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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829943/hbl1-is-a-human-long-noncoding-rna-that-modulates-cardiomyocyte-development-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-counteracting-mir1
#1
Juli Liu, Yang Li, Bo Lin, Yi Sheng, Lei Yang
Cardiogenesis processes in human and animals have differential dynamics, suggesting the existence of species-specific regulators during heart development. However, it remains a challenge to discover the human-specific cardiac regulatory genes, given that most coding genes are conserved. Here, we report the identification of a human-specific long noncoding RNA, Heart Brake LncRNA 1 (HBL1), which regulates cardiomyocyte development from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Overexpression of HBL1 repressed, whereas knockdown and knockout of HBL1 increased, cardiomyocyte differentiation from hiPSCs...
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829785/dendrimer-doxorubicin-conjugates-exhibit-improved-anticancer-activity-and-reduce-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-a-murine-hepatocellular-carcinoma-model
#2
Sibu P Kuruvilla, Gopinath Tiruchinapally, A Colleen Crouch, Mohamed E H ElSayed, Joan M Greve
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths every year globally. The most common form of treatment, hepatic arterial infusion (HAI), involves the direct injection of doxorubicin (DOX) into the hepatic artery. It is plagued with limited therapeutic efficacy and the occurrence of severe toxicities (e.g. cardiotoxicity). We aim to improve the therapeutic index of DOX delivered via HAI by loading the drug onto generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers targeted to hepatic cancer cells via N-acetylgalactosamine (NAcGal) ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828674/isolation-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-stem-cells
#3
Zixin Chen, Yongjun Li, Hong Yu, Yan Shen, Chengwei Ju, Genshan Ma, Yutao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Neal L Weintraub, Yaoliang Tang
Transplanted induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC ) and embryonic stem cells (ESC) exhibit enhanced survival in ischemic tissues and promote survival of neighboring cells via paracrine effects. Recent studies indicate that stem cells can secrete extracellular vesicles (EV), which can shuttle noncoding RNA between cells and facilitate intercellular signaling and communication between donor stem cells and recipient tissues. Direct transplantation of IPSC -derived EV (IPSC -EV) is highly effective at promoting survival and preventing apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in a mouse model of acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827917/a-field-fire-ulcer
#4
Madhav Parik, Pritha Roy, Ramanuj Mukherjee, Gouri Mukhopadhyay
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, mostly affecting areas of the skin exposed to UV radiation. Though metastasis is rare, the tumour may be locally invasive with a high recurrence rate. Pathophysiology involves neoplastic transformation of the pluripotent cells of the epidermis and follicular epithelium. 'Field fire BCC' is an uncommon type of BCC, showing concomitant crusting, ulceration and scarring which spreads peripherally with a central area of regression.
August 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827822/comparative-gene-expression-study-and-pathway-analysis-of-the-human-iris-and-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#5
Anna Bennis, Jacoline B Ten Brink, Perry D Moerland, Vivi M Heine, Arthur A Bergen
BACKGROUND: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a neural monolayer lining the back of the eye. Degeneration of the RPE leads to severe vision loss in, so far incurable, diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa. A promising future replacement therapy may be autologous iris epithelial cell transdifferentiation into RPE in vitro and, subsequently, transplantation. In this study we compared the gene expression profiles of the iris epithelium (IE) and the RPE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827799/multipotent-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-lung-fibrosis
#6
Katrin E Hostettler, Amiq Gazdhar, Petra Khan, Spasenija Savic, Luca Tamo, Didier Lardinois, Michael Roth, Michael Tamm, Thomas Geiser
RATIONALE: Stem cells have been identified in the human lung; however, their role in lung disease is not clear. We aimed to isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from human lung tissue and to study their in vitro properties. METHODS: MSC were cultured from lung tissue obtained from patients with fibrotic lung diseases (n = 17), from emphysema (n = 12), and normal lungs (n = 3). Immunofluorescence stainings were used to characterize MSC. The effect of MSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) on fibroblast proliferation and on lung epithelial wound repair was studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827786/excess-%C3%AE-synuclein-compromises-phagocytosis-in-ipsc-derived-macrophages
#7
Walther Haenseler, Federico Zambon, Heyne Lee, Jane Vowles, Federica Rinaldi, Galbha Duggal, Henry Houlden, Katrina Gwinn, Selina Wray, Kelvin C Luk, Richard Wade-Martins, William S James, Sally A Cowley
To examine the pathogenic role of α-synuclein (αS) in Parkinson's Disease, we have generated induced Pluripotent Stem Cell lines from early onset Parkinson's Disease patients with SNCA A53T and SNCA Triplication mutations, and in this study have differentiated them to PSC-macrophages (pMac), which recapitulate many features of their brain-resident cousins, microglia. We show that SNCA Triplication pMac, but not A53T pMac, have significantly increased intracellular αS versus controls and release significantly more αS to the medium...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827162/method-of-derivation-and-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-generating-synchronous-neuronal-networks
#8
Elena V Gazina, Emma Morrisroe, Gunarathna D C Mendis, Anna E Michalska, Joseph Chen, Christian M Nefzger, Benjamin N Rollo, Christopher A Reid, Martin F Pera, Steven Petrou
BACKGROUND: Stem cells-derived neuronal cultures hold great promise for in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. However, currently stem cells-derived neuronal cultures do not recapitulate the functional properties of primary neurons, such as network properties. Cultured primary murine neurons develop networks which are synchronised over large fractions of the culture, whereas neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) display only partly synchronised network activity and human pluripotent stem cells-derived neurons have mostly asynchronous network properties...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826912/edaravone-is-a-candidate-agent-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy-in-vitro-analysis-using-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-disease-model
#9
Shiori Ando, Michinori Funato, Kazuki Ohuchi, Tsubasa Kameyama, Satoshi Inagaki, Junko Seki, Chizuru Kawase, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideo Kaneko, Hideaki Hara
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an intractable disease characterized by a progressive loss of spinal motor neurons, which leads to skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy. Currently, there are no curative agents for SMA, although it is understood to be caused by reduced levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Additionally, why reduced SMN protein level results in selective apoptosis in spinal motor neurons is still not understood. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, by using induced pluripotent stem cells from an SMA patient (SMA-iPSCs) and to address oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in spinal motor neurons...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826851/jmjd1c-ensures-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-somatic-cell-reprogramming-through-controlling-microrna-expression
#10
Feng Xiao, Bing Liao, Jing Hu, Shuang Li, Haixin Zhao, Ming Sun, Junjie Gu, Ying Jin
The roles of histone demethylases (HDMs) for the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency are incompletely characterized. Here, we show that JmjC-domain-containing protein 1c (JMJD1C), an H3K9 demethylase, is required for mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. Depletion of Jmjd1c leads to the activation of ERK/MAPK signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to induce differentiation of ESCs. Inhibition of ERK/MAPK signaling rescues the differentiation phenotype caused by Jmjd1c depletion...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822748/systematical-exploration-of-transcription-factors-in-cardiomyocytes-against-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-by-danhong-injection
#11
Jingjing Zhang, Feifei Guo, Junying Wei, Minghua Xian, Shihuan Tang, Ye Zhao, Mingwei Liu, Lei Song, Ya Geng, Hongjun Yang, Chen Ding, Luqi Huang
Oxidative stress plays a vital role in many pathological processes of the cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially on a transcription factor (TF) level. In this study, a new method, concatenated tandem array of consensus transcription factor response elements (catTFREs), and an Illumina-based RNA-seq technology were integrated and then combined with a network pharmacology strategy to systematically investigate the role of TFs in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes; the damage was then rescued by Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese standardized product approved for cardiovascular diseases treatment...
August 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822354/3d-brain-organoids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-promising-experimental-models-for-brain-development-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Chun-Ting Lee, Raphael M Bendriem, Wells W Wu, Rong-Fong Shen
Three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), appear to recapitulate the brain's 3D cytoarchitectural arrangement and provide new opportunities to explore disease pathogenesis in the human brain. Human iPSC (hiPSC) reprogramming methods, combined with 3D brain organoid tools, may allow patient-derived organoids to serve as a preclinical platform to bridge the translational gap between animal models and human clinical trials...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822268/neural-precursor-cells-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-exhibit-reduced-susceptibility-to-infection-with-a-neurotropic-coronavirus
#13
Vrushali Mangale, Brett S Marro, Warren C Plaisted, Craig M Walsh, Thomas E Lane
The present study examines the susceptibility of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (iPSC-NPCs) to infection with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV). Similar to NPCs derived from striatum of day 1 postnatal GFP-transgenic mice (GFP-NPCs), iPSC-derived NPCs (iPSC-NPCs) are able to differentiate into terminal neural cell types and express MHC class I and II in response to IFN-γ treatment. However, in contrast to postnatally-derived NPCs, iPSC-NPCs express low levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-cell adhesion molecule 1a (CEACAM1a), the surface receptor for JHMV, and are less susceptible to infection and virus-induced cytopathic effects...
August 16, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821879/musashi-1-enhances-glioblastoma-cell-migration-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-through-translational-inhibition-of-tensin3
#14
Hsiao-Yun Chen, Liang-Ting Lin, Mong-Lien Wang, Benoit Laurent, Chih-Hung Hsu, Chih-Ming Pan, Wan-Ru Jiang, Pau-Yuan Chen, Hsin-I Ma, Yi-Wei Chen, Pin-I Huang, Arthur Chiou, Shih-Hwa Chiou
The RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 (MSI1) exerts essential roles in multiple cellular functions, such as maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency of stem cells. MSI1 overexpression has been observed in several tumor tissues, including glioblastoma (GBM), and is considered as a well-established marker for tumor metastasis and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms by which MSI1 regulates cell migration are still undetermined. Here we reported that MSI1 alters cell morphology, promotes cell migration, and increases viscoelasticity of GBM cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821816/an-expandable-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-purkinje-neuron-progenitor-population-that-exhibits-in-vivo-maturation-in-the-adult-mouse-cerebellum
#15
Gustavo A Higuera, Grazia Iaffaldano, Meiwand Bedar, Guy Shpak, Robin Broersen, Shashini T Munshi, Catherine Dupont, Joost Gribnau, Femke M S de Vrij, Steven A Kushner, Chris I De Zeeuw
The directed differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into cell-type specific neurons has inspired the development of therapeutic discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. Many forms of ataxia result from degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, but thus far it has not been possible to efficiently generate Purkinje neuron (PN) progenitors from human or mouse pluripotent stem cells, let alone to develop a methodology for in vivo transplantation in the adult cerebellum. Here, we present a protocol to obtain an expandable population of cerebellar neuron progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821761/enhanced-therapeutic-effects-of-human-ips-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-by-combined-cell-sheets-with-omental-flap-technique-in-porcine-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-model
#16
Masashi Kawamura, Shigeru Miyagawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Atsuhiro Saito, Kenji Miki, Shunsuke Funakoshi, Yoshinori Yoshida, Shinya Yamanaka, Tatsuya Shimizu, Teruo Okano, Takashi Daimon, Koichi Toda, Yoshiki Sawa
Transplant of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) cell-sheet is a promising approach for treating ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). However, poor blood supply to the transplanted cell-sheet is a concern related to the effectiveness and durability of the treatment. Herein, we hypothesized that the combined the omentum flap might enhance survival and the therapeutic effects of hiPS-CM cell-sheet transplant for ICM treatment. Treatment by Wnt signaling molecules in hiPS cells produced hiPS-CMs, which were magnetically labeled by superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), followed by culture in the thermoresponsive dishes to generate hiPS-CMs cell-sheets...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821381/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#17
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821352/towards-optimisation-of-induced-pluripotent-cell-culture-extracellular-acidification-results-in-growth-arrest-of-ipsc-prior-to-nutrient-exhaustion
#18
Anja Wilmes, Caroline Rauch, Giada Carta, Georg Kern, Florian Meier, Wilfried Posch, Doris Wilflingseder, Lyle Armstrong, Majlinda Lako, Mario Beilmann, Gerhard Gstraunthaler, Paul Jennings
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have the potential to radically reduce the number of animals used in both toxicological science and disease elucidation. One initial obstacle culturing iPSC is that they require daily medium exchange. This study attempts to clarify why and propose some practical solutions. Two iPSC lineages were fed at different intervals in a full growth area (FGA) or a restricted growth area (RGA). The FGA consisted of a well coated with Matrigel™ and the RGA consisted of a coated coverslip placed in a well...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821345/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#19
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820723/a-lncrna-fine-tunes-the-dynamics-of-a-cell-state-transition-involving-lin28-let-7-and-de-novo-dna-methylation
#20
Meng Amy Li, Paulo P Amaral, Priscilla Cheung, Jan H Bergmann, Masaki Kinoshita, Tüzer Kalkan, Meryem Ralser, Sam Robson, Ferdinand von Meyenn, Maike Paramor, Fengtang Yang, Caifu Chen, Jennifer Nichols, David L Spector, Tony Kouzarides, Lin He, Austin Smith
Execution of pluripotency requires progression from the naïve status represented by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to a state capacitated for lineage specification. This transition is coordinated at multiple levels. Non-coding RNAs may contribute to this regulatory orchestra. We identified a rodent-specific long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) linc1281, hereafter Ephemeron (Eprn), that modulates the dynamics of exit from naïve pluripotency. Eprn deletion delays the extinction of ESC identity, an effect associated with perduring Nanog expression...
August 18, 2017: ELife
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