that humoral immunity may contribute to allergic host protection during influenza...
September 7, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874823/role-of-smad3-and-p38-signalling-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-cftr-and-bk-dysfunction-in-primary-human-bronchial-airway-epithelial-cells
#8
Juliette Sailland, Astrid Grosche, Nathalie Baumlin, John S Dennis, Andreas Schmid, Stefanie Krick, Matthias Salathe
Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a major airway host defence system that is impaired in patients with smoking-associated chronic bronchitis. This dysfunction is partially related to a decrease of airway surface liquid (ASL) volume that is in part regulated by apically expressed cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated, and voltage dependent K(+) (BK) channels. Here, data from human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) confirm that cigarette smoke not only downregulates CFTR activity but also inhibits BK channel function, thereby causing ASL depletion...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874459/protease-activated-receptor-2-activates-airway-apical-membrane-chloride-permeability-and-increases-ciliary-beating
#9
Derek B McMahon, Alan D Workman, Michael A Kohanski, Ryan M Carey, Jenna R Freund, Benjamin M Hariri, Bei Chen, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee
Mucociliary clearance, driven by the engine of ciliary beating, is the primary physical airway defense against inhaled pathogens and irritants. A better understanding of the regulation of ciliary beating and mucociliary transport is necessary for identifying new receptor targets to stimulate improved clearance in airway diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and chronic rhinosinusitis. In this study, we examined the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, a GPCR previously shown to regulate airway cell cytokine and mucus secretion, and transepithelial Cl(-) current...
September 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871575/inert-gas-washout-background-and-application-in-various-lung-diseases
#10
Jakob Usemann, Sophie Yammine, Florian Singer, Philipp Latzin
Multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) is a lung function technique to measure ventilation inhomogeneity. The technique was developed more than 60 years ago, but not much used for many decades. Technical improvements, easy protocols and higher sensitivity compared with standard lung function tests in some disease groups have led to a recent renaissance of MBW. The lung clearance index (LCI) is a common measure derived from MBW tests, and offers information on lung pathology complementary to that from conventional lung function tests such as spirometry...
September 5, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862497/another-brick-in-the-wall-lung-clearance-index-and-lower-airways-pathology-in-preschool-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Jonathan H Rayment, Felix Ratjen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859985/the-normal-trachea-is-cleaned-by-muc5b-mucin-bundles-from-the-submucosal-glands-coated-with-the-muc5ac-mucin
#12
Anna Ermund, Lauren N Meiss, Ana M Rodriguez-Pineiro, Andrea Bähr, Harriet E Nilsson, Sergio Trillo-Muyo, Caroline Ridley, David J Thornton, Jeffrey J Wine, Hans Hebert, Nikolai Klymiuk, Gunnar C Hansson
To understand the mucociliary clearance system, mucins were visualized by light, confocal and electron microscopy, and mucus was stained by Alcian blue and tracked by video microscopy on tracheal explants of newborn piglets. We observed long linear mucus bundles that appeared at the submucosal gland openings and were transported cephalically. The mucus bundles were shown by mass spectrometry and immunostaining to have a core made of MUC5B mucin and were coated with MUC5AC mucin produced by surface goblet cells...
October 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854668/current-and-future-therapies-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Wynne D Smith, Emmanuelle Bardin, Loren Cameron, Claire L Edmondson, Katie V Farrant, Isaac Martin, Ronan A Murphy, Odel Soren, Andrew R Turnbull, Natasha Wierre-Gore, Eric W Alton, Jacob G Bundy, Andrew Bush, Gary J Connett, Saul N Faust, Alain Filloux, Paul S Freemont, Andrew L Jones, Zoltan Takats, Jeremy S Webb, Huw D Williams, Jane C Davies
Pseudomonas aeruginosa opportunistically infects the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Initial infection can often be eradicated though requires prompt detection and adequate treatment. Intermittent and then chronic infection occurs in the majority of patients. Better detection of P. aeruginosa infection using biomarkers may enable more successful eradication before chronic infection is established. In chronic infection P. aeruginosa adapts to avoid immune clearance and resist antibiotics via efflux pumps, β-lactamase expression, reduced porins and switching to a biofilm lifestyle...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843617/model-based-clinical-pharmacology-profiling-and-exposure-response-relationships-of-the-efficacy-and-biomarker-of-lebrikizumab-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-asthma
#14
Rui Zhu, Yanan Zheng, Nathanael L Dirks, Shweta Vadhavkar, Jin Yan Jin, Kun Peng, Cecile T J Holweg, Julie Olsson, John G Matthews, Wendy S Putnam
Lebrikizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to interleukin-13 and has been evaluated as a treatment for moderate-to-severe asthma. Objectives of this work were to characterize lebrikizumab pharmacokinetics (PK), identify influential covariates, and graphically explore exposure-response relationships in moderate-to-severe asthmatics. Pooled PK data from 11 studies were used in the population PK model development. Full covariate modeling was used to evaluate the impact of pre-specified covariates...
August 23, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831038/caesarean-section-is-associated-with-reduced-perinatal-cytokine-response-increased-risk-of-bacterial-colonization-in-the-airway-and-infantile-wheezing
#15
Sui-Ling Liao, Ming-Han Tsai, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Man-Chin Hua, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Chih-Yung Chiu, Kuan-Wen Su, Shih-Yin Huang, Chuan-Chi Kao, Shen-Hao Lai, Jing-Long Huang
The relationship between cesarean section (CS) and allergic disorders such as asthma and wheezing has been inconsistent, and the mechanisms for their connection remained largely unknown. We aimed to investigate whether CS is associated with infantile wheeze and to explore the connection between CS and several risk factors known to correlate with allergy development. Mononuclear cells were isolated from cord blood and assessed for cytokine responses by ELISA. Bacteria from nasopharyngeal specimens were identified with traditional culture methods...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828301/effects-of-intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-on-airway-mucus-clearance-a-bench-model
#16
Lorena Fernandez-Restrepo, Lauren Shaffer, Bravein Amalakuhan, Marcos I Restrepo, Jay Peters, Ruben Restrepo
AIM: To determine the ability of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) to promote airway clearance in spontaneously breathing patients and those on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: An artificial lung was used to simulate a spontaneously breathing patient (Group 1), and was then connected to a mechanical ventilator to simulate a patient on mechanical ventilation (Group 2). An 8.5 mm endotracheal tube (ETT) connected to the test lung, simulated the patient airway...
August 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825630/signaling-cascade-involved-in-rapid-stimulation-of-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-cftr-by-dexamethasone
#17
Miriam Bossmann, Benjamin W Ackermann, Ulrich H Thome, Mandy Laube
Impairment of mucociliary clearance with reduced airway fluid secretion leads to chronically inflamed airways. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is crucially involved in airway fluid secretion and dexamethasone (dexa) has previously been shown to elevate CFTR activity in airway epithelial cells. However, the pathway by which dexa increases CFTR activity is largely unknown. We aimed to determine whether the increase of CFTR activity by dexa is achieved by non-genomic signaling and hypothesized that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is involved in CFTR stimulation...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822766/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-increases-muc1-expression-in-macrophages-through-the-tlr4-p38-pathway
#18
Kosuke Kato, Alec D Hanss, Marina A Zemskova, Nicole E Morgan, Marianne Kim, Kenneth S Knox, Yong Lin, Erik P Lillehoj, Kwang Chul Kim
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a critical role in the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) from the airways. However, hyper-activation of macrophages can impair bacterial clearance and contribute to morbidity and mortality. MUC1 mucin is a membrane-tethered, high molecular mass glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of mucosal epithelial cells and some hematopoietic cells, including macrophages, where it counter-regulates inflammation. We recently reported that Pa up-regulates the expression of MUC1 in primary human AMs and THP-1 macrophages, and that increased MUC1 expression in these cells prevents hyper-activation of macrophages that appears to be important for host defense against severe pathology of Pa lung infection...
October 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821389/debris-buster-is-a-drosophila-scavenger-receptor-essential-for-airway-physiology
#19
Almut Wingen, Pilar Carrera, Olympia Ekaterini Psathaki, André Voelzmann, Achim Paululat, Michael Hoch
Scavenger receptors class B (SR-B) are multifunctional transmembrane proteins, which in vertebrates participate in lipid transport, pathogen clearance, lysosomal delivery and intracellular sorting. Drosophila has 14 SR-B members whose functions are still largely unknown. Here, we reveal a novel role for the SR-B family member Debris buster (Dsb) in Drosophila airway physiology. Larvae lacking dsb show yeast avoidance behavior, hypoxia, and severe growth defects associated with impaired elongation and integrity along the airways...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818509/the-use-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#20
REVIEW
Katherine N Slain, Steven L Shein, Alexandre T Rotta
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the current literature describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children, the components and mechanisms of action of a high-flow nasal cannula system, the appropriate clinical applications, and its role in the pediatric emergency department. SOURCES: A computer-based search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar for literature on high-flow nasal cannula use in children was performed. DATA SUMMARY: High-flow nasal cannula, a non-invasive respiratory support modality, provides heated and fully humidified gas mixtures to patients via a nasal cannula interface...
August 15, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
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