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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811460/prevention-of-atrial-fibrillation-by-using-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-atpase-pump-overexpression-in-a-rabbit-model-of-rapid-atrial-pacing
#1
Hong Li Wang, Xian Hui Zhou, Zhi Qiang Li, Ping Fan, Qi Na Zhou, Yao Dong Li, Yue Mei Hou, Bao Peng Tang
BACKGROUND Recent research suggests that abnormal Ca2+ handling plays a role in the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Therefore, Ca2+ release and ingestion depend on properties of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ATPase2a (SERCA2a). This study aimed to detect whether SERCA2a gene overexpression has a preventive effect on atrial fibrillation caused by rapid pacing right atrium. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, AF group, AAV9/GFP group, and AAV9/SERCA2a group...
August 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807154/total-internal-reflectance-fluorescence-imaging-of-genetically-engineered-ryanodine-receptor-targeted-ca-2-probes-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#2
Sara Pahlavan, Marin Morad
The details of cardiac Ca(2+) signaling within the dyadic junction remain unclear because of limitations in rapid spatial imaging techniques, and availability of Ca(2+) probes localized to dyadic junctions. To critically monitor ryanodine receptors' (RyR2) Ca(2+) nano-domains, we combined the use of genetically engineered RyR2-targeted pericam probes, (FKBP-YCaMP, Kd=150nM, or FKBP-GCaMP6, Kd=240nM) with rapid total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy (resolution, ∼80nm). The punctate z-line patterns of FKBP,(2)-targeted probes overlapped those of RyR2 antibodies and sharply contrasted to the images of probes targeted to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2a/PLB), or cytosolic Fluo-4 images...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807150/two-ef-hand-motifs-in-ryanodine-receptor-calcium-release-channels-contribute-to-isoform-specific-regulation-by-calmodulin
#3
Le Xu, Angela C Gomez, Daniel A Pasek, Gerhard Meissner, Naohiro Yamaguchi
The mammalian ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel (RyR) has a single conserved high affinity calmodulin (CaM) binding domain. However, the skeletal muscle RyR1 is activated and cardiac muscle RyR2 is inhibited by CaM at submicromolar Ca(2+). This suggests isoform-specific domains are involved in RyR regulation by CaM. To gain insight into the differential regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle RyRs by CaM, RyR1/RyR2 chimeras and mutants were expressed in HEK293 cells, and their single channel activities were measured using a lipid bilayer method...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798281/control-of-cardiac-ryanodine-receptor-by-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-luminal-ca-2
#4
REVIEW
Peter P Jones, Wenting Guo, S R Wayne Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798077/cardiovascular-susceptibility-to-in-vivo-ischemic-myocardial-injury-in-male-and-female-rat-offspring-exposed-to-prenatal-hypoxia
#5
Amin Shah, Nobutoshi Matsumura, Anita Quon, Jude S Morton, Jason R B Dyck, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) following prenatal hypoxia exposure leads to a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Our aim was to evaluate cardiac susceptibility and its pathophysiological mechanisms following acute myocardial infarction (MI) in adult rat offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia. Male and female rat offspring, which experienced normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (11% O2) in utero underwent sham or MI surgery at 12 weeks of age. Echocardiographic data revealed that both sexes had systolic dysfunction following MI surgery, independent of prenatal hypoxia...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793220/mechanism-for-triggered-waves-in-atrial-myocytes
#6
Yohannes Shiferaw, Gary L Aistrup, J Andrew Wasserstrom
Excitation-contraction coupling in atrial cells is mediated by calcium (Ca) signaling between L-type Ca channels and Ryanodine receptors that occurs mainly at the cell boundary. This unique architecture dictates essential aspects of Ca signaling under both normal and diseased conditions. In this study we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy, along with an experimentally based computational model, to understand the Ca cycling dynamics of an atrial cell subjected to rapid pacing. Our main finding is that when an atrial cell is paced under Ca overload conditions, Ca waves can then nucleate on the cell boundary and propagate to the cell interior...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781131/muscle-weakness-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-the-role-of-ca-2-and-free-radical-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Takashi Yamada, Maarten M Steinz, Ellinor Kenne, Johanna T Lanner
In addition to the primary symptoms arising from inflammatory processes in the joints, muscle weakness is commonly reported by patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Muscle weakness not only reduces the quality of life for the affected patients, but also dramatically increases the burden on society since patients' work ability decreases. A 25-70% reduction in muscular strength has been observed in pateints with RA when compared with age-matched healthy controls. The reduction in muscle strength is often larger than what could be explained by the reduction in muscle size in patients with RA, which indicates that intracellular (intrinsic) muscle dysfunction plays an important role in the underlying mechanism of muscle weakness associated with RA...
July 26, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779836/lipid-nanodiscs-as-a-tool-for-high-resolution-structure-determination-of-membrane-proteins-by-single-particle-cryo-em
#8
Rouslan G Efremov, Christos Gatsogiannis, Stefan Raunser
The "resolution revolution" in electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) profoundly changed structural biology of membrane proteins. Near-atomic structures of medium size to large membrane protein complexes can now be determined without crystallization. This significantly accelerates structure determination and also the visualization of small bound ligands. There is an additional advantage: the structure of membrane proteins can now be studied in their native or nearly native lipid bilayer environment. A popular lipid bilayer mimetic are lipid nanodiscs, which have been thoroughly characterized and successfully utilized in multiple applications...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767071/intramitochondrial-ascorbic-acid-enhances-the-formation-of-mitochondrial-superoxide-induced-by-peroxynitrite-via-a-ca-2-independent-mechanism
#9
Andrea Guidarelli, Liana Cerioni, Mara Fiorani, Orazio Cantoni
Exposure of U937 cells to peroxynitrite promotes mitochondrial superoxide formation via a mechanism dependent on both inhibition of complex III and increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation. Otherwise inactive concentrations of the oxidant produced the same maximal effects in the presence of either complex III inhibitors or agents mobilizing Ca(2+) from the ryanodine receptor and enforcing its mitochondrial accumulation. l-Ascorbic acid (AA) produced similar enhancing effects in terms of superoxide formation, DNA strand scission and cytotoxicity...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765908/serca1-attenuates-diaphragm-relaxation-and-uptake-rate-of-serca-in-rats-with-acute-sepsis
#10
Jianyou Zhang, Hui Liu, Shitong Li, Jin Wu, Jianhong Sun
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of acute sepsis on diaphragm contractility and relaxation, via examining the Ca2+‑uptake function of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA), and the protein levels of SERCA1, SERCA2 and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). A sepsis rat model was established through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A total of 6 and 12 h following CLP, the isometric contractile and relaxation parameters of the diaphragm were measured...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754781/nongenomic-modulation-of-the-large-conductance-voltage-and-ca-2-activated-k-channels-by-estrogen-a-novel-regulatory-mechanism-in-human-detrusor-smooth-muscle
#11
Kiril L Hristov, Shankar P Parajuli, Aaron Provence, Eric S Rovner, Georgi V Petkov
Estrogens have an important role in regulating detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) function. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms by which estrogens control human DSM excitability and contractility are not well known. Here, we used human DSM specimens from open bladder surgeries on 27 patients to elucidate the mechanism by which 17β-estradiol regulates large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels, the most prominent K(+) channels in human DSM We employed single BK channel recordings on inside-out excised membrane patches, perforated whole-cell patch-clamp on freshly isolated DSM cells, and isometric tension recordings on DSM-isolated strips to investigate the mechanism by which 17β-estradiol activates BK channels...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754745/cardiovascular-susceptibility-to-in-vivo-ischemic-myocardial-injury-in-male-and-female-rat-offspring-exposed-to-prenatal-hypoxia
#12
Amin Shah, Nobutoshi Matsumura, Anita Quon, Jude Sally Morton, Jason Dyck, Sandra Thomas Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction following prenatal hypoxia exposure leads to a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease in later life. Our aim was to evaluate cardiac susceptibility and its pathophysiological mechanisms following acute myocardial infarction (MI) in adult rat offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia. Male and female rat offspring which experienced normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (11% O2) in utero underwent sham or MI surgery at 12 weeks of age. Echocardiographic data revealed that both sexes had systolic dysfunction following MI surgery, independent of prenatal hypoxia...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753475/presenilin-1-mutation-decreases-both-calcium-and-contractile-responses-in-cerebral-arteries
#13
Xavier Toussay, Jean-Luc Morel, Nathalie Biendon, Lolita Rotureau, François-Pierre Legeron, Marie-Charlotte Boutonnet, Yoon H Cho, Nathalie Macrez
Mutations or upregulation in presenilin 1 (PS1) gene are found in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease or sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease, respectively. PS1 has been essentially studied in neurons and its mutation was shown to alter intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signals. Here, we showed that PS1 is expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mouse cerebral arteries, and we assessed the effects of the deletion of exon 9 of PS1 (PS1dE9) on Ca(2+) signals and contractile responses of vascular SMC. Agonist-induced contraction of cerebral vessels was significantly decreased in PS1dE9 both in vivo and ex vivo...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751862/utp-gated-signaling-pathways-of-5-ht-release-from-bon-cells-as-a-model-of-human-enterochromaffin-cells
#14
Andromeda Liñán-Rico, Fernando Ochoa-Cortes, Alix Zuleta-Alarcon, Mazin Alhaj, Esmerina Tili, Josh Enneking, Alan Harzman, Iveta Grants, Sergio Bergese, Fievos L Christofi
Background: Enterochromaffin cells (EC) synthesize and release 5-HT and ATP to trigger or modulate gut neural reflexes and transmit information about visceral/pain sensation. Alterations in 5-HT signaling mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD or IBS, but the pharmacologic or molecular mechanisms modulating Ca(2+)-dependent 5-HT release are not understood. Previous studies indicated that purinergic signaling via ATP and ADP is an important mechanism in modulation of 5-HT release. However, EC cells also respond to UTP and UDP suggesting uridine triphosphate receptor and signaling pathways are involved as well...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750945/high-prevalence-of-rare-ryanodine-receptor-type-1-variants-in-patients-suffering-from-aneurysmatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-pilot-study
#15
Jan Coburger, Thomas Kapapa, Cristian Rainer Wirtz, Karin Jurkat-Rott, Werner Klingler
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a challenging neurosurgical disease. The ryanodine receptor type 1 Ca2+ channel (RyR1) plays a crucial role in vasoconstriction and hemostasis. Mutations of the encoding gene, RYR1, are known to cause susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH). Recently, a RYR1 mutation was found to be associated with abnormal bleeding times. Therefore, an assessment of the RYR1 gene might be of high relevance in patients with aneurysmatic SAH. In the presented pilot study, we screened 10 patients suffering from SAH for RYR1 variants and, for the first time in SAH, performed an assessment of pathogenicity of these variants using protein prediction software...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740174/plakophilin-2-is-required-for-transcription-of-genes-that-control-calcium-cycling-and-cardiac-rhythm
#16
Marina Cerrone, Jerome Montnach, Xianming Lin, Yan-Ting Zhao, Mingliang Zhang, Esperanza Agullo-Pascual, Alejandra Leo-Macias, Francisco J Alvarado, Igor Dolgalev, Thomas V Karathanos, Kabir Malkani, Chantal J M Van Opbergen, Joanne J A van Bavel, Hua-Qian Yang, Carolina Vasquez, David Tester, Steven Fowler, Fengxia Liang, Eli Rothenberg, Adriana Heguy, Gregory E Morley, William A Coetzee, Natalia A Trayanova, Michael J Ackerman, Toon A B van Veen, Hector H Valdivia, Mario Delmar
Plakophilin-2 (PKP2) is a component of the desmosome and known for its role in cell-cell adhesion. Mutations in human PKP2 associate with a life-threatening arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, often of right ventricular predominance. Here, we use a range of state-of-the-art methods and a cardiomyocyte-specific, tamoxifen-activated, PKP2 knockout mouse to demonstrate that in addition to its role in cell adhesion, PKP2 is necessary to maintain transcription of genes that control intracellular calcium cycling. Lack of PKP2 reduces expression of Ryr2 (coding for Ryanodine Receptor 2), Ank2 (coding for Ankyrin-B), Cacna1c (coding for CaV1...
July 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740084/ryanodine-receptors-are-part-of-the-myospryn-complex-in-cardiac-muscle
#17
Matthew A Benson, Caroline L Tinsley, Adrian J Waite, Francesca A Carlisle, Steve M M Sweet, Elisabeth Ehler, Christopher H George, F Anthony Lai, Enca Martin-Rendon, Derek J Blake
The Cardiomyopathy-associated gene 5 (Cmya5) encodes myospryn, a large tripartite motif (TRIM)-related protein found predominantly in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cmya5 is an expression biomarker for a number of diseases affecting striated muscle and may also be a schizophrenia risk gene. To further understand the function of myospryn in striated muscle, we searched for additional myospryn paralogs. Here we identify a novel muscle-expressed TRIM-related protein minispryn, encoded by Fsd2, that has extensive sequence similarity with the C-terminus of myospryn...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736243/from-insulin-synthesis-to-secretion-alternative-splicing-of-type-2-ryanodine-receptor-gene-is-essential-for-insulin-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#18
Hiroshi Okamoto, Shin Takasawa, Yasuhiko Yamamoto
Increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in pancreatic islets, resulting from the its mobilization from the intracellular source through the ryanodine receptor, are essential for insulin secretion by glucose. Cyclic ADP-ribose, a potent Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger synthesized from NAD(+) by CD38, regulates the opening of ryanodine receptor. A novel ryanodine receptor mRNA (the islet-type ryanodine receptor) was found to be generated from the type 2 ryanodine receptor gene by the alternative splicing of exons 4 and 75...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731505/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-kinase-2-camkii-mediates-epac-induced-spontaneous-transient-outward-currents-stocs-in-rat-vascular-smooth-muscle
#19
Edward S A Humphries, Tomoko Kamishima, John M Quayle, Caroline Dart
Activation of the major cAMP effector, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), induces vascular smooth muscle relaxation by increasing the activity of ryanodine (RyR)-sensitive release channels on the peripheral sarcoplasmic reticulum. Resultant Ca(2+) sparks activate plasma membrane Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (BKCa ) channels, evoking spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) that hyperpolarize the cell and reduce voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry. In this study we investigate the mechanism by which Epac increases STOC activity...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731153/altered-profile-of-mrna-expression-in-atrioventricular-node-of-streptozotocin%C3%A2-induced-diabetic-rats
#20
Frank Christopher Howarth, Khatija Parekh, Petrilla Jayaprakash, Edward Samuel Inbaraj, Murat Oz, Halina Dobrzynski, Thomas Edward Adrian
Prolonged action potential duration, reduced action potential firing rate, upstroke velocity and rate of diastolic depolarization have been demonstrated in atrioventricular node (AVN) cells from streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats. To further clarify the molecular basis of these electrical disturbances, the mRNA profiles encoding a variety of proteins associated with the generation and conduction of electrical activity in the AVN, were evaluated in the STZ‑induced diabetic rat heart. Expression of mRNA was measured in AVN biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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