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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241135/characterization-of-uranium-redox-state-in-organic-rich-eocene-sediments
#1
Susan A Cumberland, Barbara Etschmann, Joël Brugger, Grant Douglas, Katy Evans, Louise Fisher, Peter Kappen, John W Moreau
The presence of organic matter (OM) has a profound impact on uranium (U) redox cycling, either limiting or promoting the mobility of U via binding, reduction, or complexation. To understand the interactions between OM and U, we characterised U oxidation state and speciation in nine OM-rich sediment cores (18 samples), plus a lignite sample from the Mulga Rock polymetallic deposit in Western Australia. Uranium was unevenly dispersed within the analysed samples with 84% of the total U occurring in samples containing >21 wt % OM...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241067/weed-seed-spread-and-its-prevention-the-role-of-roadside-wash-down
#2
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Thi Nguyen, Sheldon Navie, Chris O'Donnell, Steve Adkins
Vehicles are one of the major vectors of long-distance weed seed spread. Viable seed removed from vehicles at roadside wash down facilities was studied at five locations in central Queensland, Australia over a 3-year period. Seed from 145 plant species, belonging to 34 different families, were identified in the sludge samples obtained from the wet particulate matter collection pit of the wash down facilities. Most of the species were annual forbs (50%) with small or very small seed size (<2 mm in diameter)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237717/particulate-matter-air-pollution-exposure-and-heart-disease-mortality-risks-by-race-and-ethnicity-in-the-united-states-1997-2009-nhis-with-mortality-followup-through-2011
#3
Jennifer D Parker, Nataliya Kravets, Ambarish Vaidyanathan
Background -Most U.S. studies of mortality and air pollution have been conducted on largely non-Hispanic white study populations. However, many health and mortality outcomes differ by race and ethnicity, and non-Hispanic white persons experience lower air pollution exposures than those who are non-Hispanic black or Hispanic. This study examines whether associations between air pollution and heart disease mortality differ by race/ethnicity. Methods -We used data from the 1997-2009 National Health Interview Survey linked to mortality records through December 2011 and annual estimates of fine particulate matter (PM2...
December 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237538/periconception-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-risk-of-congenital-malformations
#4
Sheng Ren, Erin Haynes, Eric Hall, Monir Hossain, Aimin Chen, Louis Muglia, Long Lu, Emily DeFranco
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between increased exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during the periconception period with risk of congenital anomalies. STUDY DESIGN: Using birth certificate data from the Ohio Department of Health (2006-2010) and PM2.5 data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 57 monitoring stations located throughout Ohio, the geographic coordinates of the mother's residence for each birth were linked to the nearest PM2...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235125/nasal-epithelial-barrier-disruption-by-particulate-matter-%C3%A2-2-5-%C3%AE-m-via-tight-junction-protein-degradation
#5
Renwu Zhao, Zhiqiang Guo, Ruxin Zhang, Congrui Deng, Jian Xu, Weiyang Dong, Zhicong Hong, Hongzhi Yu, Huiru Situ, Chunhui Liu, Guoshun Zhuang
Upper airway diseases including sinonasal disorders may be caused by exposure to fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm; PM2.5), as proven by epidemiological studies. PM2.5 is a complex entity whose chemical constituents and physicochemical properties are not confined to a single, independent "particle" but which in this study means a distinctive environmental "toxin." The mechanism whereby PM2.5 induces nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction leading to sinonasal pathology remains unknown. In the present study, human nasal epithelial cells were exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of PM2...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235033/metal-pollution-across-the-upper-delta-plain-wetlands-and-its-adjacent-shallow-sea-wetland-northeast-of-china-implications-for-the-filtration-functions-of-wetlands
#6
Jin Liu, Siyuan Ye, Hongming Yuan, Xigui Ding, Guangming Zhao, Shixiong Yang, Lei He, Jin Wang, Shaofeng Pei, Xiaoyu Huang
Grain size and concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and particulate metals (PMs) As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Mn of 373 surface sediment samples, salinities in 67 surface water samples, were analyzed in various environments, including the upper delta plain wetlands (UDPW), its adjacent shallow sea wetland (SSW) in the Liaodong Bay, and river channels that are running through the Liaohe Delta, to evaluate the spatial distribution, transportation environmental dynamics of metals, and the provenance of metal pollution and assess the filtration functions of wetlands...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234991/longitudinal-analysis-of-particulate-air-pollutants-and-adolescent-delinquent-behavior-in-southern-california
#7
Diana Younan, Catherine Tuvblad, Meredith Franklin, Fred Lurmann, Lianfa Li, Jun Wu, Kiros Berhane, Laura A Baker, Jiu-Chiuan Chen
Animal experiments and cross-sectional human studies have linked particulate matter (PM) with increased behavioral problems. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine whether the trajectories of delinquent behavior are affected by PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) exposures before and during adolescence. We used the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist at age 9-18 with repeated measures every ~2-3 years (up to 4 behavioral assessments) on 682 children from the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study conducted in a multi-ethnic cohort of twins born in 1990-1995...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233668/expression-of-hmgb1-in-maternal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-induces-lung-injury-in-rat-offspring-assessed-with-micro-ct
#8
Wenting Tang, Suran Huang, Lili Du, Wen Sun, Zhiqiang Yu, Yanmei Zhou, Jingsi Chen, Xiuying Li, Xiaomei Li, Bolan Yu, Dunjin Chen
OBJECTIVES: Maternal particulate matter with less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) is associated with an increased risk for acute lower respiratory infections and allergic airway inflammation; however, its effect on the developing lung remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of maternal PM2.5 during pregnancy on lung development in offspring. METHODS: Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PM2.5 (0.1, 0.5, 2.5, or 7.5 mg/kg) once every 3 days from day 0-18 of pregnancy and delivered at term...
December 9, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233006/occupational-exposure-to-photocopiers-and-their-toners-cause-genotoxicity
#9
V Kasi, N Elango, S Ananth, B Vembhu, J G Poornima
Photocopier machines are inevitable office equipment, but they are also sources of air pollution. Millions of people across the world are involved in the operation and maintenance of photocopiers. We aimed to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of exposure to photocopiers in photocopier operators and maintenance personnel by Comet assay. This study involved 50 photocopier operators, 61 maintenance personnel and 52 controls. Both the photocopier exposed groups exhibited significantly increased DNA damage when compared to controls...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232615/a-wind-tunnel-study-on-the-effect-of-trees-on-pm2-5-distribution-around-buildings
#10
Wenjing Ji, Bin Zhao
Vegetation, especially trees, is effective in reducing the concentration of particulate matter. Trees can efficiently capture particles, improve urban air quality, and may further decrease the introduction of outdoor particles to indoor air. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of trees on particle distribution and removal around buildings using wind tunnel experiments. The wind tunnel is 18m long, 12m wide, and 3.5m high. Trees were modeled using real cypress branches to mimic trees planted around buildings...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229079/city-housing-atmospheric-pollutant-impact-on-emergency-visit-for-asthma-a-classification-and-regression-tree-approach
#11
Julie Mazenq, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Jean Gaudart, Denis Charpin, Gilles Viudes, Guilhem Noel
INTRODUCTION: Particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone are recognized as the three pollutants that most significantly affect human health. Asthma is a multifactorial disease. However, the place of residence has rarely been investigated. We compared the impact of air pollution, measured near patients' homes, on emergency department (ED) visits for asthma or trauma (controls) within the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region. METHODS: Variables were selected using classification and regression trees on asthmatic and control population, 3-99 years, visiting ED from January 1 to December 31, 2013...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228711/at-seeming-safe-concentrations-synergistic-effects-of-pm2-5-and-formaldehyde-co-exposure-induces-alzheimer-like-changes-in-mouse-brain
#12
Xudong Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Chen Luo, Jun Kang, Jinquan Li, Kun Wang, Ping Ma, Xu Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Air pollution is a multi-pollutants co-exposure system, which may affect brain. The indoor environment is where exposure to both air particulate matter (<2.5 μm in diameter) (PM2.5) and formaldehyde (FA) can occur simultaneously. Whether exposure to such a multi-pollutant (PM2.5 plus FA) mixture contributes to the development of AD, and whether there is a difference between exposure to PM2...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227938/the-cumulative-effect-of-air-pollutants-on-the-acute-exacerbation-of-copd-in-shanghai-china
#13
Xian Wen Sun, Pei Li Chen, Lei Ren, Ying Ni Lin, Jian Ping Zhou, Lei Ni, Qing Yun Li
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown the effect of air pollutants on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). However, little is known regarding the dose-response relationship. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of air pollutants on AECOPD. METHODS: We collected 101 patients with AECOPD from November 2010 through August 2011 in Shanghai. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate associations between air pollutants and AECOPD...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227900/exposures-to-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-birthweight-in-a-rural-urban-mother-child-cohort-in-tamil-nadu-india
#14
Kalpana Balakrishnan, Santu Ghosh, Gurusamy Thangavel, Sankar Sambandam, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Arulselvan Sadasivam, Padmavathi Ramaswamy, Priscilla Johnson, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy, Durairaj Natesan, Uma Maheshwari, Amudha Natarajan, Gayathri Rajendran, Rengaraj Ramasami, Sathish Madhav, Saraswathy Manivannan, Srinivasan Nargunanadan, Srinivasan Natarajan, Sudhakar Saidam, Moumita Chakraborty, Lingeswari Balakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter <less than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter) related to ambient and household air pollution has been associated with low birthweight. Few of these studies, however, have been conducted in high exposure settings that are commonly encountered in low and middle income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: We examined whether PM2.5 exposures during pregnancy were associated with birthweight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child cohort in the state of Tamil Nadu, India...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227849/associations-between-long-term-pm2-5-and-ozone-exposure-and-mortality-in-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec-by-spatial-synoptic-classification-zone
#15
Sabit Cakmak, Chris Hebbern, Lauren Pinault, Eric Lavigne, Jennifer Vanos, Dan Lawson Crouse, Michael Tjepkema
Studies suggest that long-term chronic exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution can increase lung cancer mortality. We analyzed the association between long term PM2.5 and ozone exposure and mortality due to lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, accounting for geographic location, socioeconomic status, and residential mobility. Subjects in the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) were followed for 20years, and assigned to regions across Canada based on spatial synoptic classification weather types...
December 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227043/the-association-of-air-pollutants-and-allergic-and-nonallergic-rhinitis-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#16
Leila J Mady, Hannah L Schwarzbach, John A Moore, Robert M Boudreau, Thomas M Kaffenberger, Thomas J Willson, Stella E Lee
BACKGROUND: There has been little investigation regarding air quality and rhinitis in the pathophysiology of upper airway disease. In this study, we assessed the impact of inhalant pollutants (particulate matter 2.5 [PM2.5 ] and black carbon [BC]) on allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) disease severity. METHODS: CRS patients with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without polyps (CRSsNP) were identified. Spatial modeling from pollutant monitoring sites was used to estimate exposures for patients meeting the inclusion criteria (total, n = 125; CRSsNP, n = 67; CRSsNP, n = 58)...
December 11, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223977/growth-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-defined-media-is-dependent-on-presence-of-particulate-matter
#17
Matthew R Flavel, Adam Mechler, Mahdi Shahmiri, Elizabeth R Mathews, Ashley E Franks, Weisan Chen, Damien Zanker, Bo Xian, Shan Gao, Jing Luo, Surafel Tegegne, Christian Doneski, Markandeya Jois
Caenorhabditis elegans are typically cultured in a monoxenic medium consisting of live bacteria. However, this introduces a secondary organism to experiments and restricts the manipulation of the nutritional environment. Due to the intricate link between genes and environment, greater control and understanding of nutritional factors are required to push the C. elegans field into new areas. For decades, attempts to develop a chemically defined, axenic medium as an alternative for culturing C. elegans have been made...
December 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223907/analytical-indicators-to-characterize-particulate-organic-matter-pom-and-its-evolution-in-french-vertical-flow-constructed-wetlands-vfcws
#18
M Kania, M Gautier, Z Ni, E Bonjour, R Guégan, P Michel, P Jame, J Liu, R Gourdon
The design of French VFCWs leads to the formation of a sludge layer at the surface of the first filters due to the retention of suspended solids from the percolation of unsettled wastewater. This layer plays a major role in the system but still little is known on its characteristics and evolutions. In this study, suspended solids and sludge deposits sampled from two French VFCW plants were analyzed by different methods in the objective to assess the evolution of particulate organic matter (POM) along the treatment chain and within the sludge layer, and identify relevant analytical indicators of these phenomena...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223110/systemic-inflammatory-markers-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-air-pollution-pm2-5-among-us-nhanes-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Arvind Dabass, Evelyn O Talbott, Judith R Rager, Gary M Marsh, Arvind Venkat, Fernando Holguin, Ravi K Sharma
BACKGROUND: There has been no investigation to date of adults with metabolic syndrome examining the association of short and long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution with cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory marker (WBC and CRP) levels in a nationally representative sample. The goal of this study is to assess the susceptibility of adults with metabolic syndrome to PM2.5 exposure as suggested by increased cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory marker levels...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223078/impact-on-mortality-of-biomass-combustion-from-wildfires-in-spain-a-regional-analysis
#20
C Linares, R Carmona, P Salvador, J Díaz
Studies that analyse the impact on mortality of particulate matter (PM) produced by biomass combustion from wildfires mostly focus on a single city or on cities in different countries, with very few concentrating on one country as a whole. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyse the impact that PM has on daily mortality in Spain on days with biomass combustion from wildfires. To analyse natural PM advections the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing, Food & Environment divides Spain into 9 geographical regions...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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