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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528474/toxicity-assessment-of-ash-and-dust-from-handmade-gold-jewelry-manufacturing-workshops-in-bangladesh
#1
Arif M Sikder, Tanvir Hossain, Manzurul H Khan, M Aziz Hasan, M Fakhruzzaman, Joseph B Turner, Dmitry Pestov, Leigh S McCallister, K Maudood Elahi
Traditionally, handmade gold jewelry played a very important role in the cultural heritage of Bangladesh. Goldsmiths still are partially using ancient manufacturing process with coal fire, candle flame blowing, and nitric and sulfuric acid treatments. Such process leads to the contamination of workplace with the dust of toxic metals, acidic vapors, and particles of different natures. To evaluate contamination by particulate matter (PM), the passive particle collectors were installed in different manufacturing units for a period of 85 days at Tanti Bazar, Dhaka, Bangladesh...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527212/apolipoprotein-e4-gender-body-mass-index-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-air-pollution-interactions-recipe-for-alzheimer-s-disease-development-in-mexico-city-young-females
#2
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Suzanne M de la Monte
Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526404/airborne-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-trigger-human-skin-cells-aging-through-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#3
Yuan Qiao, Qiang Li, Hong-Yang Du, Qiao-Wei Wang, Ye Huang, Wei Liu
Accumulating evidence suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which adsorbed on the surface of ambient air particulate matters (PM), are the major toxic compound to cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, even cancer. However, its detrimental effects on human skin cell remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that SRM1649b, a reference urban dust material of PAH, triggers human skin cells aging through cell cycle arrest, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Principally, SRM1649b facilitated Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) translocated into nucleus, subsequently activated ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, and upregulated aging-related genes expression...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525860/a-comparison-of-individual-exposure-perception-and-acceptable-levels-of-pm2-5-with-air-pollution-policy-objectives-in-china
#4
Lei Huang, Chao Rao, Tsering Jan van der Kuijp, Jun Bi, Yang Liu
Atmospheric pollution has emerged as a major public health issue in China. Public perception and acceptable risk levels of air pollution can prompt individual behavioral changes and play a major role in the public's response to health risks. Therefore, to explore these responses and evaluate what constitutes publicly acceptable concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), questionnaire surveys were conducted in three representative cities of China: Beijing, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. Great differences in public risk perception were revealed...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525859/the-association-between-ambient-inhalable-particulate-matter-and-the-disease-burden-of-respiratory-disease-an-ecological-study-based-on-ten-year-time-series-data-in-tianjin-china
#5
Qiang Zeng, Ziting Wu, Guohong Jiang, Xiaoyin Wu, Pei Li, Yang Ni, Xiuqin Xiong, Xinyan Wang, Parasat, Guoxing Li, Xiaochuan Pan
There is limited evidence available worldwide about the quantitative relationship between particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10µm (PM10) and years of life lost (YLL) caused by respiratory diseases (RD), especially regarding long-term time series data. We investigated the quantitative exposure-response association between PM10 and the disease burden of RD. We obtained the daily concentration of ambient pollutants (PM10, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide), temperature and relative humidity data, as well as the death monitoring data from 2001 to 2010 in Tianjin...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525857/industrial-air-emissions-and-proximity-to-major-industrial-emitters-are-associated-with-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibodies
#6
Sasha Bernatsky, Audrey Smargiassi, Lawrence Joseph, Phillip Awadalla, Ines Colmegna, Marie Hudson, Marvin J Fritzler
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA) with the ambient air pollutants fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). METHODS: The CARTaGENE first-wave cohort includes 20,000 general population subjects from Quebec (Canada). On a sample of unselected 1586 subjects, we determined serum, ACPA and performed multivariable logistic regression, for the outcome of positive ACPA, assessing for independent effects of our air pollution variables, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and French Canadian origin...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524743/nanoparticle-exposures-from-nano-enabled-toner-based-printing-equipment-and-human-health-state-of-science-and-future-research-needs
#7
Sandra Vanessa Pirela, John Martin, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Toner formulations used by laser printers (LP) and photocopiers (PC), collectively called "toner-based printing equipment" (TPE), are nano-enabled products (NEP) because they contain several engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that improve toner performance. It has been shown that during consumer use (printing), these ENM are released in the air, together with other semi-volatile organic nanoparticles, and newly formed gaseous co-pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC). The aim of this review is to detail and analyze physico-chemical and morphological (PCM), as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from TPE...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522562/estrogen-and-cigarette-sidestream-smoke-particulate-matter-exhibit-er%C3%AE-dependent-tumor-promoting-effects-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#8
Lun-Cheng Kuo, Li-Chuan Cheng, Chia-Huei Lee, Chun-Ju Lin, Pei-Yu Chen, Lih-Ann Li
Estrogen and secondhand smoke are key risk factors for nonsmoking female lung cancer patients, who frequently have lung adenocarcinoma and show tumor ERα expression. We speculated that estrogen and secondhand smoke might cause harmful effects via ERα signaling. Our results showed that 17β-estradiol (E2), the primary form of endogenous estrogen, exacerbated proliferation, migration, and granzyme B resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells in an ERα-dependent manner. Cigarette sidestream smoke particulate matter (CSSP), the major component of secondhand smoke, could activate ERα activity dose dependently in human lung adenocarcinoma cells...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521450/atmospheric-particulate-matter2-5-promotes-the-migration-and-invasion-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#9
Qian Zhang, Qiong Luo, Xueyu Yuan, Li Chai, Dan Li, Jianjun Liu, Zhongwei Lv
Epidemiological data has demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is associated with cancer incidence. However, the precise mechanisms underlying PM2.5-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma cancer (HCC) migration and invasion remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the response of the HCC cell lines HepG2 and HuH-7 to PM2.5 exposure. The results revealed that PM2.5 treatment promoted the migration and invasion of HCC cells, in addition to increasing protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521239/seabed-gallery-intakes-investigation-of-the-water-pretreatment-effectiveness-of-the-active-layer-using-a-long-term-column-experiment
#10
Abdullah H A Dehwah, Thomas M Missimer
Seabed gallery intake systems used for seawater reverse osmosis facilities employ the same principle of water treatment as slow sand filtration in freshwater systems. An investigation concerning the effectiveness of the active layer (top layer) in improving raw water quality was conducted by using a long-term bench-scale columns experiment. Two different media types, silica and carbonate sand, were tested in 1 m columns to evaluate the effectiveness of media type in terms of algae, bacteria, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) removal over a period of 620 days...
May 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521192/long-term-exposure-to-residential-ambient-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-and-incident-hypertension-in-post-menopausal-women
#11
Trenton Honda, Melissa N Eliot, Charles B Eaton, Eric Whitsel, James D Stewart, Lina Mu, Helen Suh, Adam Szpiro, Joel D Kaufman, Sverre Vedal, Gregory A Wellenius
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of incident hypertension, a key determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, whether long-term exposure to PM is associated with incident hypertension remains unclear. METHODS: Using national geostatistical models incorporating geographic covariates and spatial smoothing, we estimated annual average concentrations of residential fine (PM2...
May 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520744/indoor-simulations-reveal-differences-among-plant-species-in-capturing-particulate-matter
#12
Jungang Chen, Xinxiao Yu, Huaxing Bi, Yanlin Fu
A number of studies have focused on the capacity of urban trees and shrubs to serve as efficient biological filters to mitigate air pollution. In this study, five different tree species were assessed for this function. Kerria japonica, Sophora japonica, Philadelphus pekinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Prunus persica 'Atropurpurea' were tested in a deposition chamber using (NH4)2SO4 particles. We quantified and compared the capability of all tested trees to remove particles by assessing deposition velocity, a measure of the ability to remove particles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520422/a-global-land-use-regression-model-for-nitrogen-dioxide-air-pollution
#13
Andrew Larkin, Jeffrey A Geddes, Randall V Martin, Qingyang Xiao, Yang Liu, Julian D Marshall, Michael Brauer, Perry Hystad
Nitrogen dioxide is a common air pollutant with growing evidence of health impacts independent of other common pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. However, the global distribution of NO2 exposure and associated impacts on global health is still largely uncertain. To advance global exposure estimates we created a global nitrogen dioxide (NO2) land use regression model for 2011 using annual measurements from 5,220 air monitors in 58 countries. The model captured 54% of global NO2 variation, with a mean absolute error of 3...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518217/impacts-of-an-invasive-plant-are-fundamentally-altered-by-a-co-occurring-forest-disturbance
#14
Noah W Sokol, Sara E Kuebbing, Mark A Bradford
Invasive species frequently co-occur with other human disturbances, which can impact the same ecosystem functions as the invader. Yet invasion studies rarely control for the presence of these other disturbances, although their overlapping effects may influence the direction and magnitude of impacts attributed to the invader alone. Here, we ask whether controlling for the presence of a co-occurring disturbance, as well as the time since disturbance, yields different values of an invader's ecosystem effects than when these factors remain unaddressed...
May 18, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516352/air-pollution-and-respiratory-health-among-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-subjects-in-pune-india-results-from-the-wellcome-trust-genetic-study
#15
Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Sundeep Santosh Salvi, Chittaranjan Sakerlal Yajnik, Ajay Ojha, Behzad Khafaie, Sharad Damodar Gore
Diabetics may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of ambient air pollutants than healthy individuals. But, the risk factors that lead to susceptibility to air pollution in diabetics have not yet been identified. We examined the effect of exposure to ambient PM10 on chronic symptoms and the pulmonary function tests (PFT) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Also, to investigate possible determinants of susceptibility, we recruited 400 type 2 diabetic and 465 healthy subjects who were investigated for chronic respiratory symptoms (CRSs) and then underwent measurement of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume 1 (FEV1) according to standard protocol...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514452/isotopic-evidence-of-multiple-controls-on-atmospheric-oxidants-over-climate-transitions
#16
Lei Geng, Lee T Murray, Loretta J Mickley, Pu Lin, Qiang Fu, Andrew J Schauer, Becky Alexander
The abundance of tropospheric oxidants, such as ozone (O3) and hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2), determines the lifetimes of reduced trace gases such as methane and the production of particulate matter important for climate and human health. The response of tropospheric oxidants to climate change is poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in the degree to which processes that influence oxidants may change with climate and owing to a lack of palaeo-records with which to constrain levels of atmospheric oxidants during past climate transitions...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513752/comparison-of-pm2-5-carbonaceous-pollutants-between-an-urban-site-in-shanghai-and-a-background-site-in-a-coastal-east-china-sea-island-in-summer-concentration-composition-and-sources
#17
Fengwen Wang, Tian Lin, Yuanyuan Li, Zhigang Guo, Neil L Rose
Nine paired samples of atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected concurrently from an urban site in Shanghai, China and a background site in Huaniao Island (HNI) in the coastal East China Sea (ECS) between July 21 and 29, 2011. The samples were analyzed for 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes (20 species, C14-C33), hopanes (10 species, C29-C32), and steranes (12 species, C27-C29)...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513175/effect-of-voc-emissions-from-vegetation-on-air-quality-in-berlin-during-a-heatwave
#18
Galina Churkina, Friderike Kuik, Boris Bonn, Axel Lauer, Rüdiger Grote, Karolina Tomiak, Tim M Butler
The potential of emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone and particulate matter has long been recognized. This potential increases with rising temperatures and may lead to severe problems with air quality in densely populated areas during heat waves. Here, we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds from urban/suburban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone and particulate matter. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem) with emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation simulated with MEGAN to quantify some of these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany, during the heat wave in 2006...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513144/rapid-elemental-analysis-of-aerosols-using-atmospheric-glow-discharge-optical-emission-spectroscopy
#19
Lina Zheng, Pramod Kulkarni
A new, low-cost approach based on the application of atmospheric radio frequency glow discharge (rf-GD) optical emission spectroscopy (OES) has been developed for near real-time measurement of multielemental concentration in airborne particulate matter. This method involves deposition of aerosol particles on the tip of a grounded electrode of a coaxial microelectrode system, followed by ablation, atomization and excitation of the particulate matter using the rf-GD. The resulting atomic emissions were recorded using a spectrometer for elemental identification and quantification...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512178/particulate-generation-mechanisms-during-bulk-filling-and-mitigation-via-new-glass-vial
#20
Christopher Timmons, Chi Yuen Liu, Stefan Merkle
Contamination with foreign particulate matter continues to be a leading cause of parenteral drug recalls, despite extensive control and inspection during manufacturing. Glass is a significant source of particulate matter contamination; however, the mechanism, source, and quantification have not been extensively analyzed. Quantification of particulate matter generation with lab simulations suggests that glass-to-glass contact on the filling line produces large quantities of glass particles of various sizes. A new strengthened glass vial with a low-coefficient of friction (low-COF) surface is proposed to address this root cause of glass particle generation...
May 15, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
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