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Mohamad Z Saltagi, Cyrus C Rabbani, Jonathan Y Ting, Thomas S Higgins
BACKGROUND: Interest in the pathophysiology and management of phantom smells has increased rapidly over the last decade. A PubMed search for the term "phantosmia" demonstrated a near-doubling of articles published on phantosmia within the past 7 years. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the management of phantosmia. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published since January 1990, using terms combined with pertinent Boolean search operators...
February 27, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Murat Aydin, Mustafa Çağrı Derici, Defne Yalçın Yeler, Murat Özen Eren
Halitosis is chronic, endogenous malodor that is etiologically classified. Subjective halitosis, which may appear in clinically neurologic (neurogenic) or psychologic (psychogenic) forms, cannot be confirmed by using tests or performing visual inspection despite insistent complaints of malodor by the patient. Neurogenic forms mainly consist of chemosensory dysfunctions (dysguisa, dysosmia) and self-halitosis (retronasal olfaction, bloodborne olfactory receptor responses, phantosmia); whereas psychogenic forms are olfactory hallucinations, halitophobia, olfactory obsession, and delusional halitosis...
October 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Andrew S Venteicher, Jay I Kumar, Emma A Murphy, Stacey T Gray, Eric H Holbrook, William T Curry
The endoscopic, endonasal transcribriform approach (EETA) is an important technique used to directly access the anterior skull base and is increasingly being used in the management of olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs). As this approach requires removal of the cribriform plate and olfactory epithelium en route to the tumor, patients are anosmic postoperatively. Here, we report the development of phantosmia and dysgeusia in two patients who underwent EETAs for OGMs, which has not yet been reported in the literature...
June 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
Nicodemus E Oey, Yew Long Lo
Migraine auras are typically visual in nature but can manifest as disturbances in somatosensory, auditory, and olfactory senses. Reports of multiple sensory auras are rare in the literature, but their existence may offer novel insights into the pathogenesis of this highly common yet complex neurological condition. Here we report a case of multiple sensory auras involving somatosensory, auditory, and olfactory disturbances in a patient with migraine without visual manifestations. A 45-year-old woman with a 20-year history of migrainous headaches presented with complaints of rightsided facial and hand numbness and paraesthesia...
December 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Sara Sjölund, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson, Janina Seubert, Erika J Laukka
Loss of olfactory function is common in old age, but evidence regarding qualitative olfactory dysfunction in the general older population is scarce. The current study investigates the prevalence and correlates of phantom smell experiences (phantosmia) in a population-based study (Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen [SNAC-K]) of Swedish adults (n = 2569) aged between 60 and 90 years. Phantosmia was assessed through a standardized interview and defined as reporting having experienced an odor percept in the absence of any stimuli in the surrounding environment that could emit the odor...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory auras (phantosmia) are an infrequent phenomenon in complex focal seizures generated in the mesial temporal lobe. It is generally assumed that all such auras arise from epileptic foci in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala or rostral insula, all of which have major afferent projections from the olfactory bulb or mainly from its relay, the anterior olfactory nucleus. The histological morphology, synaptic circuitry, and foetal development of the olfactory bulb are unique. The olfactory system is the only special sensory system that does not project to the thalamus because its bulb and tract incorporate an intrinsic thalamic equivalent: axonless granular and periglomerular neurons and the anterior olfactory nucleus...
December 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Marco Aurélio Fornazieri, Anibal Rodrigues Neto, Fabio de Rezende Pinna, Fabio Henrique Gobbi Porto, Paulo de Lima Navarro, Richard Louis Voegels, Richard L Doty
OBJECTIVE: Olfaction-related symptoms accompany migraine attacks and some, such as osmophobia, may be useful in differentiating migraine from other types of headaches. However, the types and frequencies of olfactory symptoms associated with migraine have not been well characterized. The goal of this study was to better characterize the olfactory symptoms of migraine. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was devised. One hundred and thirteen patients who met the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria for migraine were administered a new 65-item questionnaire specifically focused on olfaction-related experiences (eg, odor-related triggers, osmophobia, cacosmia, phantosmia, olfactory hallucinations, olfactory hypersensitivity, and self-perceived olfactory function)...
November 2016: Headache
Yasmin I Jion, Brian M Grosberg, Randolph W Evans
Phantosmia is a rare migraine aura. We present two cases of phantosmias occurring before migraine headaches and also without headaches. To our knowledge, these are the third and fourth cases of phantosmias ever reported due to migraine aura without headache.
October 2016: Headache
Jörn Lötsch, Alfred Ultsch, Maren Eckhardt, Caroline Huart, Philippe Rombaux, Thomas Hummel
The presence of cerebral lesions in patients with neurosensory alterations provides a unique window into brain function. Using a fuzzy logic based combination of morphological information about 27 olfactory-eloquent brain regions acquired with four different brain imaging techniques, patterns of brain damage were analyzed in 127 patients who displayed anosmia, i.e., complete loss of the sense of smell (n = 81), or other and mechanistically still incompletely understood olfactory dysfunctions including parosmia, i...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Shristi Rawal, Howard J Hoffman, Kathleen E Bainbridge, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Valerie B Duffy
Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors...
January 2016: Chemical Senses
Xiangyi Kong, Yu Wang, Shuai Liu, Zhaohui Lu, Huanwen Wu, Xinxin Mao, Xin Cheng, Jun Gao, Jian Guan, Yi Yang, Yongning Li, Bing Xing, Wenbin Ma, Renzhi Wang
Multifocal cerebral gliomas (MCGs) represent approximately 10% of gliomas and are frequently mistaken as metastases of an unknown primary cancer site. Most MCGs are glioblastomas with <4 lesions supratentorially, and are lack of typical symptoms and special detections.Through a rare MCG case, we aim to present this rarity and emphasize the need to correctly diagnose multiple intracranial lesions using a variety of diagnostic modalities to ensure that the patient receives proper treatment.We present a case of multifocal cerebral anaplastic astrocytomas with a total of 8 lesions located in the left frontal lobe and invading the lateral ventricle, presenting with dysphasia and phantosmia...
May 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Carl M Philpott, Duncan Boak
Olfactory disorders are believed to affect 5% of the general population and have been shown to bear significant psychosocial consequences to sufferers. Although more common than blindness and profound deafness in the United Kingdom, the impact of these disorders has not been assessed to date and the plight of British patients has yet to be quantified. In 2012, a patient support organization, Fifth Sense, was founded to provide information and support to sufferers of chemosensory disorders. Following a recent members conference, a survey of the membership was conducted anonymously using a series of questions based on an existing olfactory disorders questionnaire...
October 2014: Chemical Senses
Robert I Henkin, Samuel J Potolicchio, Lucien M Levy
Olfactory hallucinations without subsequent myoclonic activity have not been well characterized or understood. Herein we describe, in a retrospective study, two major forms of olfactory hallucinations labeled phantosmias: one, unirhinal, the other, birhinal. To describe these disorders we performed several procedures to elucidate similarities and differences between these processes. From 1272, patients evaluated for taste and smell dysfunction at The Taste and Smell Clinic, Washington, DC with clinical history, neurological and otolaryngological examinations, evaluations of taste and smell function, EEG and neuroradiological studies 40 exhibited cyclic unirhinal phantosmia (CUP) usually without hyposmia whereas 88 exhibited non-cyclic birhinal phantosmia with associated symptomology (BPAS) with hyposmia...
November 15, 2013: Brain Sciences
Donald A Leopold, David E Hornung
Phantosmia, the perception of an odor when there are no odorants in the environment, can be a very debilitating symptom. In the 1960s, Zilstorff reported olfactory distortions could be treated by the topical application of a cocaine solution to the olfactory epithelium. In evaluating this treatment, we observed no long-term benefit using cocaine on 6 patients with phantosmia. Based on our observations, the patient's olfactory ability was not a determining factor in the initiation or quality of their phantosmia...
November 2013: Chemical Senses
E V Nosulia, I A Kim, G N Borisenko, N M Chernykh, E A Shakova
The objective of the present study was to analyse the frequency and specific features of olfactory dysfunction associated with various diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses in pregnant women and patients with psychic disorders. Among the patients presenting with various forms of exterior nasal deformities, the olfactory thresholds were especially elevated in those suffering from rhinoscoliosis due to deflection of the nasal septum and disturbances of nasal breathing. Moreover, the elevation of olfactory thresholds was documented practically in all the patients with acute sinusitis and in 76...
2013: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Alexander P Roussos, Alan R Hirsch
OBJECTIVE: To report a migraineur with osmophobia and trigger to garlic and onion aroma. BACKGROUND: While odors serve as a trigger in 70% of migraineurs, alliaceous aromas have been described only rarely. Furthermore, nor has more than one type of alliaceous odor acted as a trigger in the same individual. Neither has migraine with aura been described as precipitated by such aromas. A patient experiencing migraines with aura, triggered almost exclusively by alliaceous aromas, is described...
February 2014: Headache
Welge-Lüssen, Gudziol
Taste disorders can be subdivided in ageusia, which is the inability to detect any qualitative gustatory sensation and hypogeusia, which is a decreased sensitivity to all tastants. Dysgeusia or pargeusia is a distortion or perversion in the perception of a tastant in contrast to phantosmia, which is a perception of taste that occurs in the absence of a tastant. The site of lesion can usually be determined by history and clinical examination. History taking should always include the assessment of current and former medication...
May 1, 2004: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
S R Aiello, A R Hirsch
In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours...
September 2013: International Journal of Biometeorology
Fabriziomaria Gobba, Carlotta Abbacchini
We present the case of a subject developing anosmia, preceded by nasal transient irritation and short lasting phantosmia and torqosmia, upon re-entrance into a room treated with a pyrethrin-based insecticide. The concentration of the insecticide in the room is unknown, but relatively high levels are predicted basing upon the modality of exposure and by the irritation symptoms in the subject. Despite corticosteroids therapy, anosmia has persisted unmodified for more than three years; according to, and based on evidence in the literature on olfactory disturbance prognosis, anosmia in this patient is likely to be permanent...
September 2012: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Joanna C Yang, Yasmin Khakoo, Donita D Lightner, Suzanne L Wolden
Phantosmia is an infrequently reported and poorly understood qualitative olfactory disorder characterized by the perception of a frequently unpleasant odor in the absence of an odorant stimulus. Peripheral phantosmia is hypothesized to involve abnormally active olfactory receptor neurons while central phantosmia is theorized to be the result of hyperactive neurons in the cortex. The authors present a case report that describes 2 patients with incomparable tumors and radiation fields who both experienced phantosmia featuring a halitosis-like odor during their courses of radiation therapy...
June 2013: Journal of Child Neurology
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