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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822932/hydrochemistry-of-waters-in-snowpacks-lakes-and-streams-of-mt-dagu-eastern-of-tibet-plateau
#1
Guang Zhao, Wei Li, Feng Li, Fu Zhang, Gangcai Liu
There is little available information on hydrochemistry of waters from glacial source to downstream of glacierized catchments. Here we examine the water chemistry of the snowpacks, lakes and streams at eight sampling sites within glacial basin in Mt. Dagu, east Tibetan Plateau. An air mass trajectory model, correlation analysis, Gibbs model, Piper diagram and hydrograph separation analysis were utilized to investigate the characteristics and solutes sources of these waters. Generally, the TDS (Total dissolved solids; 7...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822877/assessment-of-tobacco-heating-product-thp1-0-part-8-study-to-determine-puffing-topography-mouth-level-exposure-and-consumption-among-japanese-users
#2
Jodie Gee, Krishna Prasad, Sandra Slayford, Adam Gray, Kathryn Nother, Anthony Cunningham, Eleni Mavropoulou, Christopher Proctor
A four-arm study was undertaken in Japan to determine the puffing topography, mouth level exposure and average daily consumption by consumers of the tobacco heating products (THPs): the non-mentholated THP1.0(T), the mentholated THP1.0(M) and a tobacco heating system (THS). The extent of lip blocking of air inlet holes while using THP1.0(T) was also assessed. Groups 1, 2, and 4 included smokers, and group 3 included regular THP users. Smokers of 7-8 mg ISO nicotine free dry particulate matter (NFDPM) non-mentholated cigarettes took on average larger mean puff volumes from THPs than from conventional cigarettes, but puff numbers and durations were similar...
August 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822787/global-regional-and-national-deaths-prevalence-disability-adjusted-life-years-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are common diseases with a heterogeneous distribution worldwide. Here, we present methods and disease and risk estimates for COPD and asthma from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2015 study. The GBD study provides annual updates on estimates of deaths, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a summary measure of fatal and non-fatal disease outcomes, for over 300 diseases and injuries, for 188 countries from 1990 to the most recent year...
August 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822504/is-smog-innocuous-air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-disease
#4
EDITORIAL
Sundeep Mishra
Air pollution is a significant environmental and health hazard. Earlier studies had examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter on respiratory disease. However, later studies demonstrated that was actually cardiovascular disease that accounted for majority of mortality. Furthermore, it was not gaseous pollutants like oxides of nitrate, sulfur, carbon mono-oxide or ozone but the particulate matter or PM, of fine or coarse size (PM2.5 and PM10) which was linearly associated with mortality; PM2...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822343/the-control-of-disinfection-byproducts-and-their-precursors-in-biologically-active-filtration-processes
#5
REVIEW
Chao Liu, Christopher I Olivares, Ameet J Pinto, Chance V Lauderdale, Jess Brown, Meric Selbes, Tanju Karanfil
While disinfection provides hygienically safe drinking water, the disinfectants react with inorganic or organic precursors, leading to the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Biological filtration is a process in which an otherwise conventional granular filter is designed to remove not only fine particulates but also dissolved organic matters (e.g., DBP precursors) through microbially mediated degradation. Recently, applications of biofiltration in drinking water treatment have increased significantly...
August 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822338/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-and-health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-atmospheric-particulate-matters-from-three-different-functional-areas-of-shanghai-china
#6
Huang Huang, Ying Jiang, Xiaoyun Xu, Xinde Cao
The bioaccessibility and human health risks of heavy metals in PM2.5 and PM10 samples from three functional areas of Shanghai, China including a commercial area (CA), a residential area (RA), and an industrial area (IA), were investigated. Gamble's solution and physiologically based extraction test were employed to simulate human respiratory and digestive system, respectively. Both PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in the three areas exceeded the guideline of WHO, and followed the order of IA>CA≈RA. Zinc and Pb were the most abundant metals with a concentration range of 0...
August 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821285/genetic-and-epigenetic-susceptibility-of-airway-inflammation-to-pm2-5-in-school-children-new-insights-from-quantile-regression
#7
Yue Zhang, Muhammad T Salam, Kiros Berhane, Sandrah P Eckel, Edward B Rappaport, William S Linn, Rima Habre, Theresa M Bastain, Frank D Gilliland
BACKGROUND: The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation that has proved to be useful in investigations of genetic and epigenetic airway susceptibility to ambient air pollutants. For example, susceptibility to airway inflammation from exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < =2.5 μm (PM2.5) varies by haplotypes and promoter region methylation in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS encoded by NOS2). We hypothesized that PM2...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820906/exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-in-the-air-alters-placental-structure-and-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#8
Sônia de Fátima Soto, Juliana Oliveira de Melo, Guilherme D'Aprile Marchesi, Karen Lucasechi Lopes, Mariana Matera Veras, Ivone Braga de Oliveira, Regiane Machado de Souza, Isac de Castro, Luzia Naôko Shinohara Furukawa, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Joel C Heimann
METHODS: Female Wistar rats were exposed to filtered air (F) or to concentrated fine particulate matter (P) for 15 days. After mating, the rats were divided into four groups and again exposed to F or P (FF, FP, PF, PP) beginning on day 6 of pregnancy. At embryonic day 19, the placenta was collected. The placental structure, the protein and gene expression of TGFβ1, VEGF-A, and its receptor Flk-1 and RAS were evaluated by indirect ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Exposure to P decreased the placental mass, size, and surface area as well as the TGFβ1, VEGF-A and Flk-1 content...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819316/association-of-ambient-particulate-matter-2-5-with-intensive-care-unit-admission-due-to-pneumonia-a-distributed-lag-non-linear-model
#9
Zhongheng Zhang, Yucai Hong, Ning Liu
Air pollution in China has become a major environmental problem. There is a lack of evidence on the impact of haze (especially PM2.5) on intensive care unit admission due to pneumonia (ICUp). We hypothesized that PM2.5 was independently associated with ICUp and there was a non-linear time lag effect. All ICU admissions occurred from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016 in Sir Run-Run Shaw hospital were included in the study. The primary reasons for admission were categorized into pneumonia and non-pneumonia...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817261/the-effect-of-particulate-matter-mineral-composition-on-environmentally-persistent-free-radical-epfr-formation
#10
Elisabeth Feld-Cook, Gudrun Lisa Bovenkamp-Langlois, Slawomir M Lomnicki
Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are newly discovered, long-lived surface bound radicals that form on combustion borne particulates, such as fly ash. They are the result of a series of reactions between organic aromatics and metal oxides. Fly ashes contain varying concentrations of metal oxides, calcium and sulfur, which leads to differences in EPFR concentrations. To further investigate the relationship of fly ash composition and EPFR formation in a less complex matrix, surrogate fly ashes were synthesized to mimic the presence of their major mineral components, including metal oxides, calcium and sulfur...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816442/characterization-of-primary-organic-aerosol-from-domestic-wood-peat-and-coal-burning-in-ireland
#11
Chunshui Lin, Darius Ceburnis, Stig Michael Hellebust, Paul Buckley, John Charles Wenger, Francesco Canonaco, Andre S H Prevot, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite
An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was deployed to study the primary non-refractory submicron particulate matter emissions from burning of commercially available solid fuels (peat, coal, and wood) typically used in European domestic fuel stoves. Organic mass spectra (MS) from burning wood, peat, and coal were characterized and inter-compared for factor analysis against ambient data. The reference profiles characterized in this study were used to estimate the contribution of solid fuel sources, along with oil combustion, to ambient pollution in Galway, Ireland using the multilinear engine (ME-2)...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815369/suspended-particulate-matter-collection-methods-influence-the-quantification-of-polycyclic-aromatic-compounds-in-the-river-system
#12
Fayez Abuhelou, Laurence Mansuy-Huault, Catherine Lorgeoux, Delphine Catteloin, Valéry Collin, Allan Bauer, Hussein Jaafar Kanbar, Renaud Gley, Luc Manceau, Fabien Thomas, Emmanuelle Montargès-Pelletier
In this study, we compared the influence of two different collection methods, filtration (FT) and continuous flow field centrifugation (CFC), on the concentration and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) occurring in river waters. SPM samples were collected simultaneously with FT and CFC from a river during six sampling campaigns over 2 years, covering different hydrological contexts. SPM samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of PACs including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 11 oxygenated PACs (O-PACs), and 5 nitrogen PACs (N-PACs)...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815276/determination-of-89-drugs-and-other-micropollutants-in-unfiltered-wastewater-and-freshwater-by-lc-ms-ms-an-alternative-sample-preparation-approach
#13
Alexandros G Asimakopoulos, Pranav Kannan, Sean Higgins, Kurunthachalam Kannan
A liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-qQq-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 89 legal neuropsychiatric pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs (both parent compounds and metabolites) and other micropollutants in unfiltered wastewater and freshwater. The target chemicals fall under the classes of amphetamine-type stimulants, cocaine compounds, opiates and opioids, benzodiazepines, lysergic compounds, antipsychotics, anesthetics, antiepileptics, antidepressants, sympathomimetics, cannabinoids, blood thinners, antihistamines, β-blockers, caffeine derivatives, nicotine derivatives, z-drugs, new designer drugs, and Alzheimer medications...
August 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814454/air-pollution-as-a-catalyst-for-supporting-tobacco-control-policies-evidence-from-a-nationwide-study-on-chinese-medical-students
#14
Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, Tingzhong Yang, Fanhao Nie
PURPOSE: Few studies have discussed how the increasing ambient air pollution may affect policy-related attitudes. Medical professionals constitute an important interest group who analyse and solve public issues within a medicalised framework. The current study investigates whether ambient air pollution is associated with a greater likelihood of supporting tobacco control measures among medical students. METHODS: We conducted multistage sampling among the medical students from 42 cities in China...
August 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813539/vectorization-by-nanoparticles-decreases-the-overall-toxicity-of-airborne-pollutants
#15
Rodolphe Carpentier, Anne Platel, Helena Maiz-Gregores, Fabrice Nesslany, Didier Betbeder
Atmospheric pollution is mainly composed of volatile pollutants and particulate matter that strongly interact. However, their specific roles in the induction of cellular toxicity, in particular the impact of the vectorization of atmospheric pollutants by ultrafine particles, remains to be fully elucidated. For this purpose, non-toxic poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were synthesized and three pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) were adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles in order to evaluate the toxicity (cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ROS induction) of these complexes to a human airway epithelial cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813509/associations-of-particulate-matter-and-its-components-with-emergency-room-visits-for-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-diseases
#16
Sung-Hee Hwang, Jae Young Lee, Seung-Muk Yi, Ho Kim
Numerous studies have revealed an association between particulate matter (PM) and emergency room (ER) visits, although few studies have investigated the association between health and PM components. The present study evaluated the associations of ER visits for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with PM2.5 components, including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and ion species (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+). Statistical analyses were performed using the time-series approach, and generalized linear models with natural spline functions were used to adjust for the non-linear relationship between the confounders and ER visits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811302/effects-of-temperature-and-uvr-on-organic-matter-fluxes-and-the-metabolic-activity-of-acropora-muricata
#17
Lucile Courtial, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Stéphan Jacquet, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Stéphanie Reynaud, Cécile Rottier, Fanny Houlbrèque
Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR), the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810687/the-characterization-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-northeastern-us-trucking-terminals
#18
Erica D Walker, Jaime E Hart, Eric Garshick, Jennifer M Cavallari, Mary E Davis, Thomas J Smith, Francine Laden
In recent years, significant attention has been given to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures given their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. However, levels of exposure and the key determinants of exposure are not well defined for the trucking industry. We measured ultrafine particle characteristics at 10 trucking terminals of varying operating size and location in the Northeast region of the United States using particle concentration counter and a surface area analyzer. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess determinants of the concentration of total bound PAHs (tPAH), the total aerosol active surface area (AS), and the ratio tPAH/AS overall and individually within docks, trucking cabs, and administrative offices...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810685/characterising-the-exposure-of-prison-staff-to-second-hand-tobacco-smoke
#19
Sean Semple, Helen Sweeting, Evangelia Demou, Greig Logan, Rachel O'Donnell, Kate Hunt
Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) is an avoidable and harmful exposure in the workplace but >25000 prison staff continue to be exposed on a daily basis in the UK and many more worldwide. SHS exposures in prisons are incompletely understood but may be considerable given the large proportion of smoking prisoners and limited ventilation. This study characterized the exposure of prison staff to SHS in all 15 prisons in Scotland using multiple methods. Exposure assessment strategies included 6-day area measurement of fine Particulate Matter (PM2...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810507/landscape-determinants-of-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-aerosol-optical-depth-in-the-two-most-polluted-metropolitans-in-the-united-states
#20
Chenghao Wang, Chuyuan Wang, Soe W Myint, Zhi-Hua Wang
Elevated concentration of atmospheric aerosols during severe urban air pollution episodes necessitates a deep understanding of the underlying determinants for a sustainable urban environment. The 15-year (2001-2015) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data for the Phoenix and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas were applied to examine the spatio-temporal patterns and dynamics of urban aerosols. The strongly correlated temporal trends of AOD were observed due to the similar seasonal pattern of aerosol emissions and potential synoptic connections between two areas...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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