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Lethal skeletal dysplasia

Luis F Goncalves, Julie A Berger, Jacqueline K Macknis, Samuel T Bauer, David A Bloom
Grebe dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe acromesomelic shortening of the long bones in a proximal to distal gradient of severity, with bones of the hands and feet more severely affected than those of the forearms and legs, which in turn are more severely affected than the humeri and femora. In addition, the bones of the lower extremities tend to be more severely affected than the bones of the upper extremities. Despite the severe skeletal deformities, the condition is not lethal and surviving individuals can have normal intelligence...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Charlotte J Marshall, Paul Arundel, Talat Mushtaq, Amaka C Offiah, Rebecca C Pollitt, Nicholas J Bishop, Meena Balasubramanian
Prompt and accurate diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias can play a crucial role in ensuring appropriate counseling and management (both antenatal and postnatal). When a skeletal dysplasia is detected during the antenatal period, especially early in the pregnancy, it can be associated with a poor prognosis. It is important to make a diagnosis in antenatal presentation of skeletal dysplasias to inform diagnosis, predict prognosis, provide accurate recurrence risks, and options for prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies...
August 23, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Michael M Weinstein, Taekyu Kang, Ralph S Lachman, Michael Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Daniel H Cohn
Dominant mutations in TRPV4, which encodes the Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 4 calcium channel, result in a series of musculoskeletal disorders that include a set of peripheral neuropathies and a broad phenotypic spectrum of skeletal dysplasias. The skeletal phenotypes range from brachyolmia, in which there is scoliosis with mild short stature, through perinatal lethal metatropic dysplasia. We describe a case with phenotypic findings consistent with metatropic dysplasia, but in whom no TRPV4 mutation was detected by Sanger sequence analysis...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Shan Dan, Yuan Yuan, Yaoshen Wang, Chao Chen, Changxin Gao, Song Yu, Yan Liu, Wei Song, Asan, Hongmei Zhu, Ling Yang, Hongmei Deng, Yue Su, Xin Yi
BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of cell-free foetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women, many non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed. In the area of skeletal dysplasia diagnosis, some PCR-based non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed to facilitate the ultrasound diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias that are caused by de novo mutations. However, skeletal dysplasias are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, the PCR-based method is hard to detect multiple gene or loci simultaneously, and the diagnosis rate is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
Jenny E V Morton, Sophia Frentz, Tim Morgan, Andrew J Sutherland-Smith, Stephen P Robertson
Recently, a newly identified autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia was described characterized by calvarial abnormalities (including cranium bifidum, coronal, and lambdoid synostosis), oligodactyly, femoral bowing, narrow thorax, small pelvic bones, and radiohumeral synostosis. In the two families described, a more severe phenotype led to in utero lethality in three siblings while in a single patient in a second family the phenotype was sufficiently mild to allow survival to 5 months of age. The disorder is caused by biallelic missense mutations in CYP26B1, which encodes for a cytochrome P450 enzyme responsible for the catabolism of retinoic acid in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion during embryonic development...
October 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Beth G Gibson, Michael D Briggs
The large chondroitin sulphated proteoglycan aggrecan (ACAN) is the most abundant non-collagenous protein in cartilage and is essential for its structure and function. Mutations in ACAN result in a broad phenotypic spectrum of non-lethal skeletal dysplasias including spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, familial osteochondritis dissecans and various undefined short stature syndromes associated with accelerated bone maturation. However, very little is currently known about the disease pathways that underlie these aggrecanopathies, although they are likely to be a combination of haploinsufficiency and dominant-negative (neomorphic) mechanisms...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Cori Feist, Paul Holden, Jamie Fitzgerald
This study aimed to identify the genetic basis of a severe skeletal lethal dysplasia. The main clinical features of two affected fetuses included short limbs with flared metaphyses, bowed radii, femora and tibiae, irregular ossification of hands and feet, and marked platyspondyly. Affected and nonaffected family members were subjected to whole-exome sequencing, followed by immunoblot analysis on amniocytes isolated from one of the affected individuals. Unique compound heterozygous variants in the inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 (INPPL1) gene encoding the SHIP2 protein were identified in both affected individuals...
October 2016: Clinical Dysmorphology
Manisha Kumar, Seema Thakur, Arunima Haldar, Rama Anand
PURPOSE: A fetus with skeletal disorder poses diagnostic challenges in a resource-poor setting with limited management options. The objective of the study was to develop a step-by-step approach for the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia in light of the limited resources available. METHODS: An algorithmic approach was used. The assessment for lethality was the first step, followed by the evaluation for fractures. In cases without evidence of fracture, severe constriction of thorax or associated polydactyly were searched for...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Mehmet Sah İpek, Cihan Akgul Ozmen
Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of conditions associated with various abnormalities of the skeleton. Some of them are perinatally lethal and can be diagnosed at birth. Lethality is usually due to thoracic underdevelopment and lung hypoplasia. A correct diagnosis and typing of the skeletal disorder is essential for the prognosis as is genetic counseling of the family. A retrospective review of 12 cases of clinico-radiologic diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia, leading to thoracic insufficiency, was conducted...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jillian P Casey, Kieran Brennan, Noemie Scheidel, Paul McGettigan, Paul T Lavin, Stephen Carter, Sean Ennis, Huw Dorkins, Neeti Ghali, Oliver E Blacque, Margaret M Mc Gee, Helen Murphy, Sally Ann Lynch
Skeletal dysplasias are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of bone and cartilage disorders. Whilst >450 skeletal dysplasias have been reported, 30% are genetically uncharacterized. We report two Irish Traveller families with a previously undescribed lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by fetal akinesia, shortening of all long bones, multiple contractures, rib anomalies, thoracic dysplasia, pulmonary hypoplasia and protruding abdomen. Single nucleotide polymorphism homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous stop-gain mutation in NEK9 (c...
May 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Manisha Sharma, Jyoti, Rekha Jain, Devendra
Thanatophoric Dysplasia (TD) is a congenital, sporadic and the most lethal skeletal dysplasia caused by new mutation in the FGFR3 gene. At birth, it is characterized by shortening of the limbs (micromelia), small conical thorax, platyspondyly (flat vertebral bodies) and macrocephaly. TD is divided into two clinically defined subtypes: type I and II with some clinical overlap between the two subtypes. They can be differentiated by the skull shape and femur morphology. Ultrasound examination in the second trimester is often straight forward in diagnosing the congenital anomaly...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Makoto Kimura, Satoki Ichimura, Kuniaki Sasaki, Hiroshi Masuya, Tomohiro Suzuki, Shigeharu Wakana, Shiro Ikegawa, Tatsuya Furuichi
In humans, mutations in the COL2A1 gene encoding the α1(II) chain of type II collagen, create many clinical phenotypes collectively termed type II collagenopathies. However, the mechanisms generating this diversity remain to be determined. Here we identified a novel Col2a1 mutant mouse line by screening a large-scale N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutant mouse library. This mutant possessed a p.Tyr1391Ser missense mutation in the C-propeptide coding region, and this mutation was located in positions corresponding to the human COL2A1 mutation responsible for platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type (PLSD-T)...
December 4, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zheyuan Zong, Susan Tees, Firoz Miyanji, Clarissa Fauth, Christopher Reilly, Elena Lopez, Stephen Tredwell, Yigal Paul Goldberg, Allen Delaney, Patrice Eydoux, Margot Van Allen, Anna Lehman
Diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD), caused by loss of bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial regulator (BMPER), has been considered a lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe deficiency of vertebral body and sacral ossification, reduced rib number and cystic kidneys. In this study, however, we have demonstrated that variants in BMPER may cause a milder disorder, without renal anomalies, that is compatible with long-term survival. Four siblings, three males and one female, presented with severe congenital scoliosis associated with rib and vertebral malformations as well as strikingly delayed ossification of the pedicles...
December 2015: Journal of Human Genetics
Sofie Symoens, Aileen M Barnes, Charlotte Gistelinck, Fransiska Malfait, Brecht Guillemyn, Wouter Steyaert, Delfien Syx, Sanne D'hondt, Martine Biervliet, Julie De Backer, Eckhard P Witten, Sergey Leikin, Elena Makareeva, Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach, Ann Huysseune, Kris Vleminckx, Andy Willaert, Anne De Paepe, Joan C Marini, Paul J Coucke
The evolutionarily conserved transmembrane anterior posterior transformation 1 protein, encoded by TAPT1, is involved in murine axial skeletal patterning, but its cellular function remains unknown. Our study demonstrates that TAPT1 mutations underlie a complex congenital syndrome, showing clinical overlap between lethal skeletal dysplasias and ciliopathies. This syndrome is characterized by fetal lethality, severe hypomineralization of the entire skeleton and intra-uterine fractures, and multiple congenital developmental anomalies affecting the brain, lungs, and kidneys...
October 1, 2015: American Journal of Human Genetics
Sarvenaz Sarabipour, Nuala Del Piccolo, Kalina Hristova
Here we describe an experimental tool, termed quantitative imaging Förster resonance energy transfer (QI-FRET), that enables the quantitative characterization of membrane protein interactions. The QI-FRET methodology allows us to acquire binding curves and calculate association constants for complex membrane proteins in the native plasma membrane environment. The method utilizes FRET detection, and thus requires that the proteins of interest are labeled with florescent proteins, either FRET donors or FRET acceptors...
August 18, 2015: Accounts of Chemical Research
Amaka C Offiah
Constitutional disorders of bone, commonly termed skeletal dysplasias (SDs), are inherited disorders of cartilage and/or bone that affect their growth, morphometry and integrity. Associated skeletal abnormalities are usually but not invariably symmetrical. They may be classified as osteochondrodysplasias, which are conditions associated with abnormalities of the growth (dysplasias) or texture (osteodystrophy) of bone and/or cartilage, or dysostoses, which are conditions secondary to abnormal blastogenesis (occurring at or around the 6th week of in utero life)...
2015: Endocrine Development
Carolina Amorim Barros, Guilherme de Castro Rezende, Edward Araujo Júnior, Gabriele Tonni, Alamanda Kfoury Pereira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) for predicting lethality in fetuses with skeletal dysplasia. METHODS: Twenty-four fetuses between 20 and 32 weeks of gestation were assessed. Bilateral lung volume scans were performed three times in each fetus during one ultrasound session. The virtual organ computer-aided analysis method was used to obtain a sequence of six sections of each lung around a fixed axis, and a rotation angle of 30° was adopted...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Katsuhiko Amano, Michael J Densmore, Beate Lanske
Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is widely recognized as an essential factor for proper skeletal development. Previous in vivo studies using mutant Ihh mouse models were limited by perinatal lethality or carried out after a growth plate formed. Thus the important role of Ihh in mesenchymal cell differentiation has not been investigated. In this study, we established Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl) mice to ablate Ihh specifically in limb mesenchyme to allow us to observe the phenotype continuously from prenatal development to 3 weeks of age...
December 2015: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Nihat Demir, Erdal Peker, İbrahim Ece, Sultan Kaba, Kemal Ağengin, Oğuz Tuncer
Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil...
2015: Case Reports in Pulmonology
Eduardo P Mattos, Maria Teresa V Sanseverino, José Antônio A Magalhães, Júlio César L Leite, Temis Maria Félix, Luiz Alberto Todeschini, Denise P Cavalcanti, Lavinia Schüler-Faccini
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited, skeletal abnormality belonging to the subgroup of bent bone dysplasias. In addition to bowed lower limbs, CD typically includes the following: disproportionate short stature, flat face, micrognathia, cleft palate, bell-shaped thorax, and club feet. Up to three quarters of 46, XY individuals may be sex-reversed. Radiological signs include scapular and pubic hypoplasia, narrow iliac wings, spaced ischia, and bowed femora and tibiae. Lethal CD is usually due to heterozygous mutations in SOX9, a major regulator of chondrocytic development...
March 2015: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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