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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684898/isotopic-evidence-for-enhanced-fossil-fuel-sources-of-aerosol-ammonium-in-the-urban-atmosphere
#1
Yuepeng Pan, Shili Tian, Dongwei Liu, Yunting Fang, Xiaying Zhu, Meng Gao, Jian Gao, Greg Michalski, Yuesi Wang
The sources of aerosol ammonium (NH4 + ) are of interest because of the potential of NH4 + to impact the Earth's radiative balance, as well as human health and biological diversity. Isotopic source apportionment of aerosol NH4 + is challenging in the urban atmosphere, which has excess ammonia (NH3 ) and where nitrogen isotopic fractionation commonly occurs. Based on year-round isotopic measurements in urban Beijing, we show the source dependence of the isotopic abundance of aerosol NH4 + , with isotopically light (-33...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684896/impacts-of-transportation-sector-emissions-on-future-u-s-air-quality-in-a-changing-climate-part-ii-air-quality-projections-and-the-interplay-between-emissions-and-climate-change
#2
Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
In Part II of this work we present the results of the downscaled offline Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) model, included in the "Technology Driver Model" (TDM) approach to future U.S. air quality projections (2046-2050) compared to a current-year period (2001-2005), and the interplay between future emission and climate changes. By 2046-2050, there are widespread decreases in future concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx  = NO + NO2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684881/source-specific-speciation-profiles-of-pm-2-5-for-heavy-metals-and-their-anthropogenic-emissions-in-china
#3
Yayong Liu, Jia Xing, Shuxiao Wang, Xiao Fu, Haotian Zheng
Heavy metals are concerned for its adverse effect on human health and long term burden on biogeochemical cycling in the ecosystem. In this study, a provincial-level emission inventory of 13 kinds of heavy metals including V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb from 10 anthropogenic sources was developed for China, based on the 2015 national emission inventory of primary particulate matters and source category-specific speciation profiles collected from 50 previous studies measured in China. Uncertainties associated with the speciation profiles were also evaluated...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684875/toxicoproteomic-analysis-of-human-lung-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-steel-industry-ambient-particulate-matter-pm-reveals-possible-mechanism-of-pm-related-carcinogenesis
#4
S Senthil Kumar, P Muthuselvam, V Pugalenthi, N Subramanian, K M Ramkumar, T Suresh, T Suzuki, P Rajaguru
Toxicoproteomic analysis of steel industry ambient particulate matter (PM) that contain high concentrations of PAHs and metals was done by treating human lung cancer cell-line, A549 and the cell lysates were analysed using quantitative label-free nano LC-MS/MS. A total of 18,562 peptides representing 1576 proteins were identified and quantified, with 196 proteins had significantly altered expression in the treated cells. Enrichment analyses revealed that proteins associated to redox homeostsis, metabolism, and cellular energy generation were inhibited while, proteins related to DNA damage and repair and other stresses were over expressed...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683129/aod-distributions-and-trends-of-major-aerosol-species-over-a-selection-of-the-world-s-most-populated-cities-based-on-the-1st-version-of-nasa-s-merra-aerosol-reanalysis
#5
Simon Provençal, Pavel Kishcha, Arlindo M da Silva, Emily Elhacham, Pinhas Alpert
NASA recently extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) with an atmospheric aerosol reanalysis which includes five particulate species: sulfate, organic matter, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt. The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) is an innovative tool to study air quality issues around the world for its global and constant coverage and its distinction of aerosol speciation expressed in the form of aerosol optical depth (AOD). The purpose of this manuscript is to apply MERRAero to the study of urban air pollution at the global scale by analyzing the AOD over a period of 13 years (2003-2015) and over a selection of 200 of the world's most populated cities in order to assess the impacts of urbanization, industrialization, air quality regulations and regional transport which affect urban aerosol load...
June 2017: Urban Clim
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682692/the-relationship-between-fine-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-and-schizophrenia-severity
#6
Rika Eguchi, Daisuke Onozuka, Kouji Ikeda, Kenji Kuroda, Ichiro Ieiri, Akihito Hagihara
PURPOSE: Although particulate matter (PM) is reported to affect the rate of emergency admissions for schizophrenia, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5 ) and the severity of schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained data on patients with schizophrenia at a psychiatric hospital, and on air pollution in Sakai, Japan between Feb 1, 2013 and April 30, 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between PM2...
April 23, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681728/harmful-impact-of-air-pollution-on-severe-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-particulate-matter-is-hazardous
#7
Juwhan Choi, Jee Youn Oh, Young Seok Lee, Kyung Hoon Min, Gyu Young Hur, Sung Yong Lee, Kyung Ho Kang, Jae Jeong Shim
Introduction: Particulate matter and air pollution in Korea are becoming worse. There is a lack of research regarding the impact of particulate matter on patients with COPD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various air pollution factors, including particulate matter, on the incidence rate of severe acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) events. Methods: We analyzed the relationship between air pollutants and AECOPD events that required hospitalization at Guro Hospital in Korea from January 1, 2015 to May 31, 2017...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681677/size-selective-sampling-performance-of-six-low-volume-total-suspended-particulate-tsp-inlets
#8
Robert W Vanderpool, Jonathan D Krug, Surender Kaushik, Jerome Gilberry, Andrew Dart, Carlton L Witherspoon
Several low-volume inlets (flow rates ≤16.7 liters per minute (Lpm)) are commercially available as components of low-cost, portable ambient particulate matter samplers. Because the inlets themselves do not contain internal fractionators, they are often assumed to representatively sample "total" mass concentrations from the ambient air, independent of aerodynamic particle size and wind speed. To date, none of these so-called "TSP" inlets have been rigorously tested under controlled conditions...
2018: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681128/association-between-indoor-air-pollution-and-respiratory-disease-in-companion-dogs-and-cats
#9
Chung-Hui Lin, Pei-Ying Lo, Huey-Dong Wu, Chinhao Chang, Lih-Chiann Wang
BACKGROUND: Indoor air pollution (IAP) leads to important respiratory morbidity and mortality in humans. Companion dogs and cats share the same household environment with their owners and are exposed to IAP. HYPOTHESIS: Pets with respiratory disease are more commonly exposed to indoor air pollutants in their homes and to worse air quality than pets without respiratory disease. ANIMALS: Three hundred and forty-eight animals (230 dogs and 118 cats) were recruited...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680527/polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-in-water-surface-sediment-and-suspended-particulate-matter-from-the-yellow-river-china-levels-spatial-and-seasonal-distribution-and-source-contribution
#10
Jin Pei, Hong Yao, Hui Wang, Huayu Li, Shuang Lu, Xu Zhang, Xinxin Xiang
Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment samples collected from the entire expanse of the Yellow River in dry and wet seasons. Higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in the middle and lower reaches of the river compared with those in the upper reaches, ascribed to the relatively developed and urbanized cities located in the areas near the middle and lower reaches. The PBDE concentrations in the samples collected during the dry season were lower than those in the samples collected during the wet season because of thaw and rainfall...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680305/trends-in-atmospheric-particles-and-their-light-extinction-performance-between-1980-and-2015-in-beijing-china
#11
L L Guo, H Zheng, Y L Lyu, L Y Liu, F Kong, S R Wang
This study explored the interdecadal variations and their horizontal and vertical light extinction performances of atmospheric particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 ), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10 ), and total suspended particulates (TSPs) in Beijing from 1980 to 2015, using data available from historical publications. Prominent declines of PM2.5 , PM10 , and TSPs were detected with long-term linear trends of -6.7, -4.3, and -1.9 μg m-3  yr-1 , respectively...
April 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680191/-cost-of-hypertrophy-due-to-intrauterine-growth-restriction-attributable-to-air-pollution-in-france
#12
C Rafenberg, I Annesi-Maesano
Exposure of pregnant women to fine particulate matter<2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5 ) is responsible for low birthweight (LBW) and intellectual disabilities, as expressed by a lower intelligence quotient (IQ). We estimated the attributable cost due to PM2.5 of healthcare at birth and cognitive retardation of children with LBW in metropolitan France in 2012. The cost of specific care of the 8300 (range, 3100-13,300) children born every year in France with a LBW attributable to PM2.5 exposure is estimated at €25 million (range, € 9...
April 18, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679837/development-of-a-stacked-ensemble-model-for-forecasting-and-analyzing-daily-average-pm-2-5-concentrations-in-beijing-china
#13
Binxu Zhai, Jianguo Chen
A stacked ensemble model is developed for forecasting and analyzing the daily average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in Beijing, China. Special feature extraction procedures, including those of simplification, polynomial, transformation and combination, are conducted before modeling to identify potentially significant features based on an exploratory data analysis. Stability feature selection and tree-based feature selection methods are applied to select important variables and evaluate the degrees of feature importance...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679788/factors-affecting-ambient-endotoxin-and-particulate-matter-concentrations-around-air-vents-of-subway-stations-in-south-korea
#14
Wha Me Park, Dong Uk Park, Sung Ho Hwang
Levels of airborne endotoxins and particulate matter less than 10 μm and 2.5 μm in diameter (PM) were measured in the air vents of subway stations in Seoul, South Korea, and factors affecting both pollutants were analyzed. The measurements were completed from March 2016 to February 2017 for eight air vents situated at the ground level around the subway stations. A total of 166 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from not detected to 1...
April 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679333/a-mixed-methods-study-to-examine-the-role-of-psychosocial-stress-and-air-pollution-on-hypertension-in-mexican-origin-hispanics
#15
Amal Rammah, Kristina Walker Whitworth, Inkyu Han, Wenyaw Chan, Maria D Jimenez, Sara S Strom, Melissa L Bondy, Elaine Symanski
PURPOSE: Independent and combined effects of air pollution and psychosocial stressors on hypertension, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, among Hispanics are not well studied. METHODS: We administered a pilot-tested questionnaire on individual- and neighborhood-level psychosocial stressors, developed with community input, to nearly 2500 individuals from the MD Anderson Cancer Center cohort of Mexican-Americans. We used data from local air quality monitors to estimate individual exposures to ozone (O3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM2...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679058/changes-in-gene-expression-in-chronic-allergy-mouse-model-exposed-to-natural-environmental-pm2-5-rich-ambient-air-pollution
#16
Yuhui Ouyang, Zhaojun Xu, Erzhong Fan, Ying Li, Kunio Miyake, Xianyan Xu, Luo Zhang
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic allergic diseases; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of exposure to natural ambient air pollution in chronic allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cellular responses induced by exposure to natural ambient air pollution, employing a mouse model of chronic allergy. The results indicated that exposure to ambient air pollution significantly increased the number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677666/use-of-cleaner-burning-biomass-stoves-and-airway-macrophage-black-carbon-in-malawian-women
#17
Abigail L Whitehouse, Lisa Miyashita, Norrice M Liu, Maia Lesosky, Graham Flitz, Chifundo Ndamala, John R Balmes, Stephen B Gordon, Kevin Mortimer, Jonathan Grigg
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) from burning of biomass for cooking is associated with adverse health effects. It is unknown whether or not cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves reduce the amount of PM inhaled by women compared with traditional open fires. We sought to assess whether airway macrophage black carbon (AMBC) - a marker of inhaled dose of carbonaceous PM from biomass and fossil fuel combustion - is lower in Malawian women using a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove compared with those using open fires for cooking...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677625/nitrogen-isotope-variations-of-ammonium-across-rain-events-implications-for-different-scavenging-between-ammonia-and-particulate-ammonium
#18
Xu-Dong Zheng, Xue-Yan Liu, Wei Song, Xin-Chao Sun, Cong-Qiang Liu
Enhanced ammonia (NH3 ) emissions and deposition caused negative effects on air quality and ecosystems. Precipitation is an efficient pathway to remove NH3 and particulate ammonium (p-NH4 + ) from the atmosphere into ecosystems. However, precipitation scavenging of p-NH4 + in chemical transport models has often considered fine p-NH4 + , with inadequate constraints on NH3 and coarse p-NH4 + . Based on distinct δ15 N values between NH3 and NH4 + in PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677550/impacts-of-transportation-sector-emissions-on-future-u-s-air-quality-in-a-changing-climate-part-i-projected-emissions-simulation-design-and-model-evaluation
#19
Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
Emissions from the transportation sector are rapidly changing worldwide; however, the interplay of such emission changes in the face of climate change are not as well understood. This two-part study examines the impact of projected emissions from the U.S. transportation sector (Part I) on ambient air quality in the face of climate change (Part II). In Part I of this study, we describe the methodology and results of a novel Technology Driver Model (see graphical abstract) that includes 1) transportation emission projections (including on-road vehicles, non-road engines, aircraft, rail, and ship) derived from a dynamic technology model that accounts for various technology and policy options under an IPCC emission scenario, and 2) the configuration/evaluation of a dynamically downscaled Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676644/air-pollution-exposure-with-fine-dust-responses-in-the-pulmonary-vasculature-and-the-right-heart
#20
Nedim Durmus, Gabriele Grunig
Detrimental effects of air pollution with fine dust (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, or PM2.5 ) on the systemic circulation and the left heart have been studied intensely during the past decade. In comparison, knowledge regarding the effects of exposure to air pollution with PM2.5 on the pulmonary vasculature and the right heart lags far behind. A report on severe lung disease and right heart failure in coal miners was published nearly 170 years ago. However, today, we still do not have a clear picture of how the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary circulation or the right heart should be viewed from a clinical, mechanistic biological, therapeutic, or economic angle...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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