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Plaque stabilisation

Ziad A Ali, Keyvan Karimi Galougahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: EuroIntervention
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists are insulin-sensitising drugs used for the treatment of insulin resistance. In addition to lowering glucose in diabetes, these drugs may also protect against hyperlipidaemia and arteriosclerosis, which are risk factors for stroke. This is an update of a review first published in January 2014 and subsequently updated in October 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular events for people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)...
December 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Christina J Adler, Abbe White, Michelle Bockmann, Gina V Browne, Grant Townsend, Toby Hughes
Next-Generation Sequencing is providing insights into the critical role of the oral microbiome in dental diseases. Application of this method can require the collection of dental plaque from large cohorts in field-type conditions, which necessitates a transport medium to preserve the microbiome composition. We evaluated the use of two transport media, VMG II and RNAprotect® Bacteria Reagent (Qiagen), for room temperature storage of dental plaque. VMG II has not previously been assessed for suitability to store microbiome samples intended for deep sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Tomasz Piekarz, Anna Mertas, Karolina Wiatrak, Rafał Rój, Patryk Kownacki, Joanna Śmieszek-Wilczewska, Ewelina Kopczyńska, Maciej Wrzoł, Maria Cisowska, Ewelina Szliszka, Zenon P Czuba, Iwona Niedzielska, Tadeusz Morawiec
The study was based on the use of a toothpaste with antiphlogistic activity, containing Australian Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil-TTO) and ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEP). Fifty-one patients with varying conditions of the gingiva were divided into two groups. The study group received the toothpaste with TTO and EEP, while the control group received the same toothpaste but without TTO and EEP. Approximal plaque index (API), simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-s) and modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) were assessed in three subsequent stages...
November 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jason L Johnson
Atherosclerosis underlies most cardiovascular diseases, and is accepted as a primary cause of mortality worldwide. Proteases have been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, due to their ability to provoke focal destruction of the vascular extracellular matrix. Members of the metalloproteinase family, especially matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) have been suggested to perform complex dual roles during late-stage progression and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yuri V Bobryshev, Nikita G Nikiforov, Natalia V Elizova, Alexander N Orekhov
Atherosclerosis can be regarded as chronic inflammatory disease driven by lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. Macrophages play a key role in the development of local inflammatory response and atherosclerotic lesion growth. Atherosclerotic plaque is a complex microenvironment, in which different subsets of macrophages coexist executing distinct, although in some cases overlapping functions. According to the classical simplified nomenclature, lesion macrophages can belong to pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory or alternatively activated types...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
N K J Oksala, I Seppälä, R Rahikainen, K-M Mäkelä, E Raitoharju, T Illig, N Klopp, I Kholova, R Laaksonen, P J Karhunen, V P Hytönen, T Lehtimäki
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Expression patterns and association with cell specific gene expression signatures of the epigenetic regulator histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) in human plaque are not known. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Genome wide expression analysis was performed in carotid, femoral, aortic plaques (n = 68) and left internal thoracic (LITA) controls (n = 28) and plaque histological severity assessed...
May 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Katherine A Scott, Abhay Kotecha, Julian Seago, Jingshan Ren, Elizabeth E Fry, David I Stuart, Bryan Charleston, Francois F Maree
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), particularly strains of the O and SAT serotypes, is notoriously unstable. Consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile SAT viruses have been linked to the induction of immunity with a poor duration and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. In silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the interpentamer interface, supporting increased stability. We assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant viruses in regard to their growth kinetics, antigenicity, plaque morphology, genetic stability, and temperature, ionic, and pH stability by using Thermofluor and inactivation assays in order to evaluate potential SAT2 vaccine candidates with improved stability...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Benoît Ho-Tin-Noé, Sophie Vo, Richard Bayles, Stephen Ferrière, Hayette Ladjal, Sondes Toumi, Catherine Deschildre, Véronique Ollivier, Jean-Baptiste Michel
Recent studies have shown that in addition to being major constituents of the atheromatous core, solid cholesterol crystals (CCs) promote atherosclerotic lesion development and rupture by causing mechanical damage and exerting cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects. These findings suggest that targeting CCs might represent a therapeutic strategy for plaque stabilization. However, little is known about how cholesterol crystallization is initiated in human atherothrombotic disease. Here, we investigated these mechanisms...
April 2017: Journal of Pathology
V Sobocinski, S-M Dridi, C Bisson, S Jeanne, F Gaultier, C Prost-Squarcioni, P Bernard, F Pascal, B Lefevre, P Weber, C Abasq, S Agbo-Godeau, P Joly, S Ingen-Housz-Oro, S Duvert-Lehembre
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBD) may cause chronic oral lesions that progress insidiously. AIMS: To provide recommendations for optimal oral-dental management of patients presenting AIBD with oral involvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the absence of scientific studies with high levels of proof, these recommendations have been drawn up at two meetings by a committee of experts on AIBD comprising 7 dermatologists, 1 stomatologist, 1 maxillofacial surgeon, 2 odontologists and 4 parodontologists...
March 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Manish Jain, Matthieu Zellweger, Georges Wagnières, Hubert van den Bergh, Stéphane Cook, Marie-Noelle Giraud
Acute coronary syndrome is a life-threatening condition of utmost clinical importance, which, despite recent progress in the field, is still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Acute coronary syndrome results from a rupture or erosion of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque with secondary platelet activation and thrombus formation, which leads to partial or complete luminal obstruction of a coronary artery. During the last decade, scientific evidence demonstrated that when an acute coronary event occurs, several nonculprit plaques are in a "vulnerable" state...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Karina Di Gregoli, Nur Najmi Mohamad Anuar, Rosaria Bianco, Stephen J White, Andrew C Newby, Sarah J George, Jason L Johnson
RATIONALE: Atherosclerosis and aneurysms are leading causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRs) are key determinants of gene and protein expression, and atypical miR expression has been associated with many cardiovascular diseases; although their contributory role to atherosclerotic plaque and abdominal aortic aneurysm stability are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether miR-181b regulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 expression and affects atherosclerosis and aneurysms...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
K Wand, K Tetz, I R Fischinger, C P Lohmann, M M Maier, N Feucht
Background: Intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy is the gold standard in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). In recent literature, the benefit of additional photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been debated. The aim of our study was to compare the functional and structural effects of long-term combination therapy with PDT plus ranibizumab with monotherapy with ranibizumab. Material and Methods: In a retrospective study, patients suffering from nAMD were followed up for at least 42 months...
June 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Dawn H W Lau, Marte Hogseth, Emma C Phillips, Michael J O'Neill, Amy M Pooler, Wendy Noble, Diane P Hanger
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by neuropathological deposits of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles comprised of β-amyloid and tau protein, respectively. In AD, tau becomes abnormally phosphorylated and aggregates to form intracellular deposits. However, the mechanisms by which tau exerts neurotoxicity in disease remain unclear. Recent studies have suggested that the presence of tau at synapses may indicate a role in neuronal signalling, which could be disrupted in pathological conditions...
May 18, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Ralph A H Stewart, Lars Wallentin, Jocelyne Benatar, Nicolas Danchin, Emil Hagström, Claes Held, Steen Husted, Eva Lonn, Amanda Stebbins, Karen Chiswell, Ola Vedin, David Watson, Harvey D White
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether dietary pattern assessed by a simple self-administered food frequency questionnaire is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in high-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with lower cardiovascular (CV) mortality. It is less certain whether foods common in western diets are associated with CV risk. METHODS: At baseline, 15 482 (97...
July 1, 2016: European Heart Journal
Margaret D Ballantyne, Karine Pinel, Rachel Dakin, Alex T Vesey, Louise Diver, Ruth Mackenzie, Raquel Garcia, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Graham Hamilton, Nikhil Joshi, Marc R Dweck, Joseph M Miano, Martin W McBride, David E Newby, Robert A McDonald, Andrew H Baker
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile to a synthetic state is implicated in diverse vascular pathologies, including atherogenesis, plaque stabilization, and neointimal hyperplasia. However, very little is known about the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during this process. Here, we investigated a role for lncRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cell biology and pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using RNA sequencing, we identified >300 lncRNAs whose expression was altered in human saphenous vein vascular smooth muscle cells following stimulation with interleukin-1α and platelet-derived growth factor...
May 24, 2016: Circulation
Martin Houde, Louisane Desbiens, Adel Schwertani, Gunnar Pejler, Marc Iglarz, Pedro D'Orléans-Juste
AIMS: To determine the impact of mixed endothelin receptor antagonist and mouse mast cell protease-4 (mMCP-4) in the development of atherosclerosis in the mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) KO mice were crossed with mMCP-4 KO mice to generate ApoE/mMCP-4 double KO mice. Atherosclerosis was induced with a normal- or high-fat diet for 12, 27 or 52weeks. Macitentan (30mg/kg/day), a dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonist, was given orally for 6weeks (27week protocol)...
August 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Lorraine Thong, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
BACKGROUND: Statins have been long known for their lipid-lowering properties however there has been recent interest in their potential to positively influence clinical outcomes in pulmonary disease processes manifesting primarily as airway disorders. OBJECTIVES: We review the potential use of statin therapy in respiratory medicine, with particular emphasis on airway disease. We also explore the possible mechanisms for the observed benefits of statins in conditions of the airway...
2016: Drug Metabolism Letters
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative that has been used for several decades in the symptomatic management of intermittent claudication. For reasons that remain fairly obscure, this drug benefits blood rheology in a number of complementary ways: decreasing blood and plasma viscosity, lowering plasma fibrinogen while promoting fibrinolysis, and improving blood filterability by enhancing erythrocyte distensibility and lessening neutrophil activation. Anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophils and macrophage/monocytes-some of them attributable to pentoxifylline metabolites-appear to play a mediating role in this regard...
2016: Open Heart
Joseph Shalhoub, Leena E Viiri, Amanda J Cross, Scott M Gregan, David M Allin, Nagore Astola, Ian J Franklin, Alun H Davies, Claudia Monaco
Molecular characterisation of vulnerable atherosclerosis is necessary for targeting functional imaging and plaque-stabilising therapeutics. Inflammation has been linked to atherogenesis and the development of high-risk plaques. We set to quantify cytokine, chemokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protein production in cells derived from carotid plaques to map the inflammatory milieu responsible for instability. Carotid endarterectomies from carefully characterised symptomatic (n=35) and asymptomatic (n=32) patients were enzymatically dissociated producing mixed cell type atheroma cell suspensions which were cultured for 24 hours...
May 2, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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