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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905200/induced-sputum-to-detect-lung-pathogens-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Pamela D'Sylva, Daan Caudri, Nicole Shaw, Lidija Turkovic, Tonia Douglas, Jane Bew, Anthony D Keil, Stephen Stick, André Schultz
INTRODUCTION: Induced sputum sampling holds promise as a method for obtaining samples representative of the lower airways in young children. Collection of induced sputum samples in young children differs from older children and adults' as pharyngeal suctioning is often required. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of induced sputum with and without airway clearance techniques to detect lower airway pathogens in children less than age 7 with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Microbiological culture results were compared between 61 paired induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from young children with cystic fibrosis...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885143/intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-as-a-lung-recruitment-strategy-in-brain-dead-organ-donors
#2
Geralyn Lerg, Linda Shanta
OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the evidence evaluating the effectiveness of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) as a safe alternative or adjunctive therapy to traditional chest physiotherapy (CPT) among potential organ donors. DATA SOURCES: Literature search conducted from February 2015 to November 2015 using PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, and bibliographies of pertinent articles. SEARCH TERMS: Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, chest physiotherapy, chest wall oscillation, organ donors, and ventilation...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882804/a-comparison-of-high-frequency-chest-wall-oscillation-and-intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-for-airway-clearance-in-pediatric-patients-with-tracheostomy
#3
Aneela Bidiwala, Linda Volpe, Claudia Halaby, Melissa Fazzari, Christina Valsamis, Melodi Pirzada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare two modes of airway clearance, the intrapulmonary percussive ventilation system (IPV) to high frequency chest wall oscillation system (HFCWO) in medically complex pediatric patients with tracheostomy requiring long term care. METHODS: This was a single center, retrospective study comparing the number of respiratory illnesses, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), utilization of bronchodilator and systemic steroids, and respiratory illnesses requiring acute care hospitalizations...
November 24, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870227/aspergillosis-and-the-role-of-mucins-in-cystic-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Abigail C Cowley, David J Thornton, David W Denning, Alexander Horsley
The prevalence of aspergillosis in CF patients has until recently been underestimated, but increasing evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the progression of CF lung disease. In healthy airways, Aspergillus fumigatus can be efficiently removed from the lung by mechanisms such as mucociliary clearance and cough. However, these mechanisms are defective in CF, allowing pathogens such as A. fumigatus to germinate and establish chronic infections within the airways. The precise means by which A...
November 21, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865862/impaired-mucus-clearance-exacerbates-allergen-induced-type-2-airway-inflammation-in-juvenile-mice
#5
Benedikt Fritzsching, Matthias Hagner, Lu Dai, Sandra Christochowitz, Raman Agrawal, Charlotte van Bodegom, Simone Schmidt, Jolanthe Schatterny, Stephanie Hirtz, Ryan Brown, Michelle Goritzka, Julia Duerr, Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Marcus A Mall
BACKGROUND: Type 2 airway inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced asthma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that reduced mucociliary clearance, a characteristic feature of asthma, produces spontaneous type 2 airway inflammation in juvenile Scnn1b-transgenic (Scnn1b-Tg) mice. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of impaired mucus clearance in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced type 2 airway inflammation and identify cellular sources of the signature cytokine IL-13...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864314/cilia-and-mucociliary-clearance
#6
Ximena M Bustamante-Marin, Lawrence E Ostrowski
Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is the primary innate defense mechanism of the lung. The functional components are the protective mucous layer, the airway surface liquid layer, and the cilia on the surface of ciliated cells. The cilia are specialized organelles that beat in metachronal waves to propel pathogens and inhaled particles trapped in the mucous layer out of the airways. In health this clearance mechanism is effective, but in patients with primary cilia dyskinesia (PCD) the cilia are abnormal, resulting in deficient MCC and chronic lung disease...
November 18, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863670/selection-and-fabrication-of-a-non-woven-polycarbonate-urethane-cover-for-a-tissue-engineered-airway-stent
#7
Weiluan Chen, Johanna Clauser, Anja Lena Thiebes, Donnacha J McGrath, Peter E McHugh, Ulrich Steinseifer, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Wim E Hennink, Robbert Jan Kok
One of the major problems in end-stage bronchotracheal cancer is stenosis of the upper airways, either due to luminal ingrowth of the tumor or mucus plugging. Airway stents that suppress tumor ingrowth and sustain mucociliary transport can alleviate these problems in end-stage bronchial cancer. We evaluated different types of polymeric covers for a tissue engineered airway stent. The distinguishing feature of this stent concept is that respiratory epithelial cells can grow on the luminal surface of the stent which facilitates mucociliary clearance...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862675/the-physiotherapist-and-the-esophageal-cancer-patient-from-prehabilitation-to-rehabilitation
#8
REVIEW
E M Guinan, J Dowds, C Donohoe, J V Reynolds, J Hussey
Esophageal cancer is a serious malignancy often treated with multimodal interventions and complex surgical resection. As treatment moves to centers of excellence with emphasis on enhanced recovery approaches, the role of the physiotherapist has expanded. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale behind both the evolving prehabilitative role of the physiotherapist and more established postoperative interventions for patients with esophageal cancer. While a weak association between preoperative cardiopulmonary fitness and post-esophagectomy outcome is reported, cardiotoxicity during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may heighten postoperative risk...
November 9, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856789/collectins-h-ficolin-and-ll-37-reduce-influence-viral-replication-in-human-monocytes-and-modulate-virus-induced-cytokine-production
#9
Mitchell R White, Shweta Tripathi, Anamika Verma, Paul Kingma, Kazue Takahashi, Jens Jensenius, Steffen Thiel, Guangshun Wang, Erika C Crouch, Kevan L Hartshorn
Infiltrating activated monocytes are important mediators of damaging inflammation during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We show that soluble respiratory proteins [collectins, surfactant proteins D (SP-D) and mannose binding lectin (MBL), H-ficolin and LL-37] inhibit replication of seasonal IAV in human monocytes. The collectins and H-ficolin also increased viral uptake by the cells, while LL-37 did not. H-ficolin was able to inhibit replication of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain (Cal09) in monocytes, but SP-D and LL-37 had significantly fewer inhibitory effects on this strain than on seasonal IAV...
November 17, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856714/nasal-high-flow-reduces-dead-space
#10
Winfried Möller, Sheng Feng, Ulrike Domanski, Karl-Josef Franke, Gülnaz Celik, Peter Bartenstein, Sven Becker, Gabriele Meyer, Otmar Schmid, Oliver Eickelberg, Stanislav Tatkov, Georg Nilius
Recent studies show that nasal high flow (NHF) therapy can support ventilation in patients with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Clearance of dead-space has been suggested as being the key mechanisms of respiratory support with NHF therapy. The hypothesis of this study was that NHF in a dose-dependent manner can clear dead space of the upper airways from expired air and decrease re-breathing. The randomized cross-over study involved 10 volunteers using scintigraphy with (81m)Krypton-gas ((81m)Kr-gas) during a breath-holding maneuver with closed mouth and in three nasally breathing tracheotomized patients by volumetric capnography and oximetry through sampling CO2 and O2 in the trachea and measuring the inspired volume with inductance plethysmography following NHF rates of 15, 30 and 45 L/min...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850620/982-airway-pressure-release-ventilation-accelerates-mucus-clearance-via-increased-expiratory-flow-rate
#11
Melissa Mahajan, David DiStefano, Josh Satalin, Penny Andrews, Sumeet Jain, Quinn Searles, Louis Gatto, Nader Habashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848994/the-host-genetic-background-defines-diverse-immune-reactivity-and-susceptibility-to-chronic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-respiratory-infection
#12
Lorenza Spagnuolo, Maura De Simone, Nicola Ivan Lorè, Ida De Fino, Veronica Basso, Anna Mondino, Cristina Cigana, Alessandra Bragonzi
Patients with P. aeruginosa airways infection show markedly variable clinical phenotypes likely influenced by genetic backgrounds. Here, we investigated the cellular events involved in resistance and susceptibility to P. aeruginosa chronic infection using genetically distinct inbred mouse strains. As for patients, different murine genotypes revealed variable susceptibility to infection. When directly compared, resistant C3H/HeOuJ and susceptible A/J strains revealed distinct immune responsiveness to the pathogen...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834866/staphylococcus-aureus-infection-reduces-nutrition-uptake-and-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-a-human-airway-epithelial-cell-line
#13
Philipp Gierok, Manuela Harms, Karen Methling, Falko Hochgräfe, Michael Lalk
The Gram positive opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus induces a variety of diseases including pneumonia. S. aureus is the second most isolated pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients and accounts for a large proportion of nosocomial pneumonia. Inside the lung, the human airway epithelium is the first line in defence with regard to microbial recognition and clearance as well as regulation of the immune response. The metabolic host response is, however, yet unknown. To address the question of whether the infection alters the metabolome and metabolic activity of airway epithelial cells, we used a metabolomics approach...
November 9, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834091/high-prevalence-of-stress-urinary-incontinence-in-adult-patients-with-bronchiectasis
#14
N Duignan, M J McDonnell, M C Mokoka, R M Rutherford
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is frequently under-reported in patients with chronic lung disease and may have negative psychosocial consequences. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence, severity and treatment outcomes of SUI in female bronchiectasis patients referred for airway clearance techniques. Nineteen out of 40 (48%) patients reported SUI symptoms. Of these, 14 (74%) reported a reduced quality of life secondary to SUI. Following personalised intervention, symptom improvement was observed in 13/19 (68%)...
August 8, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830759/marked-increases-in-mucociliary-clearance-produced-by-synergistic-secretory-agonists-or-inhibition-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel
#15
Nam Soo Joo, Jin Hyeok Jeong, Hyung-Ju Cho, Jeffrey J Wine
Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a critical host innate defense mechanism in airways, and it is impaired in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other obstructive lung diseases. Epithelial fluid secretion and absorption modify MCC velocity (MCCV). We tested the hypotheses that inhibiting fluid absorption accelerates MCCV, whereas inhibiting fluid secretion decelerates it. In airways, ENaC is mainly responsible for fluid absorption, while anion channels, including CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels mediate anion/fluid secretion...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820945/macrophages-redirect-phagocytosis-by-non-professional-phagocytes-and-influence-inflammation
#16
Claudia Z Han, Ignacio J Juncadella, Jason M Kinchen, Monica W Buckley, Alexander L Klibanov, Kelly Dryden, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Uta Erdbrügger, Stephen D Turner, Yun M Shim, Kenneth S Tung, Kodi S Ravichandran
Professional phagocytes (such as macrophages) and non-professional phagocytes (such as epithelial cells) clear billions of apoptotic cells and particles on a daily basis. Although professional and non-professional macrophages reside in proximity in most tissues, whether they communicate with each other during cell clearance, and how this might affect inflammation, is not known. Here we show that macrophages, through the release of a soluble growth factor and microvesicles, alter the type of particles engulfed by non-professional phagocytes and influence their inflammatory response...
November 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814452/water-permeability-adjusts-resorption-in-lung-epithelia-to-increased-apical-surface-liquid-volumes
#17
Hanna Schmidt, Christiane Michel, Peter Braubach, Michael Fauler, Daniel Neubauer, Kristin E Thompson, Manfred Frick, Boris Mizaikoff, Paul Dietl, Oliver H Wittekindt
The apical surface liquid layer (ASL) covers the airways and forms a first line of defense against pathogens. Maintenance of ASL volume by airway epithelia is essential for maintaining lung function. The proteolytic activation of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) is believed to be the dominating mechanism to cope with increases in ASL volumes. Alternative mechanisms, in particular increases in epithelial water permeability (Posm), have so far been regarded as rather less important. However, most studies mainly addressed immediate effects upon apical volume expansion (AVE) and increases in ASL...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812632/effects-of-passive-inhalation-of-cigarette-smoke-on-structural-and-functional-parameters-in-the-respiratory-system-of-guinea-pigs
#18
Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos, Fernanda Yvelize Ramos de Araújo, João Paulo Melo de Pinho, Pedro Marcos Gomes Soares, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes Bastos
Objective: To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day) for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid...
September 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804985/a-murine-model-of-early-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-disease-with-transition-to-chronic-infection
#19
H K Bayes, N Ritchie, S Irvine, T J Evans
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) remains an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease as well as non-CF bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive airways disease. Initial infections are cleared but chronic infection with mucoid strains ensues in the majority of CF patients and specific interventions to prevent this critical infection transition are lacking. The PA bead model has been widely used to study pulmonary P.aeruginosa infection but has limitations in animal husbandry and in accurately mimicking human disease...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794574/short-term-use-of-uncovered-self-expanding-metallic-airway-stents-for-severe-expiratory-central-airway-collapse
#20
Adnan Majid, Daniel Alape, Fayez Kheir, Erik Folch, Sebastian Ochoa, Alejandro Folch, Sidhu P Gangadharan
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe symptomatic expiratory central airway collapse (ECAC) undergo a stent trial to determine whether they are candidate for tracheobronchoplasty. Most stent trials were done using silicone stents. However, there was a higher number of silicone stent-related complications. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of short-term uncovered self-expanding metallic airway stents (USEMAS) in patients with ECAC...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
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