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Particulate matter

Han Li, Yanjian Wan, Xiao Chen, Lu Cheng, Xueyu Yang, Wei Xia, Shunqing Xu, Hongling Zhang
Nickel is a widespread environmental contaminant, and it is toxic to humans in certain forms at high doses. Despite this, nationwide data on nickel in outdoor air particulate matter and human exposure to nickel through inhalation in China are limited. In the present study, 662 outdoor air samples from seven representative provinces such as Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Hebei, Guangdong, Yunnan, and Shanxi were collected between March 2013 and February 2014 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Zhoupeng Ren, Jun Zhu, Yanfang Gao, Qian Yin, Maogui Hu, Li Dai, Changfei Deng, Lin Yi, Kui Deng, Yanping Wang, Xiaohong Li, Jinfeng Wang
Previous research suggested an association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants and risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs), though the effects of particulate matter ≤10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 ) on CHDs are inconsistent. We used two machine learning models (i.e., random forest (RF) and gradient boosting (GB)) to investigate the non-linear effects of PM10 exposure during the critical time window, weeks 3-8 in pregnancy, on risk of CHDs. From 2009 through 2012, we carried out a population-based birth cohort study on 39,053 live-born infants in Beijing...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhen An, Yuefei Jin, Juan Li, Wen Li, Weidong Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Air pollution is established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Ambient particulate matter (PM), a principal component of air pollutant, has been considered as a main culprit of the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated particulate air pollution is positively associated with the development of CVDs. Short-term PM exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events while long-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent and can reduce life expectancy by a few years...
February 22, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Ihab Mikati, Adam F Benson, Thomas J Luben, Jason D Sacks, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities. METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Fernando Á Fernández-Álvarez, Annie Machordom, Ricardo García-Jiménez, César A Salinas-Zavala, Roger Villanueva
Cephalopods are primarily active predators throughout life. Flying squids (family Ommastrephidae) represents the most widely distributed and ecologically important family of cephalopods. While the diets of adult flying squids have been extensively studied, the first feeding diet of early paralarvae remains a mystery. The morphology of this ontogenetic stage notably differs from other cephalopod paralarvae, suggesting a different feeding strategy. Here, a combination of Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) and DNA metabarcoding of wild-collected paralarvae gut contents for eukaryotic 18S v9 and prokaryotic 16S rRNA was applied, covering almost every life domain...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anke Hüls, Andrea Vierkötter, Dorothea Sugiri, Michael J Abramson, Ulrich Ranft, Ursula Krämer, Tamara Schikowski
Air pollution has been associated with impaired lung and cognitive function, especially impairment in visuo-construction performance (VCP). In this article, we evaluate whether the effect of air pollution on VCP is mediated by lung function.We used data from the SALIA cohort (baseline 1985-1994 and follow-up 2007-2010) including 587 women aged 55 years at baseline. Particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) exposures at baseline were estimated via land-use regression models. Lung function was characterised by averages between baseline and follow-up...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Melinda C Power, Archana P Lamichhane, Duanping Liao, Xiaohui Xu, Clifford R Jack, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas Mosley, James D Stewart, Jeff D Yanosky, Eric A Whitsel
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence links higher particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure to late-life cognitive impairment. However, few studies have considered associations between direct estimates of long-term past exposures and brain MRI findings indicative of neurodegeneration or cerebrovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to quantify the association between brain MRI findings and PM exposures approximately 5 to 20 y prior to MRI in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Roxana Khalili, Scott M Bartell, Xuefei Hu, Yang Liu, Howard H Chang, Candice Belanoff, Matthew J Strickland, Verónica M Vieira
BACKGROUND: Associations between ambient particulate matter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) and asthma morbidity have been suggested in previous epidemiologic studies but results are inconsistent for areas with lower PM2.5 levels. We estimated the associations between early-life short-term PM2.5 exposure and the risk of asthma or wheeze clinical encounters among Massachusetts children in the innovative Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal (PELL) cohort data linkage system. METHODS: We used a semi-bidirectional case-crossover study design with short-term exposure lags for asthma exacerbation using data from the PELL system...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Qiong Wang, Huanhuan Zhang, Qianhong Liang, Luke D Knibbs, Meng Ren, Changchang Li, Junzhe Bao, Suhan Wang, Yiling He, Lei Zhu, Xuemei Wang, Qingguo Zhao, Cunrui Huang
The impact of ambient air pollution on pregnant women is a concern in China. However, little is known about the association between air pollution and preeclampsia and the potential modifying effects of meteorological conditions have not been assessed. This study aimed to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia, and to explore whether temperature and humidity modify the effects. We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 1.21 million singleton births from the birth registration system in Shenzhen, China, between 2005 and 2012...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Stefanie Kasurinen, Mikko S Happo, Teemu J Rönkkö, Jürgen Orasche, Jorma Jokiniemi, Miika Kortelainen, Jarkko Tissari, Ralf Zimmermann, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Pasi I Jalava
BACKGROUND: In vitro studies with monocultures of human alveolar cells shed deeper knowledge on the cellular mechanisms by which particulate matter (PM) causes toxicity, but cannot account for mitigating or aggravating effects of cell-cell interactions on PM toxicity. METHODS: We assessed inflammation, oxidative stress as well as cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by PM from the combustion of different types of wood logs and softwood pellets in three cell culture setups: two monocultures of either human macrophage-like cells or human alveolar epithelial cells, and a co-culture of these two cell lines...
2018: PloS One
Stephen M Roberts, Annette C Rohr, Vladimir B Mikheev, John Munson, Tara Sabo-Attwood
OBJECTIVE: Most studies report that inhaled volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) tend to deposit in the upper respiratory tract, while ultrafine (or near ultrafine) particulate matter (PM) (∼100 nm) reaches the lower airways. The objective of this study was to determine whether carbon particle co-exposure carries VOCs/SVOCs deeper into the lungs where they are deposited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation (nose-only) to radiolabeled toluene (20 ppm) or naphthalene (20 ppm) on a single occasion for 1 h, with or without concurrent carbon particle exposure (∼5 mg/m3 )...
February 21, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Yunjiang Yu, Ziling Yu, Zhengdong Wang, Bigui Lin, Liangzhong Li, Xichao Chen, Xiaohui Zhu, Mingdeng Xiang, Ruixue Ma
Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment collected from the water source zone of the Pearl River Delta region. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations ranged from 92.8 to 324 ng/L in the water DP, from 28.8 to 205 ng/L in the SPM, and from 55.7 to 381 ng/g (d.w.) in the sediment. Compared with other areas globally, the PAH levels were considerably moderate in the DP and SPM and relatively low in the sediment...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yansen Xu, Wen Xu, Li Mo, Mathew R Heal, Xiaowu Xu, Xinxiao Yu
Airborne particulate matter (PM) has become a serious environmental problem and harms human health worldwide. Trees can effectively remove particles from the atmosphere and improve the air quality. In this study, a washing and weighing method was used to quantify accumulation of water-soluble ions and insoluble PM on the leaf surfaces and within the wax of the leaves for 17 urban plant species (including 4 shrubs and 13 trees). The deposited PM was determined in three size fractions: fine (0.2-2.5 μm), coarse (2...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kimberly C Paul, Michael Jerrett, Beate Ritz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of studies over the past two decades have suggested that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are at an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several common molecular pathways to cellular and metabolic dysfunction have been implicated in the etiology of both diseases. Here, we review the emerging evidence from observational studies that investigate the relationship between T2DM and AD, and of shared environmental risk factors, specifically air pollution and pesticides, associated with both chronic disorders...
February 20, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Zainab Q Hakim, Gufran Beig, Srinivas Reka, Shakil A Romshoo, Irfan Rashid
The Kashmir Valley in India is one of the world's major tourist attractions and perceived as a pristine environment. Long term monitoring of fine particulate matter, PM2.5 (particles having aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less), responsible for deteriorating human health, has been done for the period 2013-14. Results indicate that air quality of the capital city Srinagar (34.1°N, 74.8°E) deteriorates significantly in particular during winter, where level of PM2.5 touches a peak value of 348 μg/m³ against the Indian permissible limit of 60 μg/m³...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenshi Xu, Mengyu Guo, Jing Liu, Yating Xiao, Guoqiang Zhou, Ying Liu, Chunying Chen
The incidence of many diseases is closely related to air pollution. Suspended particulate matter of different sizes represents a major source of environmental pollution. Fine particles, especially ultrafine particles smaller than 2.5 μm, might be more harmful to human health because of their extremely small size, which enables them to penetrate human lungs and bronchi and makes them difficult to filter out. Therefore, the fatal risks associated with PM call for the development of air purification materials with high efficiency and low resistance...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Yu-Hong Cui, Zi-Xuan Hu, Zi-Xun Gao, Xi-Ling Song, Qing-Yang Feng, Guang Yang, Zhi-Jie Li, Hong-Wei Pan
BACKGROUND: Cornea is the outmost structure of the eye and exposed directly to the air pollution. However, little is known about the effect of PM2.5 on corneal epithelium, which is critical for maintenance of cornea homeostasis and visual function. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of PM2.5 exposure on corneal epithelial migration and the possible mechanisms involved in the process. METHODS: We observed wound healing in mouse model of cornea abrasion, evaluated the migration and mobility of cultured corneal epithelial cells with wound scratch assay and Transwell migration assay, detected the phosphorylation and interaction of FAK/paxillin with immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation, and determined the RhoA activity and actin reorganization, in response to PM2...
February 20, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Jong Han Leem, Hwan Cheol Kim
This study was undertaken to investigate the associations between chronic exposure to particulate matter of medium aerodynamic diameter ≤10 or ≤2.5 µm (PM10 or PM2.5 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) levels and lung function and to examine a possible change in these relationships by demographic and lifestyle factors. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined using the Global Initiative for COPD criteria (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <70%). Associations of lung function and COPD with PM10 or PM2...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kei Yamasaki, Stephan F van Eeden
Lung macrophages (LMs) are essential immune effector cells that are pivotal in both innate and adaptive immune responses to inhaled foreign matter. They either reside within the airways and lung tissues (from early life) or are derived from blood monocytes. Similar to macrophages in other organs and tissues, LMs have natural plasticity and can change phenotype and function depending largely on the microenvironment they reside in. Phenotype changes in lung tissue macrophages have been implicated in chronic inflammatory responses and disease progression of various chronic lung diseases, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
James C Hogg, Tillie-Louise Hackett
It is well known that particulate matter suspended in the earth's atmosphere generated by tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, industrial processes, and forest fires has been identified as a major risk factor for chronic lung disease. Particulate matter can be divided into large, intermediate, and fine particulates. When inhaled, large particulates develop sufficient momentum to leave the flowing stream of inhaled air and deposit by impaction in the nose, mouth, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and central bronchi...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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