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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053946/measurement-of-area-and-personal-breathing-zone-concentrations-of-diesel-particulate-matter-dpm-during-oil-and-gas-extraction-operations-including-hydraulic-fracturing
#1
Eric J Esswein, Marissa Alexander-Scott, John Snawder, Michael Breitenstein
Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing) and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four year period from 2008-2012 The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m(3); measurements ranged from 0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053641/wear-and-tear-of-tyres-a-stealthy-source-of-microplastics-in-the-environment
#2
REVIEW
Pieter Jan Kole, Ansje J Löhr, Frank G A J Van Belleghem, Ad M J Ragas
Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12-50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053450/two-dimensional-isoelectric-focusing-offgel-micro-fluidic-lab-on-chip-electrophoresis-and-ftir-for-assessment-of-long-term-stability-of-rhg-csf-formulation
#3
H Kraiem, F Zouari, R Ben Abderrazek, Y Manon, M El Ayeb, L Fillaudeau, J Bedoui, B Bouhaouala-Zahar
Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) has been increasingly recognized from among one of the most abundant families of biosimilars. Upon long-term storage, rhG-CSF is subject to subtle chemical modifications that rapidly occur and, in particular, produce deaminated variants with divergent charge. Indeed, changes in charge from glutamine deamination may alter the way rhG-SCF will refold and the structure of resulting molecule. To assess this charge heterogeneity, 2D gel electrophoresis has limited application...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051459/high-risk-subgroups-sensitive-to-air-pollution-levels-following-an-emergency-medical-admission
#4
Seán Cournane, Richard Conway, Declan Byrne, Deirdre O'Riordan, Seamus Coveney, Bernard Silke
For three cohorts (the elderly, socially deprived, and those with chronic disabling disease), the relationship between the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO₂), or oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at the time of hospital admission and outcomes (30-day in-hospital mortality) were investigated All emergency admissions (90,423 episodes, recorded in 48,035 patients) between 2002 and 2015 were examined. PM10, SO₂, and NOx daily levels from the hospital catchment area were correlated with the outcomes for the older admission cohort (>70 years), those of lower socio-economic status (SES), and with more disabling disease...
October 16, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049943/occurrence-and-profile-of-organophosphorus-compounds-in-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-from-two-urban-areas-of-china-and-pakistan
#5
Yasir Faiz, Naila Siddique, Huan He, Cheng Sun, Shahida Waheed
Seven organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were measured in urban fine and coarse particulate matter (PM) collected from two sites of Nanjing (XCNUC), China and Islamabad (APHSP), Pakistan. The fine PM mass at APHSP site was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in the spring (mean 22.5 μg/m(3)) than in the summer (mean 12.7 μg/m(3)). The total concentration, ∑(7)OPs, of samples collected at APHSP was found significantly higher in coarse (range 672-47621 pg/m(3)) than in fine PM (range 1200-15213 pg/m(3)); while ∑(7)OPs from XCNUC in fine (range 1696-15063 pg/m(3)) and coarse PM (range 2053-5379 pg/m(3)) were statistically different in samples during summer, based on two-sample t-test at 0...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049509/prenatal-air-pollution-and-newborns-predisposition-to-accelerated-biological-aging
#6
Dries S Martens, Bianca Cox, Bram G Janssen, Diana B P Clemente, Antonio Gasparrini, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Harry A Roels, Michelle Plusquin, Tim S Nawrot
Importance: Telomere length is a marker of biological aging that may provide a cellular memory of exposures to oxidative stress and inflammation. Telomere length at birth has been related to life expectancy. An association between prenatal air pollution exposure and telomere length at birth could provide new insights in the environmental influence on molecular longevity. Objective: To assess the association of prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with newborn telomere length as reflected by cord blood and placental telomere length...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048608/zebrafish-locomotor-responses-reveal-irritant-effects-of-fine-pm-extracts-and-a-role-for-trpa1
#7
Joey S Stevens, Stephanie Padilla, David M DeMarini, Deborah L Hunter, W Kyle Martin, Leslie C Thompson, M Ian Gilmour, Mehdi S Hazari, Aimen K Farraj
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes. Yet the limited capacity to readily identify contributing PM sources and associated PM constituents in any given ambient air shed impedes risk assessment efforts. The health effects of PM have been attributed in part to its capacity to elicit irritant responses. A variety of chemicals trigger irritant behavior responses in zebrafish that can be easily measured. The purposes of this study were to examine the utility of zebrafish locomotor responses in the toxicity assessment of fine PM and its chemical fractions and uncover mechanisms of action...
October 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048397/correlation-analysis-of-pm10-and-the-incidence-of-lung-cancer-in-nanchang-china
#8
Yi Zhou, Lianshui Li, Lei Hu
Air pollution and lung cancer are closely related. In 2013, the World Health Organization listed outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic and regarded it as the most widespread carcinogen that humans are currently exposed to. Here, grey correlation and data envelopment analysis methods are used to determine the pollution factors causing lung cancer among residents in Nanchang, China, and identify population segments which are more susceptible to air pollution. This study shows that particulate matter with particle sizes below 10 micron (PM10) is most closely related to the incidence of lung cancer among air pollution factors including annual mean concentrations of SO₂, NO₂, PM10, annual haze days, and annual mean Air Pollution Index/Air Quality Index (API/AQI)...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048385/disease-and-health-inequalities-attributable-to-air-pollutant-exposure-in-detroit-michigan
#9
Sheena E Martenies, Chad W Milando, Guy O Williams, Stuart A Batterman
The environmental burden of disease is the mortality and morbidity attributable to exposures of air pollution and other stressors. The inequality metrics used in cumulative impact and environmental justice studies can be incorporated into environmental burden studies to better understand the health disparities of ambient air pollutant exposures. This study examines the diseases and health disparities attributable to air pollutants for the Detroit urban area. We apportion this burden to various groups of emission sources and pollutants, and show how the burden is distributed among demographic and socioeconomic subgroups...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047749/lidar-equation-inversion-methods-and-uncertainties-in-measuring-fugitive-particulate-matter-emission-factors
#10
Wangki Yuen, Qi Ma, Sotiria Koloutsou-Vakakis, Ke Du, Mark J Rood
Measurements from two field campaigns that employed a micropulse lidar are used to compare the near-end and the far-end lidar equation inversion methods for estimating emission factors (EFs) of particulate matter (PM) from three types of anthropogenic fugitive sources: vehicles moving on unpaved roads, open burning, and open detonation. As optical depth increased from 0 to 2, relative EF uncertainty increased from 54% to 300% using the near-end method and decreased from 69% to 42% using the far-end method. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first to use field measurements to compare results from these methods for anthropogenic PM plumes and quantify their uncertainties...
September 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047234/lung-cancer-risk-and-residential-exposure-to-air-pollution-a-korean-population-based-case-control-study
#11
Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Hwan Cheol Kim, Chang Min Choi, Myung Hee Shin, Young Mog Shim, Jong Han Leem, Jeong Seon Ryu, Hae Seong Nam, Sung Min Park
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in Koreans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population-based case-control study covering 908 lung cancer patients and 908 controls selected from a random sample of people within each Korean province and matched according to age, sex, and smoking status. We developed land-use regression models to estimate annual residential exposure to particulate matter (PM₁₀) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) over a 20-year exposure period...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047037/diesel-exhaust-particles-and-the-induction-of-macrophage-activation-and-dysfunction
#12
REVIEW
Akeem O Lawal
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are an important component of air particulate matter, generated from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel in diesel engines. Several epidemiological and experimental data have shown the ability of DEP to induce oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response as mechanisms in macrophage activation and dysfunction. Macrophages are very important to immunity and immune response due to their ability to phagocyte microbes and parasites. They also respond to toxic chemicals, such as DEP, in the environment and studies have shown that their functions may be impaired by their exposure to DEP...
October 19, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045708/association-between-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-dna-damage-in-human-volunteers-during-fire-extinction-exercises
#13
Maria Helena Guerra Andersen, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Per Axel Clausen, Julie Elbæk Pedersen, Mille Løhr, Ali Kermanizadeh, Steffen Loft, Niels Ebbehøj, Åse Marie Hansen, Peter Bøgh Pedersen, Ismo Kalevi Koponen, Eva-Carina Nørskov, Peter Møller, Ulla Vogel
This study investigated a number of biomarkers, associated with systemic inflammation as well as genotoxicity, in 53 young and healthy subjects participating in a course to become firefighters, while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). The exposure period consisted of a 3-day training course where the subjects participated in various live-fire training exercises. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood with electrical cords and mattresses. The personal exposure was measured as dermal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)...
October 13, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044495/urban-particulate-matter-stimulation-of-human-dendritic-cells-enhances-priming-of-na%C3%A3-ve-cd8-t-lymphocytes
#14
Paul E Pfeffer, Tzer R Ho, Elizabeth H Mann, Frank J Kelly, Maria Sehlstedt, Jamshid Pourazar, Rosamund E Dove, Thomas Sandstrom, Ian S Mudway, Catherine M Hawrylowicz
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown associations between elevated concentrations of urban particulate matter (UPM) air pollution and exacerbations of asthma and COPD, which are both associated with viral respiratory infections. The effects of urban PM on dendritic cell (DC) stimulated CD4 T lymphocytes have been investigated previously, however little work has focused on CD8 T lymphocyte responses despite their importance in anti-viral immunity. To address this, we examined the effects of UPM on DC-stimulated naïve CD8 T cell responses...
October 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044438/high-total-volatile-organic-compounds-pollution-in-a-hospital-dental-department
#15
Ming-Hui Liu, Tao-Hsin Tung, Fen-Fang Chung, Li-Chuan Chuang, Gwo-Hwa Wan
Bioaerosols produced by dental procedures may affect indoor air quality and cause infections in dental healthcare workers. To provide air quality data that can be used to protect dental healthcare workers, this study evaluated the air quality and its influencing factors in the dental department of the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan. The study was a cross-sectional study design. Indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluations were conducted in six locations: pediatric dentistry, craniofacial orthodontic dentistry, periodontal dentistry, and general practice dentistry, instrument washing room, and patient waiting area...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044136/new-insights-into-the-impacts-of-suspended-particulate-matter-on-phytoplankton-density-in-a-tributary-of-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#16
Qiang He, Yixi Qiu, Haohang Liu, Xingfu Sun, Li Kang, Li Cao, Hong Li, Hainan Ai
Phytoplankton density can be influenced by a wide range of factors whereas the role of suspended particulate matter (SPM) are not clear in river that annually subjected to hydrodynamics shift. Here, spatial-temporal variation of environmental parameters and phytoplankton density were studied from January 2013 to December 2014 in Yulin River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Laboratory experiments were conducted to elucidate the key parameter and interpret how it impacted phytoplankton density...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044123/ire1%C3%AE-xbp1s-branch-of-upr-links-hif1%C3%AE-activation-to-mediate-angii-dependent-endothelial-dysfunction-under-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-exposure
#17
Xiuduan Xu, Aodeng Qimuge, Hongli Wang, Chen Xing, Ye Gu, Shasha Liu, Huan Xu, Meiru Hu, Lun Song
Short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) 2.5 instigates adverse health effect upon the cardiovascular (CV) system. Disclosing the molecular events by which PM2.5 evokes CV injuries is essential in developing effective risk-reduction strategy. Here we found that rats after intratracheally instillation with PM2.5 displayed increased circulating level of ANGII, the major bioactive peptide in renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), which resulted from the elevation of ANGII production in the vascular endothelium...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039319/heavy-metals-identification-and-exposure-at-workplace-environment-its-extent-of-accumulation-in-blood-of-iron-and-steel-recycling-foundry-workers-of-lahore-pakistan
#18
Muhammad Ahsan Riaz, Amtul Bari Tabinda Akhtar, Ayesha Riaz, Ghulam Mujtaba, Muhammad Ali, Beenish Ijaz
The determination of heavy metals in blood is an important occupational environmental toxicology screening procedure. The aim of study was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in blood samples of iron and steel foundry workplace exposed workers under routine clinical laboratory conditions. The method was employed for the quantitative determination of lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel in workplace environment particulate matter blood samples from iron and steel foundry workers and in unexposed controls...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039231/the-respiratory-health-effects-of-geogenic-earth-derived-pm10
#19
Lewis J Williams, Ling Chen, Graeme R Zosky
Inhalation of particulate matter less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) has a range of implications for respiratory health. In order to mitigate these effects regulatory bodies have set ambient air quality guidelines based on the known dose-response relationships between PM10 exposure and health outcomes. However, these data are based almost entirely on PM10 from urban regions, which are typically dominated by particulates from combustion sources. In contrast, there are limited data on the respiratory health effects of particles from nonurban regions that often contain a high geogenic (earth derived) component...
July 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038572/higher-order-network-analysis-of-fine-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-transport-in-china-at-city-level
#20
Yufang Wang, Haiyan Wang, Shuhua Chang, Maoxing Liu
Specification of PM 2.5 transmission characteristics is important for pollution control and policymaking. We apply higher-order organization of complex networks to identify major potential PM 2.5 contributors and PM 2.5 transport pathways of a network of 189 cities in China. The network we create in this paper consists of major cities in China and contains information on meteorological conditions of wind speed and wind direction, data on geographic distance, mountains, and PM 2.5 concentrations. We aim to reveal PM 2...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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