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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144160/high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-in-adults-an-evidence-based-assessment
#1
Matthew G Drake
High flow nasal cannula oxygenation has distinct advantages over other oxygen devices due to its unique effects on respiratory physiology. In particular, adjustable oxygen delivery and flow-dependent carbon dioxide clearance from the upper airway reduce work of breathing and can better match inspiratory demand during respiratory distress. Historically, few studies had evaluated whether the physiologic effects of these devices translated into clinical benefit. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#2
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116046/radon-enriched-hot-spring-water-therapy-for-upper-and-lower-respiratory-tract-inflammation
#3
Desiderio Passali, Giacomo Gabelli, Giulio Cesare Passali, Ralph Mösges, Luisa Maria Bellussi
Background Radon-222-enriched hot spring therapy, which is characterized by a safe level of radioactivity, is used for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, and its efficacy has already been studied in several clinical trials. Radon-water inhalation therapy for the treatment of upper and lower airway inflammatory diseases is used in many hot springs centers. However, its application has not been reviewed to date. Methods We systematically searched the PubMed and Scopus databases for clinical trials published in the last 20 years in which objective parameters of upper and lower airway function had been tested before and after radon-enriched inhalation treatment...
August 31, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114887/cough-strength-and-expiratory-force-in-aspirating-and-nonaspirating-postradiation-head-and-neck-cancer-survivors
#4
Katherine A Hutcheson, Martha P Barrow, Carla L Warneke, Yiqun Wang, George Eapen, Stephen Y Lai, Denise A Barringer, Emily K Plowman, Jan S Lewin
OBJECTIVE: Expiratory functions that clear aspiration from the airway are compromised in patients with neurogenic dysphagia for whom cough and expiratory force may be impaired by the primary disease process. The relationship between expiratory function, cough, and aspiration is less clear in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors for whom the disease process does not directly impact the lower respiratory system. Our objective was to compare mechanisms of airway clearance (expiratory force and cough) with aspiration status in postradiated HNC survivors...
November 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111843/experience-of-using-non-invasive-ventilation-as-an-adjunct-to-airway-clearance-techniques-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-qualitative-study
#5
Maria Cecilia Rodriguez Hortal, Anna Hedborg, Gabriele Biguet, Malin Nygren-Bonnier
BACKGROUND: Adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from abnormally thick mucus that is difficult to clear from the airways. Different airway clearance techniques (ACTs) can be used to clear secretions and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can be used as an adjunct to these techniques. ACTs are ideally introduced at the time of diagnosis and thereafter modified throughout the patient's lifespan and disease progress. PURPOSE: The research aim was to describe adult patients' views and experiences with using NIV as an adjunct to ACT...
November 7, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110790/long-term-management-of-patients-with-end-stage-lung-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Domenica Federica Briganti, Frank D'Ovidio
Long-term management of end-stage lung disease differs from interstitial lung disease to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to cystic fibrosis to pulmonary vascular disease. The management includes pharmacological therapy that is disease specific such as antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis, antifibrotic drugs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; long-acting beta-agonists, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and vasodilators in pulmonary arterial hypertension...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109332/hydrogen-enriched-water-eliminates-fine-particles-from-the-lungs-and-blood-by-enhancing-phagocytic-activity
#7
Jieun Choi, Eun Suk An, Young-Hwan Ban, Da Woom Seo, Tae-Su Kim, Sung-Pyo Lee, You Lin, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Yun-Bae Kim
Particulate matters (PM) are one of the major body burdens leading to diseases. We investigated the capacities of a hydrogen-enriched water (HW) eliminating carbon nanoparticles (CNP) and carbon microparticles (CMP) from the lungs and blood, respectively. In CNP-elimination test, rats were orally administered with purified water (PW) or HW (10 or 30 mL/kg/day) for 10 weeks. At the time point of 4 weeks, the rats were challenged with intratracheal instillation of CNP (4 mg). CNP accumulated in the airways and alveoli, and induced inflammatory lesions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102290/ion-channels-as-targets-to-treat-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#8
S Lorraine Martin, Vinciane Saint-Criq, Tzyh-Chang Hwang, László Csanády
Lung health relies on effective mucociliary clearance and innate immune defence mechanisms. In cystic fibrosis (CF), an imbalance in ion transport due to an absence of chloride ion secretion, caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and a concomitant sodium hyperabsorption, caused by dyregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), results in mucus stasis which predisposes the lungs to cycles of chronic infection and inflammation leading to lung function decline...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081932/free-aspire-a-new-device-for-the-management-of-airways-clearance-in-patient-with-ineffective-cough
#9
Luca Bertelli, Giovanni Di Nardo, Salvatore Cazzato, Giampaolo Ricci, Andrea Pession
A 3-year-old girl with Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I presented with a right pneumonia. On physical examination pulmonary auscultation revealed an asymmetry of breath sounds between the 2 hemithoraces, owing to decreased breath sounds in the right hemithorax. Blood tests were normal. The initial working diagnosis was a suspected area of mucus accumulation. A treatment with Free Aspire was started. Within a few days, the girl was discharged with a normal physical examination and X-ray study result. Spinal Muscular Atrophy is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons and progressive muscle wasting...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081265/bacterial-infections-in-patients-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-comparison-with-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Christiaan Dm Wijers, James F Chmiel, Benjamin M Gaston
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with severely impaired mucociliary clearance caused by defects in ciliary structure and function. Although recurrent bacterial infection of the respiratory tract is one of the major clinical features of this disease, PCD airway microbiology is understudied. Despite the differences in pathophysiology, assumptions about respiratory tract infections in patients with PCD are often extrapolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) airway microbiology...
November 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077094/non-oncogenic-roles-of-tap73-from-multiciliogenesis-to-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Alice Nemajerova, Ivano Amelio, Jakob Gebel, Volker Dötsch, Gerry Melino, Ute M Moll
The p53 family of transcription factors (p53, p63 and p73) covers a wide range of functions critical for development, homeostasis and health of mammals across their lifespan. Beside the well-established tumor suppressor role, recent evidence has highlighted novel non-oncogenic functions exerted by p73. In particular, p73 is required for multiciliated cell (MCC) differentiation; MCCs have critical roles in brain and airways to move fluids across epithelial surfaces and to transport germ cells in the reproductive tract...
October 27, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074490/lung-disease-phenotypes-caused-by-over-expression-of-combinations-of-alpha-beta-and-gamma-subunits-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-in-mouse-airways
#12
Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Kristen J Wilkinson, Allison S Volmer, Rodney C Gilmore, Troy D Rogers, Ray A Caldwell, Kimberlie A Burns, Charles R Esther, Marcus A Mall, Richard C Boucher, Wanda K O'Neal, Barbara R Grubb
The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) regulates airway surface hydration. In mouse airways, ENaC is composed of three subunits, alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ), which are differentially expressed (α > β > γ). Airway-targeted overexpression of the β subunit results in Na+ hyperabsorption causing airway surface dehydration, hyperconcentrated mucus with delayed clearance, lung inflammation, and perinatal mortality. Notably, mice overexpressing the α or γ subunit do not exhibit airway Na+ hyperabsorption nor lung pathology...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066586/mechanical-insufflation-exsufflation-versus-conventional-chest-physiotherapy-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#13
Rasintra Siriwat, Jitladda Deerojanawong, Suchada Sritippayawan, Sumalee Hantragool, Prapasri Cheanprapai
BACKGROUND: The cough mechanism is often impaired in children with quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy, accounting for the high prevalence of pneumonia and atelectasis requiring prolonged hospitalization. Conventional chest physiotherapy (CPT) is a current technique recommended at the onset of lower-respiratory infections in cerebral palsy. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) in children with neuromuscular disease. To date, there has been no study of MI-E in children with quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy...
October 24, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061706/nlrp3-is-a-critical-regulator-of-inflammation-and-innate-immune-cell-response-during-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#14
Jesus A Segovia, Te-Hung Chang, Vicki T Winter, Jacqueline J Coalson, Marianna P Cagle, Lavanya Pandranki, Santanu Bose, Joel B Baseman, Thirumalai R Kannan
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterial respiratory pathogen known to cause a range of airway inflammation and lung and extrapulmonary pathologies. We recently reported that an M. pneumoniae-derived ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) toxin is capable of triggering NLRP3 (NLR-family, leucine-rich repeat protein 3) inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β secretion in macrophages. However, it is unclear whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is important for the immune response during M...
October 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057902/trpv4-activation-triggers-protective-responses-to-bacterial-lipopolysaccharides-in-airway-epithelial-cells
#15
Yeranddy A Alpizar, Brett Boonen, Alicia Sanchez, Carole Jung, Alejandro López-Requena, Robbe Naert, Brecht Steelant, Katrien Luyts, Cristina Plata, Vanessa De Vooght, Jeroen A J Vanoirbeek, Victor M Meseguer, Thomas Voets, Julio L Alvarez, Peter W Hellings, Peter H M Hoet, Benoit Nemery, Miguel A Valverde, Karel Talavera
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the major components of the wall of gram-negative bacteria, trigger powerful defensive responses in the airways via mechanisms thought to rely solely on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) immune pathway. Here we show that airway epithelial cells display an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration within seconds of LPS application. This response occurs in a TLR4-independent manner, via activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 cation channel (TRPV4). We found that TRPV4 mediates immediate LPS-induced increases in ciliary beat frequency and the production of bactericidal nitric oxide...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055116/inhaled-cryptococcus-neoformans-elicits-allergic-airway-inflammation-independent-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#16
Andrew J McDermott, Tyler A Tumey, Mingwei Huang, Christina M Hull, Bruce S Klein
Pulmonary challenge with the ubiquitous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans results in allergic airway inflammation (AAI) characterized by robust recruitment of eosinophils and T-cells producing type 2 cytokines to the lungs. Previous studies have demonstrated a critical role for NFκB activation within lung epithelial cells (LECs) in driving AAI in response to protein allergens, yet the role of LEC-intrinsic NFκB in promoting AAI following exposure to C. neoformans is poorly understood. To investigate the role of LEC-intrinsic NFκB in promoting AAI following C...
October 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038422/trim29-promotes-dna-virus-infections-by-inhibiting-innate-immune-response
#17
Junji Xing, Ao Zhang, Hua Zhang, Jin Wang, Xian Chang Li, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Zhiqiang Zhang
Many double-stranded DNA viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, can establish persistent infection, but the underlying virus-host interactions remain poorly understood. Here we report that in human airway epithelial cells Epstein-Barr virus induces TRIM29, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, to inhibit innate immune activation. Knockdown of TRIM29 in airway epithelial cells enhances type I interferon production, and in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells results in almost complete Epstein-Barr virus clearance...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035122/homogeneity-of-aerosol-deposition-and-mucociliary-clearance-are-improved-following-ivacaftor-treatment-in-cystic-fibrosis
#18
William D Bennett, Kirby L Zeman, Beth L Laube, Jihong Wu, Gail Sharpless, Peter J Mogayzel, Scott H Donaldson
BACKGROUND: Using planar gamma scintigraphy of inhaled radioaerosols, we have developed new analytical methods for assessing homogeneity of aerosol deposition and time-dependent particle clearance on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and applied them to a therapeutic cystic fibrosis (CF) study. METHODS: At baseline and 1 month after beginning treatment with ivacaftor, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator modulator for CF patients with at least one copy of the G551D mutation (n = 13), initial deposition and subsequent mucociliary clearance (MCC) of radiolabeled particles ((99m)Technetium-sulfur colloid, 5 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) inhaled under controlled breathing conditions were measured...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028303/neutrophil-particle-interactions-in-blood-circulation-drive-particle-clearance-and-alter-neutrophil-responses-in-acute-inflammation
#19
Catherine A Fromen, William J Kelley, Margaret B Fish, Reheman Adili, Jeffery Noble, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Michael Holinstat, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
Although nano- and microparticle therapeutics have been studied for a range of drug delivery applications, the presence of these particles in blood flow may have considerable and understudied consequences to circulating leukocytes, especially neutrophils, which are the largest human leukocyte population. The objective of this work was to establish if particulate drug carriers in circulation interfere with normal neutrophil adhesion and migration. Circulating blood neutrophils in vivo were found to be capable of rapidly binding and sequestering injected carboxylate-modified particles of both 2 and 0...
October 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025712/ion-channels-of-the-lung-and-their-role-in-disease-pathogenesis
#20
Rafal Bartoszewski, Sadis Matalon, James F Collawn
Maintenance of normal epithelial ion and water transport in the lungs includes providing a thin layer of surface liquid that coats the conducting airways. This airway surface liquid is critical for normal lung function in a number of ways, but perhaps most importantly, is required for normal mucociliary clearance and bacterial removal. Preservation of the appropriate level of hydration, pH and viscosity for the airway surface liquid requires the proper regulation and function of a battery of different types of ion channels and transporters...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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