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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441592/characterization-of-major-natural-and-anthropogenic-source-profiles-for-size-fractionated-pm-in-yangtze-river-delta
#1
Pulong Chen, Tijian Wang, Mei Dong, Matthew Kasoar, Yong Han, Min Xie, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Mengmeng Li, Tunan Huang
Samples of size-fractionated particles were collected from local natural and anthropogenic sources in two industrial cities in the Yangtze River Delta, using either grab/resuspension sampling or ambient air sampling. The chemical characterizations of twenty one source profiles were obtained, based on elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn), soluble ions (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+), K(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+)) and carbonaceous material such as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441489/a-comparison-of-gasoline-direct-injection-gdi-and-port-fuel-injection-pfi-vehicle-emissions-emission-certification-standards-cold-start-secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-potential-and-potential-climate-impacts
#2
Georges Saliba, Rawad Saleh, Yunliang Zhao, Albert A Presto, Andrew T Lambe, Bruce Frodin, Satya Sardar, Hector Maldonado, Christine Maddox, Andrew A May, Greg T Drozd, Allen H Goldstein, Lynn M Russell, Fabian P Hagen, Allen L Robinson
Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from eighty-two light duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most stringent emissions standard, super-ultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV)...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441488/formaldehyde-hcho-as-a-hazardous-air-pollutant-mapping-surface-air-concentrations-from-satellite-and-inferring-cancer-risks-in-the-united-states
#3
Lei Zhu, Daniel J Jacob, Frank N Keutsch, Loretta J Mickley, Richard D Scheffe, Madeleine Strum, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Bernhard Rappenglueck, Dylan B Millet, Munkhbayar Baasandorj, Lyatt Jaeglé, Viral Pinakin Shah
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most important carcinogen in outdoor air among the 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), not including ozone and particulate matter. However, surface observations of HCHO are sparse and the EPA monitoring network could be prone to positive interferences. Here we use 2005-2016 summertime HCHO column data from the OMI satellite instrument, validated with high-quality aircraft data and oversampled on a 5 × 5 km(2) grid, to map surface air HCHO concentrations across the contiguous US...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440694/fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-a-risk-factor-of-rat-gestational-diabetes-with-altered-blood-glucose-and-pancreatic-glut2-expression
#4
Liu Yi, Chen Wei, Wang Fan
Recent studies have shown an association between air pollution and diabetic risk. This study was to investigate the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on glucose consequences and pancreas glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) expression and its related mechanisms in a gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) rat model. GDM rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose while the controls received saline. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and blood routine tests (BRT) were detected for analyzing coagulation and inflammation. Pancreas tissues underwent pathologic examination, the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were detected for oxidative stress estimation, and the degree of GLUT2 expression of pancreas was analyzed...
April 25, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440646/aqueous-reaction-of-dicarbonyls-with-ammonia-as-a-potential-source-of-organic-nitrogen-in-airborne-nanoparticles
#5
Christopher M Stangl, Murray V Johnston
Nitrogen-containing organic species such as imines and imidazoles can be formed by aqueous reactions of carbonyl-containing compounds in the presence of ammonia. In the work described here, these reactions are studied in airborne aqueous nanodroplets containing ammonium sulfate and glyoxal, methylglyoxal, or glycolaldehyde using a combination of online and offline mass spectrometry. N/C ratios attributed to the organic fraction of the particles (N/Corg) produced from glyoxal and methylglyoxal were quantified across a wide relative humidity range...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440282/understanding-the-rising-phase-of-the-pm2-5-concentration-evolution-in-large-china-cities
#6
Baolei Lv, Jun Cai, Bing Xu, Yuqi Bai
Long-term air quality observations are seldom analyzed from a dynamic view. This study analyzed fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution processes using long-term PM2.5 observations in three Chinese cities. Pollution processes were defined as linearly growing PM2.5 concentrations following the criteria of coefficient of determination R(2) > 0.8 and duration time T ≥ 18 hrs. The linear slopes quantitatively measured pollution levels by PM2.5 concentrations rising rates (PMRR, μg/(m(3)·hr))...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440082/metro-commuter-exposures-to-particulate-air-pollution-and-pm2-5-associated-elements-in-three-canadian-cities-the-urban-transportation-exposure-study
#7
Keith Van Ryswyk, Angelos T Anastasopolos, Greg Evans, Liu Sun, Kelly Sabaliauskas, Ryan Kulka, Lance Wallace, Scott Weichenthal
System-representative commuter air pollution exposure data were collected for the metro systems of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, Canada. Pollutants measured included PM2.5 (PM = particulate matter), PM10, ultrafine particles, black carbon, and the elemental composition of PM2.5. Sampling over three weeks was conducted in summer and winter for each city and covered each system on a daily basis. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to identify system features related to particulate exposures. Ambient levels of PM2...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439137/compatibility-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-ceftolozane-tazobactam-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-with-vancomycin-in-dextrose-5-in-water
#8
Kevin Meyer, Maressa Santarossa, Larry H Danziger, Eric Wenzler
Objectives: The compatibility of vancomycin with existing and novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors at clinically relevant concentrations in 5% dextrose in water has not been fully explored to date. Methods: Vancomycin concentrations tested ranged from 5 to 20 mg/mL. Ceftazidime-avibactam was tested at 8, 20, and 40 mg/mL, ceftolozane-tazobactam at 15 mg/mL, and piperacillin-tazobactam at 28 mg/mL. Compatibility of drug admixtures were tested via both simulated and actual y-site infusion. For the simulated y-site compatibility assessment, 1:1 mixtures of each respective drug were analyzed over 24 hours...
March 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439091/abdominal-adiposity-intensifies-the-negative-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lung-function-in-korean-men
#9
H-J Kim, J-H Park, J-Y Min, K-B Min, Y-S Seo, J M Yun, H Kwon, J-I Kim, B Cho
BACKGROUND: Some studies have provided the possibility that adipose tissue may mediate air pollution-induced lung dysfunction. Studies using quantified fat mass data are needed to understand the biological mechanisms between adipocyte and air pollution in lung function. We aimed to investigate whether abdominal adiposity measured by computed tomography (CT) modifies the effects of air pollution on lung function in Korean men. METHODS: A total of 1876 men who visited one of two health checkup centers were recruited for this study...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437919/polarization-based-enhancement-of-ocean-color-signal-for-estimating-suspended-particulate-matter-radiative-transfer-simulations-and-laboratory-measurements
#10
Jia Liu, Xianqiang He, Jiahang Liu, Yan Bai, Difeng Wang, Tieqiao Chen, Yihao Wang, Feng Zhu
Absorption and scattering by molecules, aerosols and hydrosols, and the reflection and transmission over the sea surface can modify the original polarization state of sunlight. However, water-leaving radiance polarization, containing embedded water constituent information, has largely been neglected. Here, the efficiency of the parallel polarization radiance (PPR) for enhancing ocean color signal of suspended particulate matter is examined via vector radiative transfer simulations and laboratory experiments...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437774/bacterial-community-dynamics-and-functional-variation-during-the-long-term-decomposition-of-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-vitro
#11
Limei Shi, Yaxin Huang, Min Zhang, Yang Yu, Yaping Lu, Fanxiang Kong
Cyanobacterial blooms drastically influence carbon and nutrient cycling in eutrophic freshwater lakes. To understand the mineralization process of cyanobacteria-derived particulate organic matter (CyanPOM), the aerobic degradation of cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. was investigated over a 95-day microcosm experiment. Approximately 91%, 95% and 83% of the initial particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), and particulate organic phosphorus (POP) were decomposed, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437650/indoor-to-outdoor-relationship-of-aerosol-particles-inside-a-naturally-ventilated-apartment-a-comparison-between-single-parameter-analysis-and-indoor-aerosol-model-simulation
#12
Tareq Hussein
The indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles is affected by several mechanisms including penetration, ventilation rate, dry deposition rate and sources. Understanding the effect of these factors is essential for a deeper knowledge of the indoor-to-outdoor relationship. In real-life conditions, it is difficult to analyze these factors in a naturally ventilated environment. In this study, a naturally ventilated and an occupied apartment was used to investigate the indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles by applying two different techniques; single-parameter analysis and indoor aerosol model simulation...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435814/gender-dependent-differences-in-the-relationship-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-ambient-air-pollution-among-adults-in-south-korean-cities
#13
Dongwook Sohn, Hyunjin Oh
BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been a serious public health threat worldwide. It has been linked to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases but is also believed to contribute to air-pollution-mediated cardiometabolic disease such as diabetes. We investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and air pollution in densely developed urban settings in South Korea, using national epidemiologic data. METHODS: The analysis focused on examining gender-related differences in the relationship between DM 2 and air pollutants, specifically particulate matter ≤ 10μm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2)...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434030/spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-air-pollutants-and-size-distribution-of-aerosols-over-central-and-eastern-china
#14
Honglei Wang, Lijuan Shen, Bin Zhu, Hanqing Kang, Xuewei Hou, Qing Miao, Yang Yang, Shuangshuang Shi
The origins and spatial and temporal distributions of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2 and O3) during May to June of 2015 were investigated using data from 1490 monitoring sites in China. Aerosol number concentrations and meteorological data from Shijiazhuang, Nanjing, and Suzhou were combined with the MIX Asian emission data and the HYSPLIT model. Furthermore, the diurnal variation, size distribution, and main sources of air pollutants and aerosols were selectively characterized in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD)...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432994/assessment-of-temporal-variation-for-the-risk-of-particulate-matters-on-asthma-hospitalization
#15
Hyomi Kim, Honghyok Kim, Yoon-Hyung Park, Jong-Tae Lee
Increased ambient concentration of particulate matters are considered as one of major causes for increased prevalence or exacerbation of asthma or asthma like symptoms. Recently, possible temporal variation in risks of PM on mortality has been suggested. We investigated short-term effect of both PM10 and PM2.5 on asthma hospitalization, and assessed temporal variation of PM risks in Seoul, Korea, 2003-2011. Generalized additive model was used to estimate PM risks on asthma hospitalization with consideration by long-term trend, influenza epidemic, day of week, meteorological factors...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432908/particulate-matter-pollution-from-aviation-related-activity-at-a-small-airport-of-the-aegean-sea-insular-region
#16
C Psanis, E Triantafyllou, M Giamarelou, M Manousakas, K Eleftheriadis, G Biskos
The unprecedented growth in aviation during the last years has resulted in a notable increase of local air pollution related to airports. The impacts of aviation on air quality can be extremely high particularly around airports serving remote insular regions with pristine atmospheric environments. Here we report measurements that show how the atmospheric aerosol is affected by the activity at a small airport in a remote region. More specifically, we provide measurements performed at the airport of Mytilene, Greece, a regional yet international airport that serves the entire island of Lesvos; the third largest island of the country...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432210/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-complex-intervention-to-reduce-children-s-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-in-the-home
#17
Elena Ratschen, Rebecca Thorley, Laura Jones, Magdalena Opazo Breton, Juliette Cook, Ann McNeill, John Britton, Tim Coleman, Sarah Lewis
OBJECTIVES: Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) causes significant harm and occurs predominantly through smoking by caregivers in the family home. We report a trial of a complex intervention designed to reduce secondhand smoke exposure of children whose primary caregiver feels unable or unwilling to quit smoking. DESIGN: An open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Deprived communities in Nottingham City and County, England PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers resident in Nottingham City and County in England who were at least 18 years old, the main caregiver of a child aged under 5 years living in their household, and reported that they were smoking tobacco inside their home...
April 21, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431389/prediction-of-size-fractionated-airborne-particle-bound-metals-using-mlr-bp-ann-and-svm-analyses
#18
Xiang'zi Leng, Jinhua Wang, Haibo Ji, Qin'geng Wang, Huiming Li, Xin Qian, Fengying Li, Meng Yang
Size-fractionated heavy metal concentrations were observed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 2014 to 2015 (spanning all four seasons) from suburban (Xianlin) and industrial (Pukou) areas in Nanjing, a megacity of southeast China. Rapid prediction models of size-fractionated metals were established based on multiple linear regression (MLR), back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) by using meteorological factors and PM concentrations as input parameters...
April 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#19
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431315/effects-of-pm2-5-exposure-on-the-notch-signaling-pathway-and-immune-imbalance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
Xing-Yu Gu, Xu Chu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Xiao-Ju Liu
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with T lymphocytes subset (Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg) imbalance. Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the adaptive immunity. The immune disorder induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is related to COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which PM2.5 influences the Notch signaling pathway leading to worsening immune disorder and accelerating COPD development. A COPD mouse model was established by cigarette smoke exposure...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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