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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228278/zinc-finger-protein-274-regulates-imprinted-expression-of-transcripts-in-prader-willi-syndrome-neurons
#1
Maéva Langouët, Heather R Glatt-Deeley, Michael S Chung, Clémence M Dupont-Thibert, Elodie Mathieux, Erin C Banda, Christopher E Stoddard, Leann Crandall, Marc Lalande
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay and hyperphagia/obesity and is caused by the absence of paternal contribution to chromosome 15q11-q13. Using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models of PWS, we previously discovered an epigenetic complex that is comprised of the zinc-finger protein ZNF274 and the SET domain bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase and that silences the maternal alleles at the PWS locus. Here, we have knocked out ZNF274 and rescued the expression of silent maternal alleles in neurons derived from PWS iPSC lines, without affecting DNA methylation at the PWS-Imprinting Center (PWS-IC)...
December 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227864/present-and-future-of-modeling-human-brain-development-in-3d-organoids
#2
REVIEW
Giorgia Quadrato, Paola Arlotta
Three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to investigate complex human genetic states and to model aspects of human brain development and pathology. However, the field of brain organoids is still in its infancy, and their use has been limited by their variability and their inability to differentiate into 3D structures with reproducible anatomical organization. Here, starting from a review of basic principles of in vitro 'brain organogenesis', we discuss which aspects of human brain development and disease can be faithfully modeled with current brain organoid protocols, and discuss improvements that would allow them to become reliable tools to investigate complex features of human brain development and disease...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227831/generation-of-hipstz16-ismmsi003-a-cell-line-from-normal-human-foreskin-fibroblasts
#3
Marion Dejosez, Thomas P Zwaka
Human foreskin fibroblasts from a commercial source were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells to establish a clonal stem cell line, hiPSTZ16 (ISMMSi003-A). These cells show a normal karyotype and full differentiation potential in teratoma assays. The described cells provide a useful resource in combination with other iPS cell lines generated from normal human foreskin fibroblasts to study source- and reprogramming method-independent effects in downstream applications.
December 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227830/cell-surface-markers-for-the-identification-and-study-of-human-naive-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Oliver Trusler, Ziyi Huang, Jacob Goodwin, Andrew L Laslett
Characterisation of mouse pluripotent stem cells has revealed two distinct pluripotent states, naive and primed, that maintain characteristics of the pre and post implanted epiblast respectively. Recent studies have developed several culture systems that seek to recapitulate the naive phenomenon in human pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, robust methods to isolate these cells will be fundamental to assess their potential in modelling human development and disease. Here we review current methods for human naive pluripotent culture and collate a list of cell surface antigens that have been identified as markers to differentiate naive from primed human pluripotent stem cells...
December 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226550/alpha-klotho-enrichment-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-secretome-contributes-to-antioxidative-protection-in-acute-lung-injury
#5
Amiq Gazdhar, Priya Ravikumar, Johanne Pastor, Manfred Heller, Jianfeng Ye, Jianning Zhang, Orson W Moe, Thomas Geiser, Connie C W Hsia
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been reported to alleviate organ injury, although the mechanisms of action remain unclear and administration of intact cells faces many limitations. We hypothesized that cell-free conditioned media (CM) containing the secretome of iPSCs possess antioxidative constituents that can alleviate pulmonary oxidant stress damage. We derived iPSCs from human dermal fibroblasts and harvested the CM. Addition of iPSC CM to cultured human alveolar type-1 epithelial cells mitigated hyperoxia-induced depletion of endogenous total antioxidant capacity (TAC) while tracheal instillation of iPSC CM into adult rat lungs enhanced hyperoxia-induced increase in TAC...
December 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226476/differences-in-the-activity-of-endogenous-bmp-signalling-impact-on-the-ability-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-differentiate-to-corneal-epithelial-like-cells
#6
Taty Anna Kamarudin, Sanja Bojic, Joseph Collin, Min Yu, Sameer Alharthi, Harley Buck, Alex Shortt, Lyle Armstrong, Francisco C Figueiredo, Majlinda Lako
Cornea is a clear outermost layer of the eye which enables transmission of light onto the retina. The transparent corneal epithelium is regenerated by limbal stem cells (LSCs), whose loss/dysfunction results in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Ex vivo expansion of autologous LSCs obtained from patient's healthy eye followed by transplantation onto the LSCs damaged/deficient eye, has provided a successful treatment for unilateral LSCD. This however is not applicable to patient with total bilateral LSCD, where LSCs are lost/damaged from both eyes...
December 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226080/fad-influx-enhances-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-by-facilitating-nuclear-localization-of-lsd1
#7
Kazumi Hirano, Masakazu Namihira
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), synthesized from riboflavin, is redox cofactor in energy production and plays an important role in cell survival. More recently, riboflavin deficiency has been linked to developmental disorders, but its role in stem cell differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that FAD treatment, using DMSO as a solvent, enabled an increase in the amount of intracellular FAD and promoted neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSCs) derived not only from fetal brain, but also from induced pluripotent stem cells...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226078/identification-and-in%C3%A2-silico-structural-analysis-of-gallus-gallus-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-4-prmt4
#8
Hannah Berberich, Felix Terwesten, Sinja Rakow, Peeyush Sahu, Caroline Bouchard, Marion Meixner, Sjaak Philipsen, Peter Kolb, Uta-Maria Bauer
Protein arginine methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4) is an essential epigenetic regulator of fundamental and conserved processes during vertebrate development, such as pluripotency and differentiation. Surprisingly, PRMT4 homologs have been identified in nearly all vertebrate classes except the avian genome. This raises the possibility that in birds PRMT4 functions are taken over by other PRMT family members. Here, we reveal the existence of a bona fide PRMT4 homolog in the chicken, Gallus gallus. Using a biochemical approach, we initially purified a putative chicken PRMT4 protein and thus provided the first evidence for the presence of an endogenous PRMT4-specific enzymatic activity toward histone H3 arginine 17 (H3R17) in avian cells...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225781/lsd1-a-double-edged-sword-confers-dynamic-chromatin-regulation-but-commonly-promotes-aberrant-cell-growth
#9
REVIEW
Meghan M Kozub, Ryan M Carr, Gwen L Lomberk, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Histone-modifying enzymes play a critical role in chromatin remodeling and are essential for influencing several genome processes such as gene expression and DNA repair, replication, and recombination. The discovery of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first identified histone demethylase, dramatically revolutionized research in the field of epigenetics. LSD1 plays a pivotal role in a wide range of biological operations, including development, cellular differentiation, embryonic pluripotency, and disease (for example, cancer)...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225627/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-amniotic-fluid-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-obtained-from-caesarean-sections
#10
Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Md Shaifur Rahman, Laura Schwindt, Huyen-Tran Ho, Wasco Wruck, Martina Bohndorf, Silke Wehrmeyer, Audrey Ncube, Ines Beyer, Carsten Hagenbeck, Percy Balan, Tanja Fehm, James Adjaye
Human amniotic fluid cells are immune-privileged with low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory properties. They are able to self-renew, are highly proliferative, and have a broad differentiation potential, making them amenable for cell-based therapies. Amniotic fluid (AF) is routinely obtained via amniocentesis and contains heterogeneous populations of foetal-derived progenitor cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we isolated human MSCs from AF (AF-MSCs) obtained during Caesarean sections (C-sections) and characterized them...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225534/opposing-phenotypes-in-dravet-syndrome-patient-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-neurons-can-everyone-be-right
#11
COMMENT
Lori L Isom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225290/-neural-differentiation-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-disease-modelling-and-drug-discovery
#12
Wado Akamatsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225198/perspective-in-optimization-of-stem-cell-therapies-for-heart-regeneration
#13
Paulina Gapska, Maciej Kurpisz
There is a variety of mechanisms(s) factor(s) that may influence stem cell therapies for heart regeneration. Among the best candidates for stem cell source are: mesenchymal stem cells (also those isolated from adipose tissue), cardiac cell progenitors (CPC) and descendants of iPSC cells. iPSC/s can be potentially beneficial although their pluripotent induction has been still in question due to: low propagation efficacy, danger of genomic integration/instability, biological risk of current vector system teratoma formation etc...
December 7, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224245/regulation-of-c-myc-transcriptional-activity-by-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-stimulated-clone-22
#14
Ling Zheng, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yuka Nakajo, Akinobu Nakano, Mitsuyasu Kato
C-MYC stimulates cell proliferation through the suppression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors including P15 (CDKN2B) and P21 (CDKN1A). It also activates E-box-mediated transcription of various target genes including telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) that is involved in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22/TSC22D1) encodes a highly conserved leucine zipper protein that is induced by various stimuli, including TGF-β. TSC-22 inhibits cell growth in mammalian cells and in Xenopus embryos...
December 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223163/neuroprotective-properties-of-endocannabinoids-n-arachidonoyl-dopamine-and-n-docosahexaenoyl-dopamine-examined-in-neuronal-precursors-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
E V Novosadova, E L Arsenyeva, E S Manuilova, L G Khaspekov, M Yu Bobrov, V V Bezuglov, S N Illarioshkin, I A Grivennikov
Neuroprotective properties of endocannabinoids N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine (DHDA) were examined in neuronal precursor cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells and subjected to oxidative stress. Both compounds exerted neuroprotective activity, which was enhanced by elevating the concentration of the endocannabinoids within the 0.1-10 µM range. However, both agents at 10 µM concentration showed a marked toxic effect resulting in death of ~30% of the cells...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222853/stemazole-promotes-survival-and-preserves-stemness-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#16
Ying Sun, Xiaoyan Zhang, Huajun Li, Shasha Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yinan Liu, Mei Han, Jinhua Wen
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are extremely delicate, and survive poorly under suboptimal culture conditions, severely restricting long-term studies and practical applications. Thus, a protective agent that promotes stem cell survival is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of stemazole in single-cell and starved hESC cultures. Colony formation was quantified by alkaline phosphatase and immunofluorescence staining, while apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222839/decellularized-human-liver-extracellular-matrix-hdlm-mediated-hepatic-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-hipsc
#17
Maria Jaramillo, Heidi Yeh, Martin L Yarmush, Basak E Uygun
Liver tissue engineering has emerged as a promising approach in organ transplantation, but has been hampered by the lack of a reliable and readily available cell source. Induced pluripotent cells (hiPSC) have been highlighted a desirable source, due to their differentiation potential, ability to self-renew and the possibility of making patient specific cells. We developed a decellularization protocol that efficiently removes cellular material, while retaining extracellular matrix components. Subsequently, hiPSC were differentiated on the decellularized human liver matrix (hDLM) scaffolds using an established hepatic differentiation protocol...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222434/embryonic-lethality-and-defective-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice-lacking-utf1
#18
Seth D Kasowitz, Mengcheng Luo, Jun Ma, N Adrian Leu, P Jeremy Wang
The germ cell lineage is specified early in embryogenesis and undergoes complex developmental programs to generate gametes. Here, we conducted genetic studies to investigate the role of Utf1 (Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1) in mouse germ cell development. Utf1 is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and regulates ES cell differentiation. In a proteomics screen, we identified UTF1 among 38 proteins including DNMT3L and DND1 that associate with chromatin in embryonic testes...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222327/mitochondrially-produced-atp-affects-stem-cell-pluripotency-via-actl6a-mediated-histone-acetylation
#19
Ying Zhang, Peng Cui, Yuhuan Li, Guihai Feng, Man Tong, Lu Guo, Tianda Li, Lei Liu, Wei Li, Qi Zhou
ATP is mainly generated by glycolysis in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and is consumed to maintain cell viability. Differences in mitochondrial activity among induced (i)PSCs with different degrees of pluripotency are poorly understood. In this study, by comparing gene expression and mitochondrial activity among iPSCs with different degrees of pluripotency, we found that mitochondrial complex I gene expression, complex I activity, and cellular ATP levels were much higher in fully pluripotent stem cell lines than in partially pluripotent stem cell lines...
December 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220667/transient-and-permanent-reconfiguration-of-chromatin-and-transcription-factor-occupancy-drive-reprogramming
#20
Anja S Knaupp, Sam Buckberry, Jahnvi Pflueger, Sue Mei Lim, Ethan Ford, Michael R Larcombe, Fernando J Rossello, Alex de Mendoza, Sara Alaei, Jaber Firas, Melissa L Holmes, Shalima S Nair, Susan J Clark, Christian M Nefzger, Ryan Lister, Jose M Polo
Somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) induces changes in genome architecture reflective of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) state. However, only a small minority of cells typically transition to pluripotency, which has limited our understanding of the process. Here, we characterize the DNA regulatory landscape during reprogramming by time-course profiling of isolated sub-populations of intermediates poised to become iPSCs. Widespread reconfiguration of chromatin states and transcription factor (TF) occupancy occurs early during reprogramming, and cells that fail to reprogram partially retain their original chromatin states...
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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