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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164407/neurological-complications-of-hiv-infection
#1
REVIEW
Shelli Farhadian, Payal Patel, Serena Spudich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in patients with HIV disease, even during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This review article addresses the pathogenesis of HAND, focusing on important findings from the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: While HIV-associated dementia is now rare in settings with cART availability, mild forms of HAND are increasing in prevalence. Biomarkers of cellular injury, such as neurofilament light chain and neopterin, can detect early stages of neuroinflammation associated with HIV infection and are increased even in asymptomatic individuals with chronic HIV infection...
November 21, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160817/impact-of-high-dose-multi-strain-probiotic-supplementation-on-neurocognitive-performance-and-central-nervous-system-immune-activation-of-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#2
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157836/elevated-neopterin-levels-predict-early-death-in-older-hip-fracture-patients
#3
Martin Larsen, Charles Bayard, Hélène Lepetitcorps, Judith Cohen-Bittan, Victor Appay, Jacques Boddaert, Delphine Sauce
Our society faces a major challenge concerning management of the health and socio-economic burden caused by acute physical stress in the older population (+75years). In particular, hip-fracture surgery (HFS) represents a major health care preoccupation, affecting 1.6 million patients worldwide, resulting in a significant drop in life quality and autonomy. The trauma is associated with 20-30% one-year mortality in the elderly. In the present study, we aim to identify factors, which influence and/or predict the outcome of elderly hip- fracture patients (HFP) post-surgery...
November 6, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141444/associations-among-obesity-inflammation-and-tryptophan-catabolism-in-pregnancy
#4
Maureen Groer, Dietmar Fuchs, Allyson Duffy, Adetola Louis-Jacques, Amy D'Agata, Teodor T Postolache
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships among obesity in pregnancy and plasma levels of tryptophan (TRP) and kynurenine (KYN), inflammatory markers, and depressed mood. METHODS: Pregnant women ( N = 374) were enrolled, and data were collected at a mean gestation of 20 weeks in this cross-sectional study. Plasma was analyzed for TRP, KYN, neopterin, and nitrite levels. Women completed demographic and mood scales. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between body mass index (BMI) and TRP and positive correlations between BMI and KYN and the kynurenine/tryptophan (KYN/TRP) ratio...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137441/aberrations-in-circulating-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-patients-with-down-syndrome-a-meta-analysis
#5
Yan Zhang, Meng Che, Jing Yuan, Yun Yu, Chang Cao, Xiao-Yan Qin, Yong Cheng
Evidence suggests that immune system alterations in Down syndrome (DS) may be early events that drive neuropathological and cognitive changes of Alzheimer's disease. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether there is an abnormal cytokine profile in DS patients when compared with healthy control (HC) subjects. A systematic search of Pubmed and Web of Science identified 19 studies with 957 DS patients and 541 HC subjects for this meta-analysis. Random effects meta-analysis demonstrated that patients with DS had significantly increased circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (Hedges' g = 1...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121442/enteric-infections-in-young-children-are-associated-with-environmental-enteropathy-and-impaired-growth
#6
Christine Marie George, Vanessa Burrowes, Jamie Perin, Lauren Oldja, Shwapon Biswas, David Sack, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Rashidul Haque, Nurul Amin Bhuiyan, Tahmina Parvin, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Mahmuda Akter, Shan Li, Gayathri Natarajan, Mohammad Shahnaij, Abu G Faruque, O Colin Stine
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between fecal contamination in child play spaces, enteric infections, environmental enteropathy (EE), and impaired growth among young children. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 203 children 6-30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Stool samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for Shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp. Four fecal markers of intestinal inflammation were also measured: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin, and calprotectin...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114094/association-of-osteopontin-neopterin-and-myeloperoxidase-with-stroke-risk-in-patients-with-prior-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attacks-results-of-an-analysis-of-13-biomarkers-from-the-stroke-prevention-by-aggressive-reduction-in-cholesterol-levels-trial
#7
Peter Ganz, Pierre Amarenco, Larry B Goldstein, Henrik Sillesen, Weihang Bao, Gregory M Preston, K Michael A Welch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Established risk factors do not fully identify patients at risk for recurrent stroke. The SPARCL trial (Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels) evaluated the effect of atorvastatin on stroke risk in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease. This analysis explored the relationships between 13 plasma biomarkers assessed at trial enrollment and the occurrence of outcome strokes. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study of 2176 participants; 562 had outcome strokes and 1614 were selected randomly from those without outcome strokes...
November 7, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100778/biomarkers-of-tuberculosis-severity-and-treatment-effect-a-directed-screen-of-70-host-markers-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
G B Sigal, M R Segal, A Mathew, L Jarlsberg, M Wang, S Barbero, N Small, K Haynesworth, J L Davis, M Weiner, W C Whitworth, J Jacobs, J Schorey, D M Lewinsohn, P Nahid
More efficacious treatment regimens are needed for tuberculosis, however, drug development is impeded by a lack of reliable biomarkers of disease severity and of treatment effect. We conducted a directed screen of host biomarkers in participants enrolled in a tuberculosis clinical trial to address this need. Serum samples from 319 protocol-correct, culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated under direct observation as part of an international, phase 2 trial were screened for 70 markers of infection, inflammation, and metabolism...
November 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097998/differential-relationships-among-circulating-inflammatory-and-immune-activation-biomediators-and-impact-of-aging-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-a-cohort-of-injection-drug-users
#9
Gregory D Kirk, Stewart Dandorf, Huifen Li, Yiyin Chen, Shruti H Mehta, Damani A Piggott, Joseph B Margolick, Sean X Leng
As individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection live longer, aging and age-related chronic conditions have become major health concerns for this vulnerable population. Substantial evidence suggests that chronic inflammation and immune activation contribute significantly to chronic conditions in people aging with or without HIV infection. As a result, increasing numbers of inflammation and immune activation biomediators have been measured. While very few studies describe their in vivo relationships, such studies can serve as an important and necessary initial step toward delineating the complex network of chronic inflammation and immune activation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097387/neopterin-as-an-effect-modifier-of-the-cardiovascular-risk-predicted-by-total-homocysteine-a-prospective-2-cohort-study
#10
Espen Ø Bjørnestad, Robert A Borsholm, Gard F T Svingen, Eva R Pedersen, Reinhard Seifert, Øivind Midttun, Per M Ueland, Grethe S Tell, Kaare H Bønaa, Ottar Nygård
BACKGROUND: Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is related to plasma neopterin, an indicator of interferon-γ-mediated immune activation, and both biomarkers positively predict cardiovascular risk. We examined whether the association between tHcy and subsequent risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was modified by systemic concentrations of neopterin and C-reactive protein among patients with coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: By Cox modeling, we explored the association between tHcy and risk of AMI in 4164 patients with suspected stable angina pectoris...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062177/comparative-diagnostic-utility-of-neopterin-and-ifn-%C3%AE-il-2-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
Nisha Goyal, Bineeta Kashyap, N P Singh, Iqbal R Kaur
Resurgence of TB has emphasized the need for newer methods of diagnosis. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), being paucibacillary, is a diagnostic dilemma. The aim of the present study was to correlate IFN-γ/IL-2 with neopterin in diagnosis of EPTB. Extrapulmonary specimens from 69 clinically diagnosed cases were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen medium for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ELISA was used to assess serum IFN-γ, IL-2 and neopterin levels. Median serum levels of IFN-γ/IL-2 and neopterin were 3...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050482/the-effect-of-sulforaphane-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-rats-with-toxic-hepatitis-induced-by-acetaminophene
#12
E Dokumacioglu, H Iskender, M S Aktas, B Hanedan, A Dokumacioglu, T M Sen, A Musmul
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible effect of sulforaphane on oxidative stress and inflammation in rats liver with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophene. BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane is a compound with high antioxidant properties. Acetaminophen, which is a para-aminophenol derivative, can lead to fatal hepatic necrosis with direct hepatotoxic effects at high doses. METHODS: Thirty six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046223/antibodies-to-receptors-are-associated-with-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-myocardial-damage-in-heart-failure
#13
Anders Lund, Lasse Melvaer Giil, Grete Slettom, Ottar Nygaard, Harald Heidecke, Jan Erik Nordrehaug
INTRODUCTION: Naturally occurring antibodies are linked to inflammation, tissue injury and apoptosis, processes also linked to heart failure. Associations between antibodies, inflammation and myocardial damage, have not been elucidated in heart failure. OBJECTIVE: We investigated if 25 antibodies to receptors expressed in the cardiovascular system were associated with troponin-T, biomarkers of inflammation and clinical measures of disease severity, in patients with heart failure...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024722/cellular-immune-activation-in-sardinian-middle-aged-older-adults-and-centenarians
#14
Salvatore Sotgia, Angelo Zinellu, Arduino A Mangoni, Roberta Serra, Gianfranco Pintus, Calogero Caruso, Luca Deiana, Ciriaco Carru
In addition to viral infections, malignant disorders, autoimmune diseases, and allograft rejection episodes, neopterin increases in older people where it is found to be predictive of overall mortality. Thus, the serum concentrations of this biomarker of systemic immune and inflammation activation, were measured in a small cohort of Sardinian middle-aged, older adults and centenarians. There was a significant positive correlation between neopterin concentrations and age with the subjects in the 95-year-old group with the highest values...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017770/longitudinal-analysis-of-serum-interleukin-18-in-patients-with-familial-mediterranean-fever-carrying-mefv-mutations-in-exon-10
#15
Taizo Wada, Tomoko Toma, Hanae Miyazawa, Eiko Koizumi, Tetsujiro Shirahashi, Yusuke Matsuda, Akihiro Yachie
BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in the MEFV gene. Mutations in exon 10 are associated with typical FMF phenotypes, and patients with exon 10 mutations have higher serum levels of interleukin (IL)-18 both during attacks and afebrile phases, compared to those without exon 10 mutations. However, longitudinal changes of serum IL-18 in FMF have not been fully characterized. METHODS: We serially evaluated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-18, in 12 patients with FMF carrying exon 10 mutations, all of whom showed typical FMF attacks...
October 7, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016635/hiv-human-herpesvirus-co-infections-impact-on-tryptophan-kynurenine-pathway-and-immune-reconstitution
#16
Siew Hwei Yap, Noor Kamila Abdullah, Megan McStea, Kozo Takayama, Meng Li Chong, Elisa Crisci, Marie Larsson, Iskandar Azwa, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Kok Hoong Leong, Yin Ling Woo, Reena Rajasuriar
BACKGROUND: Co-infections with human herpesvirus (HHV) have been associated with residual chronic inflammation in antiretroviral (ART)-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the role of HHV in modulating the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected individuals is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the seroprevalence of four common HHVs among treated HIV-infected participants and their impact on kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio and long-term CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV/HHV co-infected participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982547/hm10660a-a-long-acting-hifn-%C3%AE-2b-is-a-potent-candidate-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-through-an-enhanced-biological-half-life
#17
Sungmin Bae, Taehoon Sim, Chaemin Lim, Daejin Kim, Jongsoo Lee, Youngjin Park, Sungyoub Jung, Inyoung Choi, Sechang Kwon, Kyung Taek Oh
Interferon-α (IFN-α) has been widely used for the treatment of infections due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Because of the short half-life of IFN-α in serum, it must be administered three times per week. To increase the half-life of IFN-α, the immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Fc fragment (HMC001) was conjugated with human IFN-α-2b to develop a long-acting IFN-α-2b, HM10660A. An analysis of the antiviral efficacy of HM10660A in a human hepatocyte-engrafted mouse model found that HM10660A reduced serum HCV titers more effectively than a commercially available peginterferon α-2a (PEGASYS(®)) and IFN-α-2b...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978100/markers-of-inflammation-and-influence-of-nitric-oxide-on-platelet-activation-in-the-course-of-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Beata Gawrońska, Joanna Matowicka-Karna, Maciej Kralisz, Halina Kemona
Ulcerative colitis is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. We investigated whether severe form of ulcerative colitis may lead to increased number of platelets, changes in platelet parameters and their activation. To address our objectives, we measured concentrations of nitric oxide and markers of inflammation. We found increased number of low-volume platelets in a group of affected patients. However, their activity was not as high as expected. In addition to that we observed eight times higher concentration of nitric oxide in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis than in healthy individuals...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966619/changes-in-t-cell-and-dendritic-cell-phenotype-from-mid-to-late-pregnancy-are-indicative-of-a-shift-from-immune-tolerance-to-immune-activation
#19
Nishel Mohan Shah, Anna A Herasimtschuk, Adriano Boasso, Adel Benlahrech, Dietmar Fuchs, Nesrina Imami, Mark R Johnson
During pregnancy, the mother allows the immunologically distinct fetoplacental unit to develop and grow. Opinions are divided as to whether this represents a state of fetal-specific tolerance or of a generalized suppression of the maternal immune system. We hypothesized that antigen-specific T cell responses are modulated by an inhibitory T cell phenotype and modified dendritic cell (DC) phenotype in a gestation-dependent manner. We analyzed changes in surface markers of peripheral blood T cells, ex vivo antigen-specific T cell responses, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity (kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, KTR), plasma neopterin concentration, and the in vitro expression of progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) in response to peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with progesterone...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906319/enteroaggregative-e-coli-subclinical-infection-and-co-infections-and-impaired-child-growth-in-the-mal-ed-cohort-study
#20
Aldo A M Lima, Alberto M Soares, José Q S Filho, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Noélia L Lima, Cláudia B Abreu, Francisco S Junior, Rosa M S Mota, William K-Y Pan, Christopher Troeger, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Herlice N Vera, Mara M G Prata, Ben McCormick, Monica McGrath, Elizabeth Rogawski, Eric Houpt, James Platts-Mills, Jean Gratz, Amidou Samie, Pascal Bessong, Sudhir Babji, Gangadeep Kang, Qureshi Shahida, Sadia Shakoor, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed, Estomih Mduma, Erling Svensen, Margaret Kosek, Pablo Penataro Yori, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Shrestha Jasmin, Carl Mason, Dennis Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of subclinical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection alone and in combination with other pathogens in the first six months of life on child growth. METHODS: Non-diarrheal samples from 1,684 children across eight Multisite Birth Cohort Study, Malnutrition and Enteric Diseases (MAL-ED) sites in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were tested monthly; over 90% of children were followed-up twice weekly for the first six months of life...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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