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Johanna M Gostner, Eva Obermayr, Ioana E Braicu, Nicole Concin, Sven Mahner, Adriaan Vanderstichele, Jalid Sehouli, Ignace Vergote, Dietmar Fuchs, Robert Zeillinger
OBJECTIVE: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may represent a chronic stimulus for the immune system. In the present study we investigated the potential association of CTCs, the immune activation marker neopterin, and the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan (Kyn/Trp) as a measure for tryptophan breakdown. METHODS: Neopterin, tryptophan and kynurenine levels were measured in plasma samples from patients with benign gynecological diseases (n=65) and with primary advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) at diagnosis (n=216) and six months after adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy (n=45) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography...
March 9, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Hasan Kırmızıbekmez, Yiğit İnan, Rengin Reis, Hande Sipahi, Ahmet C Gören, Erdem Yeşilada
Phytochemical investigations on the EtOH extract of Clematis viticella led to the isolation of six flavonoid glycosides, isoorientin (1), isoorientin 3'-O-methyl ether (2), quercetin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), quercetin 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), manghaslin (5) and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), one phenylethanol derivative, hydroxytyrosol (7), along with three phenolic acids, caffeic acid (8), (E)-p-coumaric acid (9) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (10). The structures of the isolates were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HR-MS data...
March 12, 2018: Natural Product Research
Agnieszka Kamińska, Tomasz Szymborski, Tomasz Jaroch, Adam Zmysłowski, Arkadiusz Szterk
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used in a variety of biomedical, analytical, forensic and environmental investigations due to its chemical specificity, label-free nature combined with high sensitivity. Here, we report a simple method for the fabrication of reproducible and reliable, well-defined, stable SERS substrates with uniform and giant Raman enhancement suitable for routine trace chemical analysis and detection of biological compounds in complex biological fluids. We prepared porous silicone (PS) surface by a galvanostatic anodic etch of crystalline silicon wafers...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Arafat Nasser, Anette Torvin Møller, Vibe Hellmund, Sidsel Salling Thorborg, Cathrine Jespersgaard, Ole J Bjerrum, Erik Dupont, Gösta Nachman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Lisbeth Birk Møller
Human studies have demonstrated a correlation between non-coding polymorphisms of 'the pain protective' (PP) haplotype in the GCH1 gene that encodes for GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH1) - which leads to reduced tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) production in cell systems - and a diminished perception of experimental and clinical pain. Here we investigate whether heterozygous mutations in the GCH1 gene which lead to a profound BH4 reduction in patients with dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) have any effect on pain sensitivity...
February 20, 2018: Pain
Øistein Rønneberg Mjelva, Gard F T Svingen, Eva K R Pedersen, Reinhard Seifert, Jan Terje Kvaløy, Øivind Midttun, Per M Ueland, Jan E Nordrehaug, Ottar Nygård, Dennis W T Nilsen
Systemic fibrinogen and neopterin are related to inflammation. We investigated the prognostic utility and possible interactions of these biomarkers in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients undergoing coronary angiography. We included 3,545 patients with suspected stable angina with a median follow-up of 7.3 and 10.2 years for incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and all-cause mortality, respectively. Prospective associations were explored by Cox regression. Potential effect modifications were investigated according to strata of fibrinogen, neopterin or high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) below and above the median, as well as gender and smoking habits...
February 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Jammula Surya Prasanna, Chinta Sumadhura, Parupalli Karunakar, Koduganti Rekharani, Gireddy Himabindu, Ambati Manasa
Context: Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition which is distinguished by the devastation of the supported tooth structures. In such inflammatory conditions, some biomarkers such as neopterin will be secreted and elevated in the body fluids, which can be used as a diagnostic marker for the present and future disease activity. Aims: Assessment of the neopterin as a biomarker in inflammatory conditions such as menopause and periodontitis. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional interventional study...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Agnethe Eltoft, Kjell Arne Arntzen, Tom Wilsgaard, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Stein Harald Johnsen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Novel biomarkers are linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between 28 blood biomarkers and the formation and progression of carotid plaque. METHODS: In a nested case control study with 703 participants from the population based Tromsø Study, a large biomarker panel was measured in blood obtained at baseline. Carotid ultrasound was assessed both at baseline and at 6 years of follow-up...
February 7, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Remina Shirai, Kengo Sato, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Maho Yamaguchi, Taisuke Okano, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Rena Watanabe, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Shinji Koba, Youichi Kobayashi, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Neopterin, a metabolite of GTP, is produced by activated macrophages and is abundantly expressed within atherosclerotic lesions in human aorta and carotid and coronary arteries. We aimed to clarify the influence of neopterin on both vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, as neither effect had been fully assessed. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated neopterin expression in coronary artery lesions and plasma from patients with coronary artery disease...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Tomoo Sato, Ariella L G Coler-Reilly, Naoko Yagishita, Natsumi Araya, Eisuke Inoue, Rie Furuta, Toshiki Watanabe, Kaoru Uchimaru, Masao Matsuoka, Naoki Matsumoto, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Yoshihisa Yamano
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes the debilitating neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy-tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM-TSP) as well as adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL). In patients with HAM-TSP, HTLV-1 infects mainly CCR4+ T cells and induces functional changes, ultimately causing chronic spinal cord inflammation. We evaluated mogamulizumab, a humanized anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody that targets infected cells, in patients with HAM-TSP...
February 8, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Monika H E Christensen, Dag J Fadnes, Therese H Røst, Eva R Pedersen, John R Andersen, Villy Våge, Arve Ulvik, Øivind Midttun, Per M Ueland, Ottar K Nygård, Gunnar Mellgren
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with increased inflammation and insulin resistance. In conditions with chronic immune activation, low plasma vitamin B6-levels are described, as well as an increased kynurenine:tryptophan-ratio (KTR). We investigated circulating tryptophan, kynurenine and its metabolites, neopterin, B-vitamins, CRP, and HbA1c in individuals with obesity before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 37 patients with severe obesity, scheduled for bariatric surgery...
2018: PloS One
Mikkel Carstensen Gjelstrup, Morten Stilund, Thor Petersen, Holger Jon Møller, Eva Lykke Petersen, Tove Christensen
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune mediated, inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Substantial evidence points toward monocytes and macrophages playing prominent roles early in disease, mediating both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Monocytes are subdivided into three subsets depending on the expression of CD14 and CD16, representing different stages of inflammatory activation. To investigate their involvement in MS, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 patients with incipient or progressed MS and 20 healthy controls were characterized ex vivo...
October 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
Aldo A M Lima, Alberto M Soares, José Q S Filho, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Noélia L Lima, Cláudia B Abreu, Francisco S Junior, Rosa M S Mota, William K-Y Pan, Christopher Troeger, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Herlice N Veras, Mara A Prata, Ben J J McCormick, Monica McGrath, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Eric R Houpt, James A Platts-Mills, Jean Gratz, Amidou Samie, Pascal Bessong, Sudhir Babji, Gangadeep Kang, Shahida Qureshi, Sadia Shakoor, Zulfigar A Bhutta, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed, Estomih R Mduma, Erling Svensen, Margaret Kosek, Pablo P Yori, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Shrestha Jasmin, Carl J Mason, Dennis Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of subclinical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection alone and in combination with other pathogens in the first 6 months of life on child growth. METHODS: Nondiarrheal samples from 1684 children across 8 Multisite Birth Cohort Study, Malnutrition and Enteric Diseases (MAL-ED) sites in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were tested monthly; more than 90% of children were followed-up twice weekly for the first 6 months of life...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Maryam Tanhapour, Ali Miri, Asad Vaisi-Raygani, Fariborz Bahrehmand, Amir Kiani, Zohreh Rahimi, Tayebeh Pourmotabbed, Ebrahim Shakiba
Evidences indicate that abnormal lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation can affect the progression of complications in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) play important role in lipid metabolism and protection of lipid peroxidation. The polymorphisms of ApoE and paraoxonase (PON1) L55M (Met < Leu) allele genes lead to disorders in lipid metabolism and are related to atherosclerosis. This study is the first investigation to examine the possible association between ApoE and PON1-L55M polymorphisms and correlation with serum arylesterase (ARE) activities of PON, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), neopterin, and lipid lipoprotein in SLE patients from Iranian western population...
December 22, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
Roberta de Paula Martins, Karina Ghisoni, Chai K Lim, Aderbal Silva Aguiar, Gilles J Guillemin, Alexandra Latini
Neopterin, a well-established biomarker for immune system activation, is found at increased levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of individuals affected by neurological/neurodegenerative diseases. Here, neopterin synthesis was investigated in different nerve cells (rodent and human) and in the mouse hippocampus under inflammatory stimuli. We also aimed to investigate whether neopterin preconditioning could modulate the inflammasome activation, a component of the innate immune system. Increased neopterin was detected in human nerve cells supernatants (highest secretion in astrocytes) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and in the hippocampus of mice receiving LPS (0...
February 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shelli Farhadian, Payal Patel, Serena Spudich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in patients with HIV disease, even during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This review article addresses the pathogenesis of HAND, focusing on important findings from the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: While HIV-associated dementia is now rare in settings with cART availability, mild forms of HAND are increasing in prevalence. Biomarkers of cellular injury, such as neurofilament light chain and neopterin, can detect early stages of neuroinflammation associated with HIV infection and are increased even in asymptomatic individuals with chronic HIV infection...
November 21, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
Martin Larsen, Charles Bayard, Hélène Lepetitcorps, Judith Cohen-Bittan, Victor Appay, Jacques Boddaert, Delphine Sauce
Our society faces a major challenge concerning management of the health and socio-economic burden caused by acute physical stress in the older population (+75years). In particular, hip-fracture surgery (HFS) represents a major health care preoccupation, affecting 1.6 million patients worldwide, resulting in a significant drop in life quality and autonomy. The trauma is associated with 20-30% one-year mortality in the elderly. In the present study, we aim to identify factors, which influence and/or predict the outcome of elderly hip- fracture patients (HFP) post-surgery...
November 6, 2017: EBioMedicine
Maureen Groer, Dietmar Fuchs, Allyson Duffy, Adetola Louis-Jacques, Amy D'Agata, Teodor T Postolache
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships among obesity in pregnancy and plasma levels of tryptophan (TRP) and kynurenine (KYN), inflammatory markers, and depressed mood. METHODS: Pregnant women ( N = 374) were enrolled, and data were collected at a mean gestation of 20 weeks in this cross-sectional study. Plasma was analyzed for TRP, KYN, neopterin, and nitrite levels. Women completed demographic and mood scales. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between body mass index (BMI) and TRP and positive correlations between BMI and KYN and the kynurenine/tryptophan (KYN/TRP) ratio...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
Yan Zhang, Meng Che, Jing Yuan, Yun Yu, Chang Cao, Xiao-Yan Qin, Yong Cheng
Evidence suggests that immune system alterations in Down syndrome (DS) may be early events that drive neuropathological and cognitive changes of Alzheimer's disease. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether there is an abnormal cytokine profile in DS patients when compared with healthy control (HC) subjects. A systematic search of Pubmed and Web of Science identified 19 studies with 957 DS patients and 541 HC subjects for this meta-analysis. Random effects meta-analysis demonstrated that patients with DS had significantly increased circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (Hedges' g = 1...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
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