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Toll like recepter

M Montazeri, J A Sanchez-Lopez, I Caballero, N Maslehat Lay, S Elliott, A Fazeli
STUDY QUESTION: Is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) involved in the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3)-induced inhibition of trophoblast cells' adhesion to endometrial cells in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: IL-1RA mediates the TLR 3-induced inhibition of trophoblast cells' adhesion to endometrial cells in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It is well documented that endometrial TLR 3 activation leads to impairment of trophoblast binding to endometrial cells in vitro...
September 2016: Human Reproduction
M Montazeri, J A Sanchez-Lopez, I Caballero, N Maslehat Lay, S Elliott, S López-Martín, M Yáñez-Mó, A Fazeli
STUDY QUESTION: Does activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) affect cell receptivity to trophoblast adhesion? SUMMARY ANSWER: TLR 3 activation in vitro reduces the attachment of trophoblast cells to endometrial cells by altering the cell cytoskeleton and reducing the expression of adhesion molecules in human endometrial cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It is well documented that the presence of an infection at the time of implantation can lead to implantation failure...
April 2015: Human Reproduction
José A Fernández-Romero, Natalia Teleshova, Thomas M Zydowsky, Melissa Robbiani
Sexually transmitted infections like HIV, HPV, and HSV-2, as well as unplanned pregnancy, take a huge toll on women worldwide. Woman-initiated multipurpose prevention technologies that contain antiviral/antibacterial drugs (microbicides) and a contraceptive to simultaneously target sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy are being developed to reduce these burdens. This review will consider products that are applied topically to the vagina. Rectally administered topical microbicides in development for receptive anal intercourse are outside the scope of this review...
September 15, 2015: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Gracy X Rosario, Eiichi Hondo, Jae-Wook Jeong, Rafidah Mutalif, Xiaoqian Ye, Li Xuan Yee, Colin L Stewart
The establishment of a receptive uterus is the prime requirement for embryo implantation. In mice, the E2-induced cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is essential in switching the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) from a nonreceptive to a receptive state. Here we define the LIF-mediated switch using array analysis and informatics to identify LIF-induced changes in gene expression and annotated signaling pathways specific to the LE. We compare gene expression profiles at 0, 1, 3, and 6 h, following LIF treatment...
September 2014: Biology of Reproduction
Javier Arturo Sanchez-Lopez, Ignacio Caballero, Mehrnaz Montazeri, Nasim Maslehat, Sarah Elliott, Raul Fernandez-Gonzalez, Alexandra Calle, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Alireza Fazeli
Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH)...
April 2014: Biology of Reproduction
Ceylan Eken, Salima Sadallah, Perrine J Martin, Susan Treves, Jürg A Schifferli
Ectosomes are vesicles shed directly from the cell surface. Human polymorphonuclear neutrophils release ectosomes (PMN-Ect) upon their activation. PMN-Ect expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, and down-modulate the inflammatory response of human macrophages and dendritic cells exposed to TLR-2 and -4 ligands. This down-modulation is mediated by PS via the engagement and activation of the Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK). In the present study, we demonstrate that exposure of macrophages to PMN-Ect activates directly 2 additional pathways, an immediate Ca(2+) flux and a rapid release of TGF-β1...
March 2013: Immunobiology
Julie L V Shaw, Andrew W Horne
As part of successful human reproduction, the Fallopian tube must provide a suitable environment for pre-implantation development of the embryo and for efficient transport of the embryo to the uterus for implantation. These functions are coordinated by paracrine interactions between tubal epithelial, smooth muscle and immune cells and the cells of the developing embryo. Alterations in these signals can lead to a tubal microenvironment encouraging of embryo implantation and to dysregulated tubal motility, ultimately resulting in inappropriate and early implantation of the embryo in the Fallopian tube...
July 25, 2012: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sarah A Robertson, Peck Yin Chin, Danielle J Glynn, Jeremy G Thompson
PROBLEM: The peri-conceptual environment influences the early embryo to impart long-term consequences for the fetus and neonate; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. METHOD OF STUDY: We argue that the cytokine network acting in the female reproductive tract during the pre- and peri-implantation period integrates environmental information to program the embryo and fine-tune the maternal immune response and endometrial remodelling to determine implantation success...
July 2011: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Zhen-hai Yu, Fei Huang, Ning Xu, Dong-mei Zhao, Feng-ai Hu, Jiao Liu, Hong-fu Liu
This study elucidates the significance of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD14, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB on the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Colonic biopsy specimens were collected from active UC and controls. The expression of TLR4, CD14, and NF-κBp 65 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In UC, disease activity index (DAI) and pathological grade were classified according to the Powell-Tuck grade system and Truelove-Richards system, respectively...
2011: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Triin Laisk, Maire Peters, Merli Saare, Kadri Haller-Kikkatalo, Helle Karro, Andres Salumets
Upper genital tract infections can inflict inadequate immune response and cause Fallopian tube damage and concomitant female infertility. However, the exact role of host genetic variation in the development of tubal factor infertility remains unclear. We selected nine genetic variations in four genes involved in immune response modulation (CCR5, TLR2, TLR4 and MBL2) and assessed their association with tubal factor infertility by comparing genotype frequencies among 163 women with tubal factor infertility and 400 control individuals...
December 2010: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Xiufang Wen, Xia Chen, Xiangdong Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of rebamipide on the expression of Toll-like recepter 4 (TLR4) and TNF-alpha release in pulmonary epithelial cell line A549. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce A549 in vitro, which was divided into 4 groups: a control group, a model group(LPS), and 2 intervention groups (10 mg/L rebamipide plus LPS; 30 mg/L rebamipide plus LPS). TNF-alpha release was detected with ELISA and expression of TLR4 was detected with RT-PCR and Western blot...
May 2009: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Puja Chauhan, Ajit Sodhi, Anju Shrivastava
Cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic drug, may also act as a biological response modifier. Cisplatin (10mug/ml) treatment of macrophages for 24h activates them to produce enhanced amounts of nitric oxide (NO), ROI, proinflammatory cytokines and exhibit increased tumoricidal activity, which may or may not be contact mediated. In the present investigation, we report that the treatment of macrophages with cisplatin for a short period of 2h is sufficient to make them more receptive to interaction with tumor cells. Macrophages pretreated with cisplatin for 2h, and co-incubated with L929 cells, produced enhanced NO, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12 and IFN-gamma...
2009: Immunobiology
Keiko Yasumatsu, Yoko Kusuhara, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya
In rodents, section of the taste nerve results in degeneration of the taste buds. Following regeneration of the cut taste nerve, however, the taste buds reappear. This phenomenon can be used to study the functional reformation of the peripheral neural system responsible for sweet taste. In this study we examined the recovery of sweet responses by the chorda tympani (CT) nerve after nerve crush as well as inhibition of these responses by gurmarin (Gur), a sweet response inhibitor. After about 2 weeks of CT nerve regeneration, no significant response to any taste stimuli could be observed...
September 2007: European Journal of Neuroscience
M D Perova, M G Shubich
The paper gives new information on the molecular mechanisms of pathogen reception in the human organism. The leading role is ascribed to the toll-like receptors recognizing the molecular structures of pathogens for bringing into operation natural resistance reactions with activation of transcription factors. Transmembrane TLRs are expressed on macrophages, dendritic, epithelial and other cells, calling for transmission of a signal of the presence of some adapter proteins. The considered effects of Porphycomonas gingivalis, the key periodontal pathogen, favor the chronic pattern of an inflammatory-destructive process due to its persistence in tissues, by inducing the expression of TLRs...
September 2006: Arkhiv Patologii
Haiyan Pan, Liyin Zhu, Yan Deng, Jeffrey W Pollard
In mice, the uterus becomes transiently receptive to the hatched blastocyst on the day of implantation to allow its attachment to the luminal epithelium and subsequent invasion into the uterus. This uterine preparation for implantation is regulated by estradiol-17beta and progesterone, acting through their transcription factor receptors. Using ovariectomized mice treated with physiological regimens of these hormones, combined with methods to isolate RNA specifically from the uterine epithelium followed by transcriptome analysis on cDNA microarrays, 222 genes whose transcript abundance was specifically increased by estradiol-17beta and progesterone treatment were identified...
October 2006: Endocrinology
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