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Exercise Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822112/effectiveness-of-resistance-circuit-based-training-for-maximum-oxygen-uptake-and-upper-body-one-repetition-maximum-improvements-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Francisco Antonio Muñoz-Martínez, Jacobo Á Rubio-Arias, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Pedro E Alcaraz
BACKGROUND: It is well known that concurrent increases in both maximal strength and aerobic capacity are associated with improvements in sports performance as well as overall health. One of the most popular training methods used for achieving these objectives is resistance circuit-based training. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present systematic review with a meta-analysis was to evaluate published studies that have investigated the effects of resistance circuit-based training on maximum oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum of the upper-body strength (bench press exercise) in healthy adults...
August 18, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819746/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-training-on-anxiety-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
Brett R Gordon, Cillian P McDowell, Mark Lyons, Matthew P Herring
BACKGROUND: The salutary effects of resistance exercise training (RET) are well established, including increased strength and function; however, less is known regarding the effects of RET on mental health outcomes. Aerobic exercise has well-documented positive effects on anxiety, but a quantitative synthesis of RET effects on anxiety is needed. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the population effect size for resistance exercise training (RET) effects on anxiety and to determine whether variables of logical, theoretical, and/or prior empirical relation to anxiety moderate the overall effect...
August 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818635/linking-the-tao-biomathics-and-information-through-the-logic-of-energy
#3
REVIEW
Joseph E Brenner
The knowledge accumulated in West and East is incomplete in different ways. The mainstream Western approach has contributed the basis for modern science, but indications have appeared in the Western literature that something has been missing in it that Eastern thought could offer. This paper explores the similarities and differences between Eastern and Western approaches to knowledge and whether a trend exists toward their conjunction or convergence. I suggest that a process of conjunction of these different modes of exploration of what the concepts of 'Life and Mind' really entail, at the interface of philosophy and science, is taking place in the areas of information and biomathics...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814906/psychosocial-challenges-for-patients-with-advanced-lung-cancer-interventions-to-improve-well-being
#4
REVIEW
Rebecca H Lehto
As compared to other cancers, lung malignancies are associated with high symptom burden, poorer prognosis, and stigmatization. Such factors increase psychological distress and negatively impact quality of life. Research has documented the efficacy of psychosocial interventions to alleviate psychological distress and promote well-being among patients with cancer. This article summarizes the current literature on psychosocial interventions in lung cancer. Major types of psychosocial interventions in lung cancer include cognitive-behavioral therapies, psycho-education, mind-body, exercise, and supportive or palliative care strategies...
2017: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814664/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-treatment-with-carvedilol-for-heart-failure-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Samar Farha, Didem Saygin, Margaret M Park, Hoi I Cheong, Kewal Asosingh, Suzy Aa Comhair, Olivia R Stephens, Emir C Roach, Jacqueline Sharp, Kristin B Highland, Frank P DiFilippo, Donald R Neumann, W H Wilson Tang, Serpil C Erzurum
BACKGROUND: Right-sided heart failure is the leading cause of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Similar to left heart failure, sympathetic overactivation and β-adrenoreceptor (βAR) abnormalities are found in PAH. Based on successful therapy of left heart failure with β-blockade, the safety and benefits of the nonselective β-blocker/vasodilator carvedilol were evaluated in PAH. METHODS: PAH Treatment with Carvedilol for Heart Failure (PAHTCH) is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813550/drug-free-interventions-to-reduce-pain-or-opioid-consumption-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Dario Tedesco, Davide Gori, Karishma R Desai, Steven Asch, Ian R Carroll, Catherine Curtin, Kathryn M McDonald, Maria P Fantini, Tina Hernandez-Boussard
Importance: There is increased interest in nonpharmacological treatments to reduce pain after total knee arthroplasty. Yet, little consensus supports the effectiveness of these interventions. Objective: To systematically review and meta-analyze evidence of nonpharmacological interventions for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty. Data Sources: Database searches of MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science (ISI database), Physiotherapy Evidence (PEDRO) database, and ClinicalTrials...
August 16, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813362/people-have-feelings-exercise-psychology-in-paradigmatic-transition
#7
REVIEW
Panteleimon Ekkekakis
Exercise psychology has yet to produce intervention methods capable of increasing exercise and physical activity behavior in a sustainable manner. This situation is forcing a critical reevaluation of current conceptual models, especially the assumption that behavioral decisions are driven solely by the rational evaluation of information. Like other behavioral sciences, exercise psychology is transitioning to dual-process models that acknowledge the importance of non-reflective processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the pleasure or displeasure experienced during exercise may influence subsequent physical activity...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805520/pace-team-response-shows-a-disregard-for-the-principles-of-science
#8
Jonathan Edwards
The PACE trial of cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis has raised serious questions about research methodology. An editorial article by Geraghty gives a fair account of the problems involved, if anything understating the case. The response by White et al. fails to address the key design flaw, of an unblinded study with subjective outcome measures, apparently demonstrating a lack of understanding of basic trial design requirements. The failure of the academic community to recognise the weakness of trials of this type suggests that a major overhaul of quality control is needed...
August 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799002/intolerance-and-violence-against-doctors
#9
REVIEW
Meharban Singh
Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics...
August 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797402/the-identification-of-calcified-coronary-plaque-is-associated-with-initiation-and-continuation-of-pharmacological-and-lifestyle-preventive-therapies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Ankur Gupta, Emily Lau, Ravi Varshney, Edward A Hulten, Michael Cheezum, Marcio S Bittencourt, Michael J Blaha, Nathan D Wong, Roger S Blumenthal, Matthew J Budoff, Craig A Umscheid, Khurram Nasir, Ron Blankstein
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the odds of initiation or continuation of pharmacological and lifestyle preventive therapies in patients with nonzero versus zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score detected on cardiac computed tomography. BACKGROUND: Detection of calcified coronary plaque could serve as a motivational tool for physicians and patients to intensify preventive therapies. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica database), Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL (Cochrane central register of controlled trials), ClinicalTrials...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792862/nudging-and-boosting-steering-or-empowering-good-decisions
#11
Ralph Hertwig, Till Grüne-Yanoff
In recent years, policy makers worldwide have begun to acknowledge the potential value of insights from psychology and behavioral economics into how people make decisions. These insights can inform the design of nonregulatory and nonmonetary policy interventions-as well as more traditional fiscal and coercive measures. To date, much of the discussion of behaviorally informed approaches has emphasized "nudges," that is, interventions designed to steer people in a particular direction while preserving their freedom of choice...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791969/barriers-to-utilization-of-cataract-surgical-services-in-ekiti-state-south-western-nigeria
#12
C O Fadamiro, K O Ajite
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the barriers to utilization of cataract surgery in Ekiti State, south western Nigeria. METHODS: A semistructured questionnaire was used to extract relevant data from cataract patients seen during six episodes of free eye screening conducted quarterly across the three senatorial districts of the state for a 15-month period. The questionnaire contains relevant biodata and reasons why the patients did not utilized facilities for routine cataract surgery prior to the screening exercise...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768610/behavior-change-techniques-in-physical-activity-ehealth-interventions-for-people-with-cardiovascular-disease-systematic-review
#13
Orlaith Mairead Duff, Deirdre Mj Walsh, Bróna A Furlong, Noel E O'Connor, Kieran A Moran, Catherine B Woods
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death and disability in Europe, accounting for 4 million deaths per year and costing the European Union economy almost €196 billion annually. There is strong evidence to suggest that exercise-based secondary rehabilitation programs can decrease the mortality risk and improve health among patients with CVD. Theory-informed use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) is important in the design of cardiac rehabilitation programs aimed at changing cardiovascular risk factors...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764149/need-for-changes-in-the-practical-physiology-curriculum-of-medical-undergraduates
#14
Rajni Goyal, Rajveer Garg, Puneet Raj Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Physiology is one of the foundation sciences for the medical curriculum. It forms the basis of all life sciences. Physiology practical classes in India are divided into three sections: exercises in haematology, exercises on humans and experiments on amphibians. Faculty and students of medical schools in India are of the opinion that animal experiments should be discontinued, that the curriculum in experimental physiology and pharmacology needs to be updated, that the same understanding of topics could be obtained by using alternative methods and that there is an urgent need to introduce alternatives of animal experiments...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756626/myths-and-methodologies-making-sense-of-exercise-mass-and-water-balance
#15
Samuel N Cheuvront, Scott J Montain
What is the topic of this review? There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes. What advances does it highlight? We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in conditions where food is not consumed and waste is not excreted: ∆body mass - 0.20 g/kcal(-1)  = ∆body water. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass - 0...
July 30, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750954/exercise-and-physical-therapy-help-restore-body-and-self-in-clients-with-severe-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Liv-Jorunn Kolnes
Exercise in the context of anorexia nervosa is a multifaceted endeavour surrounded by controversy and uncertainty. A broader comprehension of this poorly understood phenomenon is required. Informed by the findings of a body examination of six individuals with anorexia nervosa, as well as exercise science, phenomenology and neurocognition, the purpose of this article is to elaborate on the potential role of exercise and physical therapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. The findings of the body assessment include constriction of posture, muscles and pattern of breathing...
July 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747984/annual-tendency-of-research-papers-used-icr-mice-as-experimental-animals-in-biomedical-research-fields
#17
Ji Eun Kim, Jung Hoon Nam, Joon Young Cho, Kil Soo Kim, Dae Youn Hwang
Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agriculture-fishery, and art-kinesiology fields by analyzing big data...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742281/structured-identification-of-response-options-to-address-environmental-health-risks-at-the-agbogbloshie-electronic-waste-site
#18
Danielle Cazabon, Julius N Fobil, George Essegbey, Niladri Basu
Electronic waste (E-waste) is a growing problem across low- and middle-income countries. Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana) is among the world's largest and most notorious e-waste sites, with an increasing number of studies documenting a range of environmental health risks. This study aimed to provide national, regional, and international stakeholders with a summary of expert opinion on the most pressing problems arising from e-waste activities at Agbogbloshie, as well as suggested solutions to address these problems...
July 25, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741519/cancer-prevention-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Barbara K Dunn, Barnett S Kramer
In this review, we address selected areas that are central to the state-of-the-art of cancer prevention science. The emphasis on prevention as a viable and critical approach to decreasing cancer mortality has gained traction in recent years, evidenced by its inclusion in the US Vice President's Cancer Initiative (also termed 'Moonshot'). Cancer prevention occurs by arresting, slowing down, or reversing the carcinogenic process before invasion into surrounding tissue or by avoiding or blocking causative exposure...
December 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740944/effect-of-mechanical-vibration-generated-in-oscillating-vibratory-platform-on-the-concentration-of-plasma-biomarkers-and-on-the-weight-in-rats
#20
Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Carlos Alberto Sampaio Guimarães, André Luiz Bandeira Dionísio Cardoso, Carla da Fontoura Dionello, Danielle Soares Morel, Cintia Renata Sousa-Gonçalves, Laisa Liana Paineiras-Domingos, Rebeca Graça Costa Cavalcanti, Nasser Ribeiro Asad, Pedro Jesus Marin, Mario Bernardo-Filho
BACKGROUND: Whole body vibration (WBV) exercise has been used in health sciences. Authors have reported that changes on the concentration of plasma biomarkers could be associated with the WBV effects. The aim of this investigation is to assess the consequences of exposition of 25 Hz mechanical vibration generated in oscillating/vibratory platform (OVP) on the concentration of some plasma biomarkers and on the weight of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into two groups...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
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