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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762870/t-cells-and-ilc2s-are-major-effector-cells-in-influenza-induced-exacerbation-of-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#1
Bobby W S Li, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Melanie Lukkes, Menno van Nimwegen, Ingrid M Bergen, Alex KleinJan, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Arno Andeweg, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rudi W Hendriks
Influenza virus infection is an important cause of severe asthma exacerbations, but it remains unclear how a Th1-mediated antiviral response triggers a prototypical Th2 disease. We investigated CD4+ T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in influenza virus-infected mice. We found that ILC2s accumulated in the lung rapidly after influenza virus infection, but the induction of IL-5 and IL-13 secretion was delayed and concomitant with T cell activation. In an influenza-induced exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation model we noticed an initial reduction of ILC2 numbers and cytokine production in broncho-alveolar lavage compared to chronic house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation alone...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760213/changes-in-iga-protease-expression-are-conferred-by-changes-in-genomes-during-persistent-infection-by-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Mary C Gallo, Charmaine Kirkham, Samantha Eng, Remon S Bebawee, Yong Kong, Melinda M Pettigrew, Hervé Tettelin, Timothy F Murphy
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an exclusively human pathobiont that plays a critical role in the course and pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NTHi causes acute exacerbations of COPD and also causes persistent infection of the lower airways. NTHi expresses four IgA protease variants (A1, A2, B1, and B2) that play different roles in virulence. Expression of IgA proteases varies among NTHi strains, but little is known about the frequency and mechanisms by which NTHi modulates IgA protease expression during infection in COPD...
May 14, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748385/activation-of-airway-epithelial-bitter-taste-receptors-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quinolones-modulates-calcium-cyclic-amp-and-nitric-oxide-signaling
#3
Jenna R Freund, Corrine J Mansfield, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Danielle R Reed, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), discovered in many tissues outside the tongue, have recently become potential therapeutic targets. We showed previously that airway epithelial cells express several T2Rs that activate innate immune responses that may be important for treatment of airway diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis. It is imperative to more clearly understand what compounds activate airway T2Rs as well as their full range of functions. T2R isoforms in airway motile cilia (T2Rs 4, 14, 16, and 38) produce bactericidal levels of nitric oxide (NO) that also increase ciliary beating, promoting clearance of mucus and trapped pathogens...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748250/effective-silencing-of-enac-by-sirna-delivered-with-epithelial-targeted-nanocomplexes-in-human-cystic-fibrosis-cells-and-in-mouse-lung
#4
Aristides D Tagalakis, Mustafa M Munye, Rositsa Ivanova, Hanpeng Chen, Claire M Smith, Ahmad M Aldossary, Luca Z Rosa, Dale Moulding, Josephine L Barnes, Konstantinos N Kafetzis, Stuart A Jones, Deborah L Baines, Guy W J Moss, Christopher O'Callaghan, Robin J McAnulty, Stephen L Hart
INTRODUCTION: Loss of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to hyperabsorption of sodium and fluid from the airway due to upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Thickened mucus and depleted airway surface liquid (ASL) then lead to impaired mucociliary clearance. ENaC regulation is thus a promising target for CF therapy. Our aim was to develop siRNA nanocomplexes that mediate effective silencing of airway epithelial ENaC in vitro and in vivo with functional correction of epithelial ion and fluid transport...
May 10, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747251/-comparative-study-on-24-hour-multichannel-intraluminal-impedance-ph-monitoring-and-dx-ph-monitoring-in-the-diagnosis-of-laryngopharyngeal-reflux
#5
J S Wang, J R Li
Objective: The consistency and characteristics of 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance(MII)-pH monitoring and Dx-pH monitoring in the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux were investigated. Methods: Fifty-two patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux related symptoms or disease between March and October 2017 were included in this study.All patients were evaluated with 24-hour MII-pH monitoring and Dx-pH monitoring at the same time, recording each patient's number of positive laryngopharyngeal reflux events, time of acid clearance and Ryan index...
April 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743346/pgd2-dp2-receptor-activation-promotes-severe-viral-bronchiolitis-by-suppressing-ifn-%C3%AE-production
#6
Rhiannon B Werder, Jason P Lynch, Jennifer C Simpson, Vivian Zhang, Nick H Hodge, Matthew Poh, Elizabeth Forbes-Blom, Christina Kulis, Mark L Smythe, John W Upham, Kirsten Spann, Mark L Everard, Simon Phipps
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signals through PGD2 receptor 2 (DP2, also known as CRTH2) on type 2 effector cells to promote asthma pathogenesis; however, little is known about its role during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, a major risk factor for asthma development. We show that RSV infection up-regulated hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase expression and increased PGD2 release by cultured human primary airway epithelial cells (AECs). Moreover, PGD2 production was elevated in nasopharyngeal samples from young infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis compared to healthy controls...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732561/small-rna-and-transcriptome-sequencing-reveal-the-role-of-mir-199a-3p-in-inflammatory-processes-in-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#7
Pauline Bardin, Emmeline Marchal-Duval, Florence Sonneville, Sabine Blouquit-Laye, Nathalie Rousselet, Philippe Le Rouzic, Harriet Corvol, Olivier Tabary
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disease, caused by CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene mutations. CF is characterized by an ionic imbalance and thickened mucus, which impair mucociliary clearance, promote bacterial colonization, and the establishment of infection/inflammation cycles. However, the origin of this inflammation remains unclear, although microRNA (miRNA) are suspected to be involved. MiRNA are small non-coding RNA that bind to the 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) of target gene mRNA, thereby repressing their translation and/or inducing their degradation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720703/modulation-of-haemophilus-influenzae-interaction-with-hydrophobic-molecules-by-the-vacj-mlaa-lipoprotein-impacts-strongly-on-its-interplay-with-the-airways
#8
Ariadna Fernández-Calvet, Irene Rodríguez-Arce, Goizeder Almagro, Javier Moleres, Begoña Euba, Lucía Caballero, Sara Martí, José Ramos-Vivas, Toby Leigh Bartholomew, Xabier Morales, Carlos Ortíz-de-Solórzano, José Enrique Yuste, José Antonio Bengoechea, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, Junkal Garmendia
Airway infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) associates to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation and asthma neutrophilic airway inflammation. Lipids are key inflammatory mediators in these disease conditions and consequently, NTHi may encounter free fatty acids during airway persistence. However, molecular information on the interplay NTHi-free fatty acids is limited, and we lack evidence on the importance of such interaction to infection. Maintenance of the outer membrane lipid asymmetry may play an essential role in NTHi barrier function and interaction with hydrophobic molecules...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712964/an-in-vitro-transepithelial-migration-assay-to-evaluate-the-role-of-neutrophils-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-induced-epithelial-damage
#9
Yu Deng, Jenny A Herbert, Claire M Smith, Rosalind L Smyth
Large numbers of neutrophils migrate into the lungs of children with severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) disease. It is unclear how these cells contribute to viral clearance and recovery from infection or whether they contribute to disease pathology. We have developed a novel in vitro model to study neutrophil migration through airway epithelial cells (AECs), the main cellular target of RSV infection. Our model reproduces a physiologically relevant cell polarity and directionality of neutrophil migration...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698625/sphingolipids-as-targets-for-inhalation-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Katrin Anne Becker, Joachim Riethmüller, Aaron P Seitz, Aaron Gardner, Ryan Boudreau, Markus Kamler, Burkhard Kleuser, Edward Schuchman, Charles C Caldwell, Michael J Edwards, Heike Grassmé, Malcolm Brodlie, Erich Gulbins
Studies over the past several years have demonstrated the important role of sphingolipids in cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute lung injury. Ceramide is increased in airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages of CF mice and humans, while sphingosine is dramatically decreased. This increase in ceramide results in chronic inflammation, increased death of epithelial cells, release of DNA into the bronchial lumen and thereby an impairment of mucociliary clearance; while the lack of sphingosine in airway epithelial cells causes high infection susceptibility in CF mice and possibly patients...
April 24, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697011/influence-of-the-vibralung-acoustical-percussor-on-pulmonary-function-and-sputum-expectoration-in-individuals-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Courtney M Wheatley, Sarah E Baker, Cori M Daines, Hanna Phan, Marina G Martinez, Wayne J Morgan, Eric M Snyder
BACKGROUND: The Vibralung Acoustical Percussor is a new airway clearance therapy (ACT) utilizing intrapulmonary sound waves in addition to positive expiratory pressure (PEP). We evaluated the safety of the Vibralung and collected preliminary data on its ability to mediate sputum expectoration in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Over two separate studies, 10 and 11 mild to moderate CF patients were recruited for study I and II, respectively. Study I: Vibralung was used for 20 min with either no sound (NS: PEP only) or sound (S: PEP and sound) on randomized visits...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695623/tracking-polymicrobial-metabolism-in-cystic-fibrosis-airways-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-metabolism-and-physiology-are-influenced-by-rothia-mucilaginosa-derived-metabolites
#12
Bei Gao, Tara Gallagher, Ying Zhang, Mona Elbadawi-Sidhu, Zijuan Lai, Oliver Fiehn, Katrine L Whiteson
Due to a lack of effective immune clearance, the airways of cystic fibrosis patients are colonized by polymicrobial communities. One of the most widespread and destructive opportunistic pathogens is Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; however, P. aeruginosa does not colonize the airways alone. Microbes that are common in the oral cavity, such as Rothia mucilaginosa , are also present in cystic fibrosis patient sputum and have metabolic capacities different from those of P. aeruginosa Here we examine the metabolic interactions of P...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692351/intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-as-an-airway-clearance-technique-in-subjects-with-chronic-obstructive-airway-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Gregory Reychler, Emilie Debier, Olivier Contal, Nicolas Audag
BACKGROUND: Airway clearance techniques are regularly proposed as a part of the treatment in chronic obstructive airway diseases. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) is used as an airway clearance technique in patients affected by excessive lung secretions. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the physiological and clinical effects related to the use of IPV as an airway clearance technique in chronic obstructive airway diseases. METHODS: This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines...
April 24, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676632/deployment-related-lung-disease-is-associated-with-abnormal-ventilation-on-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-and-with-increased-lung-clearance-index-score
#14
Silpa D Krefft, Eva B Gottschall, Jennifer J Smith, Matthew Strand, Cecile Rose
RATIONALE: An unknown number of post-9/11 military deployers to Iraq and Afghanistan have returned with respiratory symptoms and may be at risk for deployment-related distal lung disease, detected only on surgical lung biopsy. We hypothesized that cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lung clearance index scores would differ significantly between deployers with and without biopsy-proven deployment-related distal lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess if there are differences in cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lung clearance index scores between deployers with and without biopsy-proven deployment-related distal lung disease...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676177/acetylcholine-induced-ciliary-beat-of-the-human-nasal-mucosa-is-regulated-by-the-pannexin-1-channel-and-purinergic-p2x-receptor
#15
Ba H Do, Toyoaki Ohbuchi, Tetsuro Wakasugi, Hiroki Koizumi, Mitsuru Yokoyama, Nobusuke Hohchi, Hideaki Suzuki
Background Airway mucociliary transport is an important function for the clearance of inhaled foreign particulates in the respiratory tract. The present study aimed at investigating the regulatory mechanism of acetylcholine (Ach)-induced ciliary beat of the human nasal mucosa in ex vivo. Methods The inferior turbinate mucosa was collected from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinitis during endoscopic surgery. The mucosa was cut into thin strips, and ciliary movement was observed under a phase-contrast light microscope with a high-speed digital video camera...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672230/diaphragm-plasticity-in-aging-and-disease-therapies-for-muscle-weakness-go-from-strength-to-strength
#16
Sarah M Greising, Coen A C Ottenheijm, Ken D O'Halloran, Esther Barreiro
The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle and is required to be highly active throughout the lifespan. The diaphragm muscle must be able to produce and sustain various behaviors that range from ventilatory to non-ventilatory such as those required for airway maintenance and clearance. Throughout the lifespan various circumstances and conditions may affect the ability of the diaphragm muscle to generate requisite forces and in turn the diaphragm muscle may undergo significant weakness and dysfunction. For example, hypoxic stress, critical illness, cancer cachexia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and age-related sarcopenia all represent conditions in which significant diaphragm muscle dysfunction exits...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651626/current-topics-in-the-management-of-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Christopher D Shank, Beverly C Walters, Mark N Hadley
Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 250,000 people in the USA, with approximately 17,000 new cases each year. It continues to be one of the most significant causes of trauma-related morbidity and mortality. Despite the introduction of primary injury prevention education and vehicle safety devices, such as airbags and passive restraint systems, traumatic SCI continues to have a substantial impact on the healthcare system. Over the last three decades, there have been considerable advancements in the management of patients with traumatic SCI...
April 12, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628442/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-effects-of-cpap-on-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-metabolism
#18
Luciano F Drager, Thauany M Tavoni, Vanessa M Silva, Raul D Santos, Rodrigo P Pedrosa, Luiz A Bortolotto, Carmen G C Vinagre, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Raul C Maranhao
This study aimed to explore lipoprotein metabolism in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We studied 15 men with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI ≥30 events/hour) and 12 age, body mass index and waist circumference-matched volunteers without OSA (AHI <5 events/hour). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was determined by a blind examiner. After 12 hours fasting, a triglyceride-rich chylomicron-like emulsion, labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [3H]-triolein was injected intravenously followed by blood samples collection at pre-established time...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617698/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-adaptation-to-innate-immune-clearance-mechanisms-in-the-lung
#19
Sebastian A Riquelme, Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Many different species of gram-negative bacteria are associated with infection in the lung, causing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), and ventilator-associated pneumonias. These airway pathogens must adapt to common host clearance mechanisms that include killing by antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis by leukocytes. Bacterial adaptation to the host is often evident phenotypically, with increased extracellular polysaccharide production characteristic of some biofilm-associated organisms...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596479/the-immediate-effects-of-a-single-autogenic-drainage-session-on-ventilatory-mechanics-in-adult-subjects-with-cystic-fibrosis
#20
Elliot Wallaert, Thierry Perez, Anne Prevotat, Gregory Reychler, Benoit Wallaert, Olivier Le Rouzic
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to gain insight into the physiological changes occurring in subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) after autogenic drainage (AD). Changes in respiratory system resistance (Rrs), reactance (Xrs), and spirometry were analyzed in adult CF subjects after a single AD physiotherapy session. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted during the annual check-up of adult CF subjects in stable condition. Spirometry and Rrs and Xrs measurements using the forced oscillations technique at 5, 11, and 19 hertz (Hz) were performed before and 30 min after a 20-min AD session...
2018: PloS One
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