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Ling Luo, Yang Han, Xiaojing Song, Ting Zhu, Yong Zeng, Taisheng Li
Objectives To determine the association of the markers of monocyte activation and arterial stiffness among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve men. Methods Sixty HIV-infected ART-naïve men and 20 HIV-uninfected male controls without symptoms or history of cardiovascular disease were recruited. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as the marker of arterial stiffness and determined using a pulse pressure analyzer. The percentage of CD16-expressing monocytes was used as a marker of monocyte activation...
April 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
Mario Sa, Yael Hacohen, Lucy Alderson, W K Kling Chong, Glenn Anderson, Thomas S Jacques, David Neubauer, Elzbieta Szczepanik, Ming Lim, Marios Kaliakatsos
Subacute neuroregression in association with raised neopterin and overexpression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) could indicate a type 1 interferonopathy. Here we describe a novel immunotherapy-responsive, clinico-immunological and imaging phenotype with evidence of innate immune activation. Three children (patient 1: 22-month-old boy; patient 2: 5-year-old girl; patient 3: 4-year-old girl) presented with asymmetric bilateral mixed dystonia and spasticity, regression in language (expressive more than receptive) and bulbar symptoms with no evidence of seizures...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Flonza Isa, Sean Collins, Myung Hee Lee, Diessy Decome, Nancy Dorvil, Patrice Joseph, Lauren Smith, Stephen Salerno, Martin T Wells, Steven Fischer, James M Bean, Jean W Pape, Warren D Johnson, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Kyu Y Rhee
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide. A major barrier to control of the pandemic is a lack of clinical biomarkers with the ability to distinguish active TB from healthy and sick controls and potential for development into point-of-care diagnostics. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case control study to identify candidate urine-based diagnostic biomarkers of active pulmonary TB (discovery cohort) and obtained a separate blinded "validation" cohort of confirmed cases of active pulmonary TB and controls with non-tuberculous pulmonary disease for validation...
April 22, 2018: EBioMedicine
Phillip Chan, Payal Patel, Joanna Hellmuth, Donn J Colby, Eugène Kroon, Carlo Sacdalan, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Linda Jagodzinski, Shelly Krebs, Jintanat Ananworanich, Victor Valcour, Serena Spudich
Background: HIV RNA levels in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are correlated in chronic HIV infection but their dynamics have not been characterized during acute infection. Methods: This study analyzed predictors of CSF HIV RNA and relative degree of CNS viral transmigration expressed as plasma minus CSF HIV log10 RNA (PCratio) during untreated acute HIV infection. CSF immune markers were compared between groups with different PCratio. Results: 117 mostly male (97%) participants in the RV254 cohort in Bangkok, Thailand, had median age 28 years and an estimated median 18 days duration of infection; forty-three (37%) were Fiebig stages I/II...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hamzeh Mohammadi, Somayeh Farhang Dehghan, Alireza Tahamtan, Farideh Golbabaei
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential determinants of serum neopterin, malondialdehyde (MDA), and erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) as potential markers of oxidative stress, resulting in cellular immune response to inhaled silica particles. This descriptive analytical study was conducted on two groups of exposed workers ( n = 55) and unexposed office workers ( n = 38) of an insulator manufacturing plant. The sampling of airborne silica in the breathing zone of participants was done on the basis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 7601...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Joyce Y Huang, Lesley M Butler, Øivind Midttun, Arve Ulvik, Renwei Wang, Aizhen Jin, Yu-Tang Gao, Per M Ueland, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan
BACKGROUND: Serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, is associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Data on functional measures of vitamin B6 status and risk of pancreatic cancer is lacking. METHODS: A nested case-control study involving 187 incident cases of pancreatic cancer and 362 individually matched controls were conducted within two prospective cohorts to evaluate the associations between kynurenine metabolites in pre-diagnostic serum samples and risk of pancreatic cancer...
2018: PloS One
Hedda Hoel, Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Johannes R Hov, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Kristian Holm, Martin Kummen, Knut Rudi, Felix Nwosu, Jørgen Valeur, Marco Gelpi, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Per Magne Ueland, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Pål Aukrust, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Marius Trøseid
HIV infection and type 2 diabetes are associated with altered gut microbiota, chronic inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of these diseases on gut microbiota composition and related metabolites, and a potential relation to endothelial dysfunction in individuals with HIV-infection only (n = 23), diabetes only (n = 16) or both conditions (n = 21), as well as controls (n = 24). Fecal microbiota was analyzed by Illumina sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tayebeh Ghiasvand, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Gholamreza Shafiee, Alireza Zamani, Jamshid Karimi, Marzieh Ghorbani, Iraj Amiri
Background: Neopterin is a significant and sensitive marker in estimating the activity of cellular immune system. Oxidative stress plays a role in the etiology of male infertility. Increased reactive oxygen species is accompanied with increase in neopterin level. Hence neopterin may be involved in male infertility. Objective: The objective of this case-control study was to determine neopterin level in idiopathic infertile and normospermic men; furthermore, to identify its relationship with oxidative stress markers including total oxidant, malondialdehyde, sperm DNA fragmentation, and total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma...
February 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
J C Kaski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Tomas Dusek, Julius Orhalmi, Otakar Sotona, Lenka Kujovska Krcmova, Lenka Javorska, Josef Dolejs, Jiri Paral
Introduction: At present, there are no strong predictors, nor a useful scoring system, that clearly identifies patients at risk for anastomotic leakage. Aim: This study aimed to investigate a new method that assesses this risk by monitoring levels of neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine, in bodily fluids. Material and methods: This prospective study included patients who underwent elective rectal resection for carcinoma. The basic condition for inclusion was rectal anastomosis using the double-stapling technique...
March 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
Nancy Samir Elbarbary, Eman Abdel Rahman Ismail, Rana Ahmed El-Hilaly, Fatma Salama Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Neopterin, a marker of inflammation and cellular immune response, is elevated in conditions of T-cell or macrophages activation. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is associated with inflammatory/immune processes and therefore, we hypothesized that neopterin could be used as a marker of neuropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). AIM: To measure neopterin levels in children and adolescents with T1DM and assess its possible relation to DPN and nerve conduction studies (NCS)...
April 5, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Masaki Shimizu, Mao Mizuta, Masaaki Usami, Natsumi Inoue, Yasuhisa Sakakibara, Keiko Yamada, Michio Konishi, Kazuhide Ohta, Akihiro Yachie
To investigate the clinical significance of serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) II level and sTNFR II/I ratio as indicators of the development of coronary artery lesions (CALs) in Kawasaki disease (KD), we measured levels of serum sTNFR I and II, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, and neopterin in 63 patients with KD, including nine patients with CALs and 20 healthy controls. At the time of diagnosis of KD before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, serum sTNFR I and II levels were found to be significantly higher in non-responders to IVIG treatment than in responders...
April 3, 2018: Cytokine
Marianne S Morseth, Sigrun Henjum, Catherine Schwinger, Tor A Strand, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Binob Shrestha, Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Liv Elin Torheim
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enteropathy (EE) is likely associated with growth retardation in children, but the association between EE and length velocity z-score (LVZ) has not been investigated. The objective of the study was to assess associations between fecal markers for intestinal inflammation and LVZ and whether these associations were influenced by micronutrient adequacy among 9-24 months old children in Bhaktapur, Nepal. METHODS: Data was divided into 5 time slots (9-12, 12-15, 15-18, 18-21 and 21-24 months)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Hannah Prebble, Sean Cross, Edward Marks, Joe Healy, Emily Searle, Raja Aamir, Anthony Butler, Justin Roake, Barry Hock, Nigel Anderson, Steven P Gieseg
Atherosclerotic plaques are complex tissues containing many different cell types. Macrophages contribute to inflammation, formation of the necrotic core, and plaque rupture. We examined whether macrophages in plaque can be activated and compared this to monolayer cells. The volume of calcium in the plaque was compared to the level of macrophage activation measured by total neopterin output. Carotid plaque samples were cut into 3 mm sections and cultured for up to 96 h. Live sections were stimulated with interferon-γ, phytohaemagglutinin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate...
March 23, 2018: Immunobiology
Tomotaka Yoshiyama, Kenichi Sugioka, Takahiko Naruko, Masashi Nakagawa, Nobuyuki Shirai, Masahiko Ohsawa, Minoru Yoshiyama, Makiko Ueda
AIM: Neopterin is an activation marker for monocytes/macrophages. We prospectively investigated the predictive value of plasma neopterin levels on 2-year and long-term cardiovascular events in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) undergoing coronary stent implantation. METHODS: We studied 123 consecutive patients with SAP who underwent primary coronary stenting (44 patients with bare metal stent: BMS group and 79 with drug-eluting stent: DES group). Plasma neopterin levels were measured on admission using HPLC...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
K Becker, S Schwaiger, B Waltenberger, D Fuchs, C K Pezzei, H Schennach, H Stuppner, J M Gostner
Several phytochemicals were shown to interfere with redox biology in the human system. Moreover, redox biochemistry is crucially involved in the orchestration of immunological cascades. When screening for immunomodulatory compounds, the two interferon gamma- (IFN- γ -) dependent immunometabolic pathways of tryptophan breakdown via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) and neopterin formation by GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH-I) represent prominent targets, as IFN- γ -related signaling is strongly sensitive to oxidative triggers...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xin Xiong, Yuanyuan Zhang, Wenjing Zhang
Pteridines and its derivatives are important cofactors in the process of cell metabolism, and the level of urinary excretion of these compounds is considered as an important clinical criterion. In this work, a new separation method involving hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) with tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of twelve pteridines including oxidized, di- and tetrahydroforms, namely neopterin, 7,8-dihydroneopterin, biopterin, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin, dimethylpterin, dimethyltetrahydropterin, pterin, isoxanthopterin, xanthopterin, sepiapterin and pterin-6-carboxylic acid in human urine without oxidative pretreatments...
March 25, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
H Zuo, O Nygård, P M Ueland, S E Vollset, G F T Svingen, E R Pedersen, Ø Midttun, K Meyer, J E Nordrehaug, D W T Nilsen, G S Tell
BACKGROUND: Link between inflammation and atrial fibrillation (AF) has been increasingly recognized. Neopterin, a biomarker of cellular immune activation, may be associated with incident AF. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between plasma neopterin levels and risk of an inpatient hospital diagnosis of AF, and to evaluate a joint association of neopterin and a nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) in two prospective cohorts. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis from a community-based cohort (the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), n = 6891), and validated the findings in a cohort of patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (the Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (WECAC), n = 2022)...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Ceren Cıralı, Emel Ulusoy, Tuncay Kume, Nur Arslan
BACKGROUND: Functional constipation is a clinical problem with an incompletely understood etiology. Functional bowel diseases have been shown to be related to inflammation in many studies in adults. In this study, we aimed to evaluate leukocytes, C-reactive protein, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and neopterin levels in children with functional constipation. METHODS: Seventy-six children with constipation and 71 healthy controls (mean age 7.12 ± 3...
March 16, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Johanna M Gostner, Eva Obermayr, Ioana E Braicu, Nicole Concin, Sven Mahner, Adriaan Vanderstichele, Jalid Sehouli, Ignace Vergote, Dietmar Fuchs, Robert Zeillinger
OBJECTIVE: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may represent a chronic stimulus for the immune system. In the present study we investigated the potential association of CTCs, the immune activation marker neopterin, and the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan (Kyn/Trp) as a measure for tryptophan breakdown. METHODS: Neopterin, tryptophan and kynurenine levels were measured in plasma samples from patients with benign gynecological diseases (n=65) and with primary advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) at diagnosis (n=216) and six months after adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy (n=45) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
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