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Kallikrein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025353/mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-analyses-in-kallikrein-related-peptidase-research-implications-for-cancer-research-and-therapy
#1
Lakmali Munasinghage Silva, Judith Ann Clements
Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a family of serine peptidases that are deregulated in numerous pathological conditions, with a multitude of KLK-mediated functional roles implicated in the progression of cancer. Advances in multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics have facilitated the quantitative measurement of deregulated KLK expression in cancer, identifying certain KLKs, as well as their substrates, as potential cancer biomarkers. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss how these approaches have been utilized for KLK biomarker discovery and unbiased substrate determination in complex protein pools that mimic the in vivo extracellular microenvironment...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994183/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-induced-angioedema-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Teresa Brown, Jimmy Gonzalez, Catherine Monteleone
According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012, one third of antihypertensive prescriptions in the United States in the past decade were for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). An important and serious side effect of ACEIs is angioedema caused by a reduction in bradykinin degradation. In a national medical chart abstraction study conducted at the US Veterans Affairs Health Care System in 2008, 0.20% of ACEI initiators developed angioedema while on the medication. The angiotensin-converting enzyme is a part of the renin-angiotensin system that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987408/perfluorohexadecanoic-acid-increases-paracellular-permeability-in-endothelial-cells-through-the-activation-of-plasma-kallikrein-kinin-system
#3
Qian S Liu, Fang Hao, Zhendong Sun, Yanmin Long, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous and high persistent in human blood, thus potentially inducing a myriad of deleterious consequences. Plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), which physiologically regulates vascular permeability, is vulnerable to exogenous stimulators, like PFASs with long-chain alkyl backbone substituted by electronegative fluorine. The study on the interactions of PFASs with the KKS and the subsequent effects on vascular permeability would be helpful to illustrate how the chemicals penetrate the biological vascular barriers to reach different tissues...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981267/salivary-proteome-patterns-affecting-human-salt-taste-sensitivity
#4
Theresa Stolle, Freya Grondinger, Andreas Dunkel, Chen Meng, Guillaume Médard, Bernhard Kuster, Thomas Hofmann
In order to investigate the role of perireceptor events in inter-individual variability in salt taste sensitivity, 31 volunteers were monitored in their detection functions for sodium chloride (NaCl) and classified into sensitive (0.6 - 1.7 mmol/L), medium sensitive (1.8 - 6.9 mmol/L), and non-sensitive subjects (7.0 - 11.2 mmol/L). Chemosensory intervention of NaCl sensitive (S+) and non-sensitive panellists (S-) with potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, and sodium gluconate, respectively, showed the salt-taste sensitivity to be specific for NaCl...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966616/factor-xii-driven-inflammatory-reactions-with-implications-for-anaphylaxis
#5
REVIEW
Lysann Bender, Henri Weidmann, Stefan Rose-John, Thomas Renné, Andy T Long
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction. It is triggered by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators from mast cells and basophils in response to immunologic or non-immunologic mechanisms. Mediators that are released upon mast cell activation include the highly sulfated polysaccharide and inorganic polymer heparin and polyphosphate (polyP), respectively. Heparin and polyP supply a negative surface for factor XII (FXII) activation, a serine protease that drives contact system-mediated coagulation and inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959386/cerebrospinal-fluid-extracellular-vesicle-enrichment-for-protein-biomarker-discovery-in-neurological-disease-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Joanne L Welton, Samantha Loveless, Timothy Stone, Chris von Ruhland, Neil P Robertson, Aled Clayton
The discovery of disease biomarkers, along with the use of "liquid biopsies" as a minimally invasive source of biomarkers, continues to be of great interest. In inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the most obvious biofluid source. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are also present in CSF and are thought to be potential "biomarker treasure chests". However, isolating these CSF-derived EVs remains challenging. This small-scale pilot study developed and tested a protocol to enrich for CSF-EVs, both in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) CSF and controls...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951324/modulation-of-cardiac-vagal-tone-by-bradykinin-acting-on-nucleus-ambiguus
#7
Eugen Brailoiu, Matthew McGuire, Shadaria A Shuler, Elena Deliu, Jeffrey L Barr, Mary E Abood, G Cristina Brailoiu
Bradykinin (BK), a component of the kallikrein-kininogen-kinin system exerts multiple effects via B1 and B2 receptor activation. In the cardiovascular system, bradykinin has cardioprotective and vasodilator properties. We investigated the effect of BK on cardiac-projecting neurons of nucleus ambiguus, a key site for the parasympathetic cardiac regulation. BK produced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Pretreatment with HOE140, a B2 receptor antagonist, but not with R715, a B1 receptor antagonist, abolished the response to BK...
September 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950949/g-protein-coupled-kinin-receptors-and-immunity-against-pathogens
#8
Julio Scharfstein, Pablo I P Ramos, Manoel Barral-Netto
For decades, immunologists have considered the complement system as a paradigm of a proteolytic cascade that, acting cooperatively with the immune system, enhances host defense against infectious organisms. In recent years, advances made in thrombosis research disclosed a functional link between activated neutrophils, monocytes, and platelet-driven thrombogenesis. Forging a physical barrier, the fibrin scaffolds generated by synergism between the extrinsic and intrinsic (contact) pathways of coagulation entrap microbes within microvessels, limiting the systemic spread of infection while enhancing the clearance of pathogens by activated leukocytes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936267/roles-of-kallikrein-2-biomarkers-free-hk2-and-pro-hk2-for-predicting-prostate-cancer-progression-free-survival
#9
Anatilde Gonzalez Guerrico, David Hillman, Jeffery Karnes, Brian Davis, Steven Gaston, George Klee
Free human kallikrein 2 (free-hK2) and hK2 pro-form (pro-hK2) have been found to be increased in tumor tissues and serum from patients with prostate cancer. We established semiautomatic assays for free-hK2 and pro-hK2 using a research version of the Beckman Coulter ACCESS2 system. Serum samples from a cohort of 189 men undergoing radical prostatectomy for known high-risk disease were assayed for Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), free-PSA, free-hK2, and pro-hK2. Univariate Cox regression and multivariate models were used to predict both Gleason scores and progression-free survival (PFS)...
January 2017: J Circ Biomark
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932870/ablation-of-kallikrein-7-klk7-in-adipose-tissue-ameliorates-metabolic-consequences-of-high%C3%A2-fat-diet-induced-obesity-by-counteracting-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vivo
#10
Konstanze Zieger, Juliane Weiner, Anne Kunath, Martin Gericke, Kerstin Krause, Matthias Kern, Michael Stumvoll, Nora Klöting, Matthias Blüher, John T Heiker
Vaspin is an adipokine which improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is the first known protease target inhibited by vaspin and a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KLK7 in adipose tissue may beneficially affect glucose metabolism and adipose tissue function. Therefore, we have inactivated the Klk7 gene in adipose tissue using conditional gene-targeting strategies in mice. Klk7-deficient mice (ATKlk7 (-/-)) exhibited less weight gain, predominant expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue and improved whole body insulin sensitivity under a high fat diet (HFD)...
September 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930522/advances-in-tick-vaccinology-in-brazil-from-gene-expression-to-immunoprotection
#11
Renato Andreotti, Poliana Fernanda Giachetto, Rodrigo Casquero Cunha
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus has substantial economic impact on the cattle breeding industry and, chemical control and tick resistance development are the major concern. There is a worldwide search for new options, and control using vaccines has been the main focus nowadays. Studies performed in Brazil found that Bm86-based immunization of bovines reduced the infestation of R. (B.) microplus of vaccinated bovines by 45% to 60%. Native Boophilusmicroplus tripsin inhibitors (BmTIs) with trypsin-, kallikrein-, and elastase-inhibiting activities have been used as immunogens in bovines reaching 72...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922398/role-of-the-p2-residue-of-human-alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-determining-target-protease-specificity
#12
Hye-Shin Chung, Ji-Sun Kim, Sang Mee Lee, Soon Jae Park
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is a serine protease inhibitor that mainly inhibits neutrophil elastase in the lungs. A variant of A1AT at the P1 position with methionine 358 to arginine (A1AT-Pittsburgh) is a rapid inhibitor of thrombin with greatly diminished anti-elastase activity. The P2 residue (position 357) of A1AT-Pittsburgh has been shown to play an important role in interactions with thrombin and kallikrein, but the role of P2 residue in wild-type A1AT has largely been unraveled. Here, we investigated the effects of P2 proline substitutions in wild-type A1AT on interactions with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906320/changes-in-proteases-antiproteases-and-bioactive-proteins-from-mother-s-breast-milk-to-the-premature-infant-stomach
#13
Veronique Demers-Mathieu, Søren Drud Nielsen, Mark A Underwood, Robyn Borghese, David C Dallas
OBJECTIVES: Our previous studies suggested that human milk proteases begin to hydrolyze proteins in the mammary gland and continue within the term infant stomach. No research has measured milk protease and pepsin activity in the gastric aspirates of preterm infants after human milk feeding. This study investigated how the concentrations of human milk proteases and protease inhibitors changed in the premature infant stomach. METHODS: Human milk and infant gastric samples were collected from 18 preterm-delivering mother-infant pairs (24-32 wk gestational age)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900700/auxiliary-activation-of-the-complement-system-and-its-importance-for-the-pathophysiology-of-clinical-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Markus Huber-Lang, Kristina N Ekdahl, Rebecca Wiegner, Karin Fromell, Bo Nilsson
Activation and regulation of the cascade systems of the blood (the complement system, the coagulation/contact activation/kallikrein system, and the fibrinolytic system) occurs via activation of zymogen molecules to specific active proteolytic enzymes. Despite the fact that the generated proteases are all present together in the blood, under physiological conditions, the activity of the generated proteases is controlled by endogenous protease inhibitors. Consequently, there is remarkable little crosstalk between the different systems in the fluid phase...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861591/multianalyte-quantitative-competitive-pcr-on-optically-encoded-microspheres-for-an-eight-gene-panel-related-to-prostate-cancer
#15
Iraklis K Kyriakou, Konstantinos Mavridis, Despina P Kalogianni, Theodore K Christopoulos, Penelope C Ioannou, Andreas Scorilas
Nucleic acid-based tests have a profound impact in every medical discipline. Because multigene tests offer higher diagnostic accuracy and lower overall cost than single assays, they are especially useful for diseases, like prostate cancer, that present variability at the molecular level and diversity of available therapeutic interventions. We have developed a quantitative competitive PCR for an eight-gene panel, related to prostate cancer, that includes five genes of the human tissue kallikrein family (KLKs), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), and HPRT1 as a reference gene...
August 31, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854705/whole-genome-sequencing-study-of-serum-peptide-levels-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#16
Paul S de Vries, Bing Yu, Elena V Feofanova, Ginger A Metcalf, Michael R Brown, Atefeh L Zeighami, Xiaoming Liu, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Eric Boerwinkle, Alanna C Morrison
Oligopeptides are important markers of protein metabolism, as they are cleaved from larger polypeptides and proteins. Genetic association studies may help elucidate their origin and function. In 1,552 European Americans and 1,872 African Americans of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we performed whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing and measured serum levels of 25 peptides. Common variants (minor allele frequency > 5%) were analysed individually. We grouped low-frequency variants (minor allele frequency ≤ 5%) by a genome-wide sliding window using region-based aggregate tests...
September 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848359/review-of-autoantigens-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Louis Tong, Vanessa Koh, Bernard Yu-Hor Thong
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation in exocrine glands, resulting in reduced secretion of tears and saliva, manifesting as xerophthalmia and xerostomia, respectively. It is commonly associated with Sjögren's syndrome type A (Ro) and Sjögren's syndrome type B (La) antigens. However, in most patients, the identity of the triggering antigen is not known. Factors such as genetics of histocompatibility, dysregulation of T-cells, B-cells and viral infections have been implicated...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842604/neuroprotective-effect-of-kinin-b1-receptor-activation-in-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-diabetic-mice
#18
Dorinne Desposito, Georges Zadigue, Christopher Taveau, Clovis Adam, François Alhenc-Gelas, Nadine Bouby, Ronan Roussel
Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system enhances cardiac and renal tolerance to ischemia. Here we investigated the effects of selective agonists of kinin B1 or B2 receptor (R) in brain ischemia-reperfusion in diabetic and non-diabetic mice. The role of endogenous kinins was assessed in tissue kallikrein deficient mice (TK(-/-)). Mice underwent 60min-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), eight weeks after type 1-diabetes induction. Treatment with B1R-, B2R-agonist or saline was started at reperfusion. Neurological deficit (ND), infarct size (IS), brain water content (BWC) were measured at day 0, 1 and 2 after injury...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835783/plasma-kallikrein-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-retinal-vascular-permeability-associated-with-diabetic-retinopathy-and-diabetic-macular-edema
#19
EDITORIAL
Ahmed F Abdel-Magid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827138/venom-phenotypes-of-the-rock-rattlesnake-crotalus-lepidus-and-the-ridge-nosed-rattlesnake-crotalus-willardi-from-m%C3%A3-xico-and-the-united-states
#20
Anthony J Saviola, Anthony J Gandara, Robert W Bryson, Stephen P Mackessy
Although the Mexican Highlands has the highest diversity of small-bodied rattlesnakes in the world, studies on the species found throughout this region have been relatively scarce. This has led to challenges with examining venom phenotypic characteristics, as well as species misidentifications and misclassifications. In the current study we investigated venom variation among four subspecies of Crotalus lepidus (C. l. klaluberi, C. l. lepidus, C. l. maculosus, C. l. morulus) and four subspecies of C. willardi (C...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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