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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324490/assessment-of-mitophagy-in-ips-cell-derived-neurons
#1
Kei-Ichi Ishikawa, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Hideyuki Okano, Wado Akamatsu
Aberrant mitochondrial function is associated with many neurological diseases. Mitophagy is a key mechanism for the elimination of damaged mitochondria and maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technologies developed over the last decade have allowed us to analyze functions of the human neuron. Here we describe an efficient induction method from human iPS cells to neurons, followed by an image-based mitophagy assay.
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324485/maintenance-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor
#2
Raymond C B Wong, Martin F Pera, Alice Pébay
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have historically been cultivated on feeder layers of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) in a medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). However, serum contains a wide variety of biologically active compounds that might adversely affect hESC growth and differentiation. Thus, cultivation of stem cells in FCS complicates experimental approaches to define the intracellular mechanisms required for hESC maintenance. This chapter describes the serum-free maintenance of hESCs in culture by addition of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323620/discovery-of-novel-determinants-of-endothelial-lineage-using-chimeric-heterokaryons
#3
Wing Tak Wong, Gianfranco Matrone, XiaoYu Tian, Simion Alin Tomoiaga, Kin Fai Au, Shu Meng, Sayumi Yamazoe, Daniel Sieveking, Kaifu Chen, David M Burns, James K Chen, Helen M Blau, John P Cooke
We wish to identify determinants of endothelial lineage. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) were fused with human endothelial cells in stable, non-dividing, heterokaryons. Using RNA-seq it is possible to discriminate between human and mouse transcripts in these chimeric heterokaryons. We observed a temporal pattern of gene expression in the ESCs of the heterokaryons that recapitulated ontogeny, with early mesodermal factors being expressed before mature endothelial genes. A set of transcriptional factors not known to be involved in endothelial development was upregulated, one of which was POU class 3 homeobox 2 (Pou3f2)...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319609/developmental-alterations-in-huntington-s-disease-neural-cells-and-pharmacological-rescue-in-cells-and-mice
#4
(no author information available yet)
Neural cultures derived from Huntington's disease (HD) patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were used for 'omics' analyses to identify mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. RNA-seq analysis identified genes in glutamate and GABA signaling, axonal guidance and calcium influx whose expression was decreased in HD cultures. One-third of gene changes were in pathways regulating neuronal development and maturation. When mapped to stages of mouse striatal development, the profiles aligned with earlier embryonic stages of neuronal differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319092/the-tdh-gcn5l1-fbxo15-kbp-axis-limits-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-mouse-embryonic-stem%C3%A2-cells
#5
Valerio Donato, Massimo Bonora, Daniele Simoneschi, Davide Sartini, Yasusei Kudo, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Matthias Stadtfeld, Paolo Pinton, Michele Pagano
Self-renewing naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) contain few mitochondria, which increase in number and volume at the onset of differentiation. KBP (encoded by Kif1bp) is an interactor of the mitochondrial-associated kinesin Kif1Bα. We found that TDH, responsible for mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA in mESCs, and the acetyltransferase GCN5L1 cooperate to acetylate Lys501 in KBP, allowing its recognition by and degradation via Fbxo15, an F-box protein transcriptionally controlled by the pluripotency core factors and repressed following differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317850/maternally-expressed-nlrp2-links-the-subcortical-maternal-complex-scmc-to-fertility-embryogenesis-and-epigenetic-reprogramming
#6
Sangeetha Mahadevan, Varsha Sathappan, Budi Utama, Isabel Lorenzo, Khalied Kaskar, Ignatia B Van den Veyver
Mammalian parental genomes contribute differently to early embryonic development. Before activation of the zygotic genome, the maternal genome provides all transcripts and proteins required for the transition from a highly specialized oocyte to a pluripotent embryo. Depletion of these maternally-encoded transcripts frequently results in failure of preimplantation embryonic development, but their functions in this process are incompletely understood. We found that female mice lacking NLRP2 are subfertile because of early embryonic loss and the production of fewer offspring that have a wide array of developmental phenotypes and abnormal DNA methylation at imprinted loci...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317340/production-of-pancreatic-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-three-dimensional-suspension-bioreactor-system
#7
Yuichiro Mihara, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Teruo Okano, Norihiro Kokudo, Tatsuya Shimizu
Islet replacement is a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes and patients who have undergone total pancreatectomy. Recent progress in cellular reprogramming technology may allow the transplantation of a patient's own pancreatic cells. Although many studies have reported the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), obtaining sufficient cell numbers for clinical applications remains problematic. Here, we describe the mass production of human pancreatic progenitor cells from human induced (i)PSCs using a three-dimensional suspension bioreactor system...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316121/foxd4-is-essential-for-establishing-neural-cell-fate-and-for-neuronal-differentiation
#8
Jonathan H Sherman, Beverly A Karpinski, Matthew S Fralish, Justin M Cappuzzo, Devinder S Dhindsa, Arielle G Thal, Sally A Moody, Anthony S LaMantia, Thomas M Maynard
Many molecular factors required for later stages of neuronal differentiation have been identified; however, much less is known about the early events that regulate the initial establishment of the neuroectoderm. We have used an in vitro embryonic stem cell differentiation model to investigate early events of neuronal differentiation, and to define the role of mouse Foxd4, an orthologue of a forkhead-family transcription factor central to Xenopus neural plate/neuroectodermal precursor development. We found that Foxd4 is a necessary regulator of the transition from pluripotent ES cell to neuroectodermal stem cell, and its expression is necessary for neuronal differentiation...
March 18, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316107/applied-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-combination-with-biomaterials-in-bone-tissue-engineering
#9
Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Due to increasing of the orthopedic lesions and fractures in the world and limitation of current treatment methods, researchers and surgeons paid attention to the new treatment ways especially to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Innovation in stem cells and biomaterials accelerate during the last decade as two main important parts of the tissue engineering. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) introduced as cells with highly proliferation and differentiation potentials that hold great promising features for used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315813/the-case-for-applying-tissue-engineering-methodologies-to-instruct-human-organoid-morphogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Carlos R Marti-Figueroa, Randolph S Ashton
Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315662/insights-into-the-establishment-of-chromatin-states-in-pluripotent-cells-from-studies-of-x-inactivation
#11
REVIEW
Andreas Postlmayr, Anton Wutz
Animal development entails the sequential and coordinated specialisation of cells. During cell differentiation transcription factors, cell signalling pathways and chromatin associated protein complexes cooperate in regulating the expression of a large number of genes. Here we review the present understanding of the establishment of chromatin states by focusing on X chromosome inactivation (XCI) as a model for facultative heterochromatin formation in female embryonic cells. The inactive X chromosome (Xi) is large enough to be investigated by biochenical and microscopy techniques...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315289/microrna-21-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-ipscs-to-human-bronchial-epithelial-cell-injury-under-hypoxia
#12
Cheng-Lin Li, Zhi-Bin Xu, Xing-Liang Fan, He-Xin Chen, Qiu-Ning Yu, Shu-Bin Fang, Shu-Yue Wang, Yong-Dong Lin, Qing-Ling Fu
Airway epithelial cell injury is a key triggering event to activate allergic airway inflammation, such as asthma. We previously reported that administration of mesenchymal stem cells significantly alleviated allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma, and the mmu-miR-21/ACVR2A axis may be involved. However, whether MSCs protect against bronchial epithelial cell injury induced by hypoxia and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. In our study, the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was induced to undergo apoptosis with a hypoxia mimic of CoCl2 damage...
March 17, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315121/untangling-the-biology-of-genetic-cardiomyopathies-with-pluripotent-stem-cell-disease-models
#13
REVIEW
Jan W Buikema, Sean M Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, the discovery of strategies to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has led to a major paradigm change in developmental and stem cell biology. The application of iPS cells and their cardiac progeny has opened novel directions to study cardiomyopathies at a cellular and molecular level. This review discusses approaches currently undertaken to unravel known inherited cardiomyopathies in a dish. RECENT FINDINGS: With improved efficiency for mutation correction by genome editing, human iPS cells have now provided a platform to untangle the biology of cardiomyopathies...
April 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315059/cdk-inhibitor-su9516-induces-tetraploid-blastocyst-formation-from-parthenogenetically-activated-porcine-embryos
#14
Qing Guo, Long Jin, Hai-Ying Zhu, Xiao-Chen Li, Yu-Chen Zhang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Guang-Lei Zhang, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Jin-Dan Kang, Xi-Jun Yin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of SU9516, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on the induction of tetraploid blastocyst formation in porcine embryos by parthenogenetic activation. RESULTS: Karyotype analysis of blastocysts showed that in the SU9516-treatment group 56% were tetraploid, whereas in the cytochalasin B (CB) group 67% were diploid. The level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in stimulated embryos treated with 10 µM SU9516 for 4 h was lower than in embryos treated with CB group (103 vs...
March 17, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314787/retinoic-acid-combined-with-spermatogonial-stem-cell-conditions-facilitate-the-generation-of-mouse-germ-like-cells
#15
Guoyi Dong, Zhouchun Shang, Longqi Liu, Chuanyu Liu, Yuping Ge, Quanlei Wang, Liang Wu, Fang Chen, Baolin Li, Xin Liu, Xun Xu, Huanming Yang, Yutao DU, Hui Jiang
Spermatogenic lineage has been directly generated in spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) conditions from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, it remains unknown whether mouse ESCs can directly differentiate into advanced male germ cell lineage in the same conditions. Here, we showed that rather low efficiency of germ-like cell generation from mouse ESCs in SSC conditions. Interestingly, addition of retinoic acid (RA) into SSC conditions enabled efficient differentiation of mouse ESCs into germ-like cells, as shown by activating the expression of spermatogenesis-associated genes during differentiation process, such as Mvh , Dazl , Prdm14 , Stella , Scp1 , Scp3 , Stra8 and Rec8 In contrast, for cells cultured in control medium, the activation of these above genes barely occurred...
March 17, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314379/rejuvenation-by-partial-reprogramming-of-the-epigenome
#16
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James Larrick, Jennifer L Lei
Epigenetic variation with age is one of the most important hallmarks of aging. Resetting or repairing the epigenome of aging cells in intact animals may rejuvenate the cells and perhaps the entire organism. In fact, differentiated adult cells, which by definition have undergone some epigenetic changes, are capable of being rejuvenated and reprogrammed to create pluripotent stem cells and viable cloned animals. Apparently, such reprogramming is capable of completely resetting the epigenome. However, attempts to fully reprogram differentiated cells in adult animals have failed in part because reprogramming leads to formation of teratomas...
March 17, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314267/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-related-genes-contribute-to-de-differentiation-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Daisuke Takeda, Takumi Hasegawa, Takeshi Ueha, Eiji Iwata, Risa Harada, Akiko Sakakibara, Teruya Kawamoto, Tsutomu Minamikawa, Yoshitada Sakai, Takahide Komori
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cancer stem cells are suspected to contribute to malignancy in tumors. Hypoxia affects cell differentiation and induces stem-cell-like characteristics in malignancies. Induced pluripotency was demonstrated in mouse fibroblasts by reprogramming with four transcriptional factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4. Conversely, oncogenic transformations frequently express transcriptional factors and Nanog. Therefore, cancer cells present some similarities with induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314201/inhibition-of-mirna-212-132-improves-the-reprogramming-of-fibroblasts-into-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-de-repressing-important-epigenetic-remodelling-factors
#18
Nils Pfaff, Steffi Liebhaber, Selina Möbus, Abbas Beh-Pajooh, Jan Fiedler, Angelika Pfanne, Axel Schambach, Thomas Thum, Tobias Cantz, Thomas Moritz
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repeatedly have been demonstrated to play important roles in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying transcription factor-mediated reprogramming we have established a model, which allows for the efficient screening of whole libraries of miRNAs modulating the generation of iPSCs from murine embryonic fibroblasts. Applying this model, we identified 14 miRNAs effectively inhibiting iPSC generation, including miR-132 and miR-212...
March 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306359/spinal-cord-injuries-how-could-cell-therapy-help
#19
Anna Badner, Ahad M Siddiqui, Michael G Fehlings
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition, where regenerative failure and cell loss lead to paralysis. The heterogeneous and time-sensitive pathophysiology has made it difficult to target tissue repair. Despite many medical advances, there are no effective regenerative therapies. As stem cells offer multi-targeted and environmentally responsive benefits, cell therapy is a promising treatment approach. Areas covered: This review highlights the cell therapies being investigated for SCI, including Schwann cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, mensenchymal stem/stromal cells, neural precursors, oligodendrocyte progenitors, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells...
March 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304275/pcgf6-prc1-suppresses-premature-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-by-regulating-germ-cell-related-genes
#20
Mitsuhiro Endoh, Takaho A Endo, Jun Shinga, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Anca Farcas, Kit-Wan Ma, Shinsuke Ito, Jafar Sharif, Tamie Endoh, Naoko Onaga, Manabu Nakayama, Tomoyuki Ishikura, Osamu Masui, Benedikt M Kessler, Toshio Suda, Osamu Ohara, Akihiko Okuda, Robert J Klose, Haruhiko Koseki
The ring finger protein PCGF6 (polycomb group ring finger 6) interacts with RING1A/B and E2F6 associated factors to form a non-canonical PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) known as PCGF6-PRC1. Here, we demonstrate that PCGF6-PRC1 plays a role in repressing a subset of PRC1 target genes by recruiting RING1B and mediating downstream mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A. PCGF6-PRC1 bound loci are highly enriched for promoters of germ cell-related genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Conditional ablation of Pcgf6 in ESCs leads to robust de-repression of such germ cell-related genes, in turn affecting cell growth and viability...
March 17, 2017: ELife
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