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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775346/faraday-shielded-dc-stark-shift-free-optical-lattice-clock
#1
K Beloy, X Zhang, W F McGrew, N Hinkley, T H Yoon, D Nicolodi, R J Fasano, S A Schäffer, R C Brown, A D Ludlow
We demonstrate the absence of a dc Stark shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Stray electric fields are suppressed through the introduction of an in-vacuum Faraday shield. Still, the effectiveness of the shielding must be experimentally assessed. Such diagnostics are accomplished by applying high voltage to six electrodes, which are grounded in normal operation to form part of the Faraday shield. Our measurements place a constraint on the dc Stark shift at the 10^{-20} level, in units of the clock frequency...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759930/diagnostic-criteria-for-camptocormia-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-consensus-based-proposal
#2
Alfonso Fasano, Christian Geroin, Alfredo Berardelli, Bastiaan R Bloem, Alberto J Espay, Mark Hallett, Anthony E Lang, Michele Tinazzi
INTRODUCTION: Camptocormia is defined as an involuntary, marked flexion of the thoracolumbar spine appearing during standing or walking and resolving in the supine position or when leaning against a wall. However, there is no established agreement on the minimum degree of forward flexion needed to diagnose camptocormia. Likewise, the current definition does not categorize camptocormia on the basis of the bending fulcrum. METHODS: We performed a survey among movement disorders experts to identify camptocormia using images of patients with variable degrees and types of forward trunk flexion by fulcrum (upper and lower fulcra)...
May 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756278/sleep-related-motor-and-behavioral-disorders-recent-advances-and-new-entities
#3
REVIEW
David P Breen, Birgit Högl, Alfonso Fasano, Claudia Trenkwalder, Anthony E Lang
Patients with sleep-related motor and behavioral disorders present to a variety of subspecialty clinics (neurology, sleep medicine, respiratory medicine, psychiatry). Diagnosing these disorders can be difficult, and sometimes they have a significant impact on quality of life. Alongside a number of common and well-recognized conditions, several new disease entities have been described in recent years that present with abnormal nocturnal motor phenomena (such as ADCY5-associated disease and anti-IgLON5 disease)...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739901/compositional-and-functional-differences-in-the-human-gut-microbiome-correlate-with-clinical-outcome-following-infection-with-wild-type-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#4
Yan Zhang, Arthur Brady, Cheron Jones, Yang Song, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Christoph J Blohmke, Andrew J Pollard, Laurence S Magder, Alessio Fasano, Marcelo B Sztein, Claire M Fraser
Insights into disease susceptibility as well as the efficacy of vaccines against typhoid and other enteric pathogens may be informed by better understanding the relationship between the effector immune response and the gut microbiota. In the present study, we characterized the composition (16S rRNA gene profiling) and function (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) of the gut microbiota following immunization and subsequent exposure to wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a human challenge model to further investigate the central hypothesis that clinical outcomes may be linked to the gut microbiota...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735417/salmonella-typhi-colonization-provokes-extensive-transcriptional-changes-aimed-at-evading-host-mucosal-immune-defense-during-early-infection-of-human-intestinal-tissue
#5
K P Nickerson, S Senger, Y Zhang, R Lima, S Patel, L Ingano, W A Flavahan, D K V Kumar, C M Fraser, C S Faherty, M B Sztein, M Fiorentino, A Fasano
Commensal microorganisms influence a variety of host functions in the gut, including immune response, glucose homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress, among others. This study describes how Salmonella Typhi, the pathogen responsible for typhoid fever, uses similar strategies to escape immune defense responses and survive within its human host. To elucidate the early mechanisms of typhoid fever, we performed studies using healthy human intestinal tissue samples and "mini-guts," organoids grown from intestinal tissue taken from biopsy specimens...
April 12, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733381/the-longevity-snp-rs2802292-uncovered-hsf1-activates-stress-dependent-expression-of-foxo3-through-an-intronic-enhancer
#6
Valentina Grossi, Giovanna Forte, Paola Sanese, Alessia Peserico, Tugsan Tezil, Martina Lepore Signorile, Candida Fasano, Rosaura Lovaglio, Rosanna Bagnulo, Daria C Loconte, Francesco C Susca, Nicoletta Resta, Cristiano Simone
The HSF and FOXO families of transcription factors play evolutionarily conserved roles in stress resistance and lifespan. In humans, the rs2802292 G-allele at FOXO3 locus has been associated with longevity in all human populations tested; moreover, its copy number correlated with reduced frequency of age-related diseases in centenarians. At the molecular level, the intronic rs2802292 G-allele correlated with increased expression of FOXO3, suggesting that FOXO3 intron 2 may represent a regulatory region. Here we show that the 90-bp sequence around the intronic single nucleotide polymorphism rs2802292 has enhancer functions, and that the rs2802292 G-allele creates a novel HSE binding site for HSF1, which induces FOXO3 expression in response to diverse stress stimuli...
May 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720282/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-perfect-duo
#7
Alfonso Fasano, David F Tang-Wai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704589/mitochondrial-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-human-samples-and-cellular-models
#8
Mara Zilocchi, Giovanna Finzi, Marta Lualdi, Fausto Sessa, Mauro Fasano, Tiziana Alberio
Mitochondrial impairment is one of the most important hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. In this work, we wanted to verify the molecular basis of altered mitochondrial dynamics and disposal in Substantia nigra specimens of sporadic PD patients, by the comparison with two cellular models of PD. Indeed, SH-SY5Y cells were treated with either dopamine or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) in order to highlight the effect of altered dopamine homeostasis and of complex I inhibition, respectively...
April 25, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701892/bn-patterning-of-metallic-substrates-through-metal-coordination-of-decoupled-borazines
#9
Martin Schwarz, Manuela Garnica, Francesco Fasano, Nicola Demitri, Davide Bonifazi, Willi Auwärter
We report on the synthesis of pyridine-terminated borazine derivatives, their molecular self-assembly as well as the electronic properties investigated on silver and copper surfaces by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The introduction of pyridine functionalities allows us to achieve distinct supramolecular architectures with control of the interdigitation of the molecules by surface templating. On silver surfaces, the borazine derivatives arrange in a dense-packed hexagonal structure through van der Waals and H-bonding interactions, whereas on Cu(111), the molecules undergo metal coordination...
April 27, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690800/characterization-of-a-rare-variant-c-2635-2a-g-of-the-msh2-gene-in-a-family-with-lynch-syndrome
#10
Filomena Cariola, Vittoria Disciglio, Anna M Valentini, Claudio Lotesoriere, Candida Fasano, Giovanna Forte, Luciana Russo, Antonio Di Carlo, Floranna Guglielmi, Andrea Manghisi, Ivan Lolli, Maria L Caruso, Cristiano Simone
INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) or in the EPCAM gene. Lynch syndrome is defined on the basis of clinical, pathological, and genetic findings. Accordingly, the identification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and tailored screening protocols. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we report a family case with three family members manifesting the Lynch syndrome phenotype, all of which harbor the rare variant c...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667721/diverse-manifestations-of-acute-sickle-cell-hepatopathy-in-pediatric-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-case-series
#11
Lydia H Pecker, Nidhi Patel, Susan Creary, Anil Darbari, Emily Riehm Meier, Deepika S Darbari, Ross M Fasano
The hepatic complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adults; children usually survive but may suffer significant sequelae. Few diagnostic tools differentiate the various hepatic manifestations of SCD. Why patients exhibit one hepatic pathology versus another is unclear. We report four pediatric patients with hemoglobin SS disease with diverse manifestations of acute hepatic involvement including acute sickle hepatic crisis, hepatic sequestration, sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis, and a non-SCD cause of hepatopathy in a patient with viral hepatitis...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664198/hemoglobin-a-clearance-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia-on-chronic-transfusion-therapy
#12
Marianne E M Yee, Cassandra D Josephson, Anne M Winkler, Jennifer Webb, Naomi L C Luban, Traci Leong, Sean R Stowell, John D Roback, Ross M Fasano
BACKGROUND: Chronic transfusion therapy for sickle cell anemia reduces disease complications by diluting sickle-erythrocytes with hemoglobin A (HbA)-containing erythrocytes and suppressing erythropoiesis. Minor antigen mismatches may result in alloimmunization, but it is unknown if antigen mismatches or recipient characteristics influence HbA clearance posttransfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Children with sickle cell anemia on chronic transfusion therapy were followed prospectively for 12 months...
April 17, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660206/detection-of-in-vivo-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigen-mutations-a-comparison-of-four-routine-screening-assays
#13
M Gencay, A Seffner, S Pabinger, J Gautier, P Gohl, M Weizenegger, D Neofytos, R Batrla, A Woeste, H S Kim, G Westergaard, C Reinsch, E Brill, P T T Thuy, B H Hoang, M Sonderup, C W Spearman, G Brancaccio, M Fasano, G B Gaeta, T Santantonio, W E Kaminski
An important requirement for a state-of-the-art hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening assay is reliable detection of mutated HBsAg. Currently, there is a striking shortage of data regarding the detection rates of in vivo HBsAg mutations for these clinically important assays. Therefore, we compared the detection rates of four commercial HBsAg screening assays using a global cohort of 1553 patients from four continents with known HBV genotypes. These samples, which represent the broadest spectrum of known and novel HBsAg major hydrophilic region (MHR) mutations to date, were analyzed for the presence of HBsAg using the Roche Elecsys® HBsAg II Qualitative, Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP HBsAg II, Abbott Architect HBsAg Qualitative II, and DiaSorin Liaison® HBsAg Qualitative assays, respectively...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578652/non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity-how-its-gut-immune-activation-and-potential-dietary-management-differ-from-celiac-disease
#14
REVIEW
Vera Rotondi Aufiero, Alessio Fasano, Giuseppe Mazzarella
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a clinical entity triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing grains leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that resolve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is eliminated from the diet and it is diagnosed when celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA) have been ruled out. The limited knowledge about the pathophysiology of NCGS and the lack of validated biomarkers are still major limitations for clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten-related disorders (GRD)...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576814/preliminary-data-from-the-study-of-coagulative-profile-of-hiv-infected-individuals-suggest-a-role-for-point-mutations-in-the-gene-in-protein-s-deficiency-in-individuals-undergoing-highly-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Mariantonietta Di Stefano, Giovanna D'Andrea, Fabio Zoboli, Giuseppina Faleo, Massimo Fasano, Domenico Martinelli, Maurizio Margaglione, Teresa A Santantonio, Josè R Fiore
Background: HIV infection is a known prothrombotic condition but factors involved are still controversial. A role for antiretrovirals, especially protease inhibitors, was advocated. Objectives: The study aimed to analyze the levels of anticoagulant proteins in virally suppressed HIV-infected subjects treated with different anti-retroviral regimens. Materials and Methods: Forty-four patients were included in the study. C and PS, D-Dimers and Fibrinogen levels were determined as well as APC-resistance...
2018: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571963/first-evidence-of-daam1-localization-in-mouse-seminal-vesicles-and-its-possible-involvement-during-regulated-exocytosis
#16
Massimo Venditti, Chiara Fasano, Alessandra Santillo, Francesco Aniello, Sergio Minucci
Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1) is a protein belonging to the formin family, which regulates, together with the small GTPase RhoA, the nucleation and the assembly of actin fibres through Wnt-Dishevelled PCP pathway. Its role has been investigated in essential biological processes, such as cell polarity, movement and adhesion during morphogenesis and organogenesis. In this work, we studied the expression of DAAM1 mRNA and protein by PCR and Western blot analyses and its co-localization with actin in adult mouse seminal vesicles by immunofluorescence...
March 20, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571898/differential-immune-responses-and-microbiota-profiles-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-co-morbid-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#17
Destanie R Rose, Houa Yang, Gloria Serena, Craig Sturgeon, Bing Ma, Milo Careaga, Heather K Hughes, Kathy Angkustsiri, Melissa Rose, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Judy Van de Water, Robin L Hansen, Jacques Ravel, Alessio Fasano, Paul Ashwood
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have reported the increased presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Altered microbiome profiles, pro-inflammatory responses and impaired intestinal permeability have been observed in children with ASD and co-morbid GI symptoms, yet few studies have compared these findings to ASD children without GI issues or similarly aged typical developing children. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are biological signatures in terms of immune dysfunction and microbiota composition in children with ASD with GI symptoms...
March 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571279/qualitative-assessment-of-face-validity-and-cross-cultural-acceptability-of-the-faces-pain-scale-revised-in-cameroon
#18
James R Young, Colette Sih, Melanie M Hogg, Brittany L Anderson-Montoya, Heather T Fasano
The Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) is a self-report pain scale validated in numerous countries, but not in Cameroon. We postulated that while cultural factors influence pain perception and expression, the FPS-R should remain culturally acceptable for pediatric use. A convenience sample of 36 pediatric patients, aged 4 to 16 years, representing three primary language groups, was enrolled at Mbingo Baptist Hospital (MBH). Pre- and postanalgesia FPS-R scores and vital signs were obtained. Audio-recorded cognitive interviews were performed with each participant...
April 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567782/mir-181a-regulates-erythroid-enucleation-via-the-regulation-of-xpo7-expression
#19
Amalia Avila Figueroa, James D Fasano, Sandra Martinez-Morilla, Srividhya Venkatesan, Gary Kupfer, Shilpa M Hattangadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558160/a-new-ultrasound-method-for-estimating-dynamic-intrinsic-positive-airway-pressure-peepi
#20
Emanuele Bernardi, Lara Pisani, Luca Fasano, Giuseppe Lauria, Vittoria Comellini, Lorenzo Appendini, Giorgio Conti, Francesco Tosello, Elisa Pizzolato, Stefano Nava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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