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Wakefulness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691876/waking-up-too-early-the-consequences-of-preterm-birth-on-sleep-development
#1
Laura Bennet, David W Walker, Rosemary S C Horne
Good quality sleep of sufficient duration is vital for optimal physiological function and our health. Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired neurocognitive function and emotional control, and increases the risk for cardiometabolic diseases, obesity and cancer. Sleep develops during fetal life with the emergence of a recognisable pattern of sleep states in the preterm fetus associated with the development, maturation, and connectivity within neural networks in the brain. Despite the physiological importance of sleep, surprisingly little is known about how sleep develops in individuals born preterm...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691377/colonic-motor-response-to-wakening-is-blunted-in-slow-transit-constipation-as-detected-by-wireless-motility-capsule
#2
Brian Surjanhata, Kenneth Barshop, Kyle Staller, Jack Semler, Laurence Guay, Braden Kuo
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation may be categorized as normal transit (NTC), slow transit (STC), or outlet obstruction. Colonic wake response is a relative increase in colonic motility upon awakening. Colonic manometry studies have demonstrated attenuated wake response in STC. We sought to evaluate wake response among healthy (H), NTC, and STC patients using wireless motility capsule (WMC). METHODS: A retrospective study of WMC data from a multicenter clinical trial and a tertiary gastroenterology clinic was performed...
April 25, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687190/monitoring-healthy-and-disturbed-sleep-through-smartphone-applications-a-review-of-experimental-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Edita Fino, Michela Mazzetti
Smartphone applications are considered as the prime candidate for the purposes of large-scale, low-cost and long-term sleep monitoring. How reliable and scientifically grounded is smartphone-based assessment of healthy and disturbed sleep remains a key issue in this direction. Here we offer a review of validation studies of sleep applications to the aim of providing some guidance in terms of their reliability to assess sleep in healthy and clinical populations, and stimulating further examination of their potential for clinical use and improved sleep hygiene...
April 23, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687163/optogenetic-dissection-of-sleep-wake-states-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Antoine Adamantidis, Anita Lüthi
Optogenetic tools have revolutionized insights into the fundamentals of brain function. This is particularly true for our current understanding of sleep-wake regulation and sleep rhythms. This is illustrated here through a comprehensive and step-by-step review over the major brain areas involved in transitions between sleep and wake states and in sleep rhythmogenesis.
April 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684751/shedding-new-light-on-disorders-of-consciousness-diagnosis-the-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#5
Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alberto Cacciola, Alfredo Manuli, Placido Bramanti, Rocco S Calabrò
It has been proposed that awareness may depend on the highly-dynamic functional connectivity of large-scale cortico-thalamo-cortical networks. We investigated how brain connectivity changes over time in the resting state in a group of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC). To this end, we assessed dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) in the resting state by analyzing the time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in five frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ). Patients in Minimally Conscious State (MCS) showed changes in DFC matrices and topography over time (mainly in the γ range), which were significantly different from those observed in patients with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS)...
April 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684473/improved-cognitive-morning-performance-in-healthy-older-adults-following-blue-enriched-light-exposure-on-the-previous-evening
#6
Karine Scheuermaier, Mirjam Münch, Joseph M Ronda, Jeanne F Duffy
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to light can have acute alerting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study investigated the effects of evening exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic white (BEL) vs. polychromatic white light (WL) on sleep inertia dissipation the following morning in older adults. METHODS: Ten healthy older adults (average age = 63.3 yrs; 6 F) participated in a 13-day study comprising three baseline days, an initial circadian phase assessment, four days with 2-h evening light exposures, a post light exposure circadian phase assessment and three recovery days...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684437/sleep-dysfunction-following-neonatal-ischemic-seizures-are-differential-by-neonatal-age-of-insult-as-determined-by-qeeg-in-a-mouse-model
#7
S K Kang, S Ammanuel, S Thodupunuri, D A Adler, M V Johnston, S D Kadam
Neonatal seizures associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) pose a challenge in their acute clinical management and are often followed by long-term neurological consequences. We used a newly characterized CD-1 mouse model of neonatal ischemic seizures associated with age-dependent (P7 vs. P10) seizure severity and phenobarbital efficacy (i.e.; PB-resistant vs. PB-efficacious respectively) following unilateral carotid ligation. The long-term consequences following untreated neonatal seizures in P7 vs...
April 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682871/the-effects-of-anticipating-a-high-stress-task-on-sleep-and-performance-during-simulated-on-call-work
#8
Madeline Sprajcer, Sarah M Jay, Grace E Vincent, Andrew Vakulin, Leon Lack, Sally A Ferguson
On-call work is used to manage around the clock working requirements in a variety of industries. Often, tasks that must be performed while on-call are highly important, difficult and/or stressful by nature and, as such, may impact the level of anxiety that is experienced by on-call workers. Heightened anxiety is associated with poor sleep, which affects next-day cognitive performance. Twenty-four male participants (20-35 years old) spent an adaptation, a control and two counterbalanced on-call nights in a time-isolated sleep laboratory...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682834/the-nature-of-delayed-dream-incorporation-dream-lag-effect-personally-significant-events-persist-but-not-major-daily-activities-or-concerns
#9
Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Elaine van Rijn, Mairéad Phelan, Larnia Ryder, M Gareth Gaskell, Penelope A Lewis, Matthew P Walker, Mark Blagrove
Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681873/an-attempt-at-matching-waking-events-into-dream-reports-by-independent-judges
#10
Jia Xi Wang, He Yong Shen
Correlations between memories and dreaming has typically been studied by linking conscious experiences and dream reports, which has illustrated that dreaming reflects waking life events, thoughts, and emotions. As some research suggests that sleep has a function of memory consolidation, and dreams reflect this, researching this relationship further may uncover more useful insights. However, most related research has been conducted using the self-report method which asks participants to judge the relationship between their own conscious experiences and dreams...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680429/repetitive-thought-is-associated-with-both-subjectively-and-objectively-recorded-polysomnographic-indices-of-disrupted-sleep-in-insomnia-disorder
#11
Andrea Galbiati, Enrico Giora, Simone Sarasso, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
BACKGROUND: Repetitive thought is a hallmark of several psychopathological conditions and in particular a perpetuating and maintaining factor in Insomnia Disorder. Accordingly, one of the primary complaints reported by Insomnia patients is the inability to shut-off or control thoughts. Worry and rumination are the two best-known styles of repetitive thought leading to sleep disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of these two cognitive processes on nocturnal sleep indices objectively recorded by polysomnography...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680428/characteristics-of-napping-in-community-dwelling-insomnia-patients
#12
Kwang Ho Jang, Jung Hie Lee, Seong Jae Kim, Hyo Jeong Kwon
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine napping characteristics of community-dwelling patients with insomnia disorder (ID) compared to characteristics of normal controls (NC), and to examine the effect of napping on nocturnal sleep. METHODS: Adult volunteers who were more than 18 years old were recruited from three rural public health centers in Korea. Data from actigraphy recording and a sleep diary filled out for seven days were obtained. Finally, 115 ID patients and 80 NC subjects were included in this study...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680426/willis-ekbom-disease-restless-legs-syndrome-in-patients-with-opioid-withdrawal
#13
Ravi Gupta, Ramjan Ali, Rajat Ray
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with opioid use disorder report symptoms similar to restless legs syndrome (RLS) during withdrawal. However, whether these symptoms are true RLS, their predictors and effect of treatment with pregabalin are still unknown. METHOD: A total of 19 consecutive patients with opioid use disorder who were admitted for detoxification were included in this study after obtaining informed consent. Information regarding addiction was noted, and they were screened for RLS every morning and evening...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680424/trazodone-for-the-treatment-of-insomnia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#14
Xiao-Yan Yi, Shi-Fen Ni, Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami, Hua-Qing Meng, Ming-Yan Chen, Li Kuang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Li Zhang, Xin-Yu Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of trazodone compared with placebo in patients with insomnia. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched and relevant reports were hand-screened to identify eligible trials. Only randomized placebo-controlled trials were included. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and the odds ratios (OR) were estimated using a random-effect model. Primary efficacy outcomes included sleep efficiency (SE%) and self-reported sleep quality (SQ)...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680419/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-bright-light-therapy-and-morning-activity-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder
#15
C Richardson, N Cain, K Bartel, G Micic, B Maddock, M Gradisar
A randomised controlled trial evaluated bright light therapy and morning activity for the treatment of Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) in young people. 60 adolescents and young adults (range = 13-24 years, mean = 15.9 ± 2.2 y, 63% f) diagnosed with DSWPD were randomised to receive three weeks of post-awakening Green Bright Light Therapy (∼507 nm) and Sedentary Activity (sitting, watching TV), Green Bright Light Therapy and Morning Activity (standing, playing motion-sensing videogame), Red Light Therapy (∼643 nm) and Sedentary Activity or Red Light Therapy and Morning Activity...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679838/medico-legal-investigation-in-an-explicable-case-of-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-due-to-a-rare-variant-of-the-phox2b-gene
#16
Francesco Ventura, Rosario Barranco, Tiziana Bachetti, Paolo Nozza, Ezio Fulcheri, Antonella Palmieri, Isabella Ceccherini
The heterozygous PHOX2B gene mutation is related to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). It is characterized by defective autonomous nervous system development leading to inadequate breathing response to hypoxia and hypercapnia, leading to hypoventilation especially during non-REM sleep, but also during waking in the more severe cases. Herein we report a case of sudden death in a 28-day-old child. The mother reported the infant was found lying on her own bed in the prone position. The infant was wearing a romper and lying in her crib without any blanket or other objects...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679703/pc-pvt-2-0-an-updated-platform-for-psychomotor-vigilance-task-testing-analysis-prediction-and-visualization
#17
Jaques Reifman, Kamal Kumar, Maxim Y Khitrov, Jianbo Liu, Sridhar Ramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) has been widely used to assess the effects of sleep deprivation on human neurobehavioral performance. To facilitate research in this field, we previously developed the PC-PVT, a freely available software system analogous to the "gold-standard" PVT-192 that, in addition to allowing for simple visual reaction time (RT) tests, also allows for near real-time PVT analysis, predictions, and visualization in a personal computer (PC)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679698/neurophysiological-and-neuroradiological-multimodal-approach-for-early-poor-outcome-prediction-after-cardiac-arrest
#18
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Lolli, Riccardo Carrai, Marco Moretti, Maddalena Spalletti, Morena Cozzolino, Adriano Peris, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
INTRODUCTION: Prognosticating outcome after cardiac arrest(CA) requires a multimodal approach. However, evidence regarding combinations of methods is limited. We evaluated whether the combination of electroencephalography(EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials(SEPs) and brain computed tomography(CT) could predict poor outcome. METHODS: We screened our database regarding patients successfully resuscitated after CA, for whom EEG, SEPs and brain CT were available within 24 hours...
April 18, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679174/sleep-abnormalities-in-multiplesystem-atrophy
#19
REVIEW
Valérie Cochen De Cock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to explore the different sleep disorders associated with MSA, their mechanisms, and their treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Stridor is a red flag for the diagnosis of MSA. Recent findings show that its presence in early stage of the disease is associated with a reduction in life expectancy. Its management should be fast and adapted. Its treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or tracheostomy is efficacious...
April 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679009/nucleus-accumbens-controls-wakefulness-by-a-subpopulation-of-neurons-expressing-dopamine-d-1-receptors
#20
Yan-Jia Luo, Ya-Dong Li, Lu Wang, Su-Rong Yang, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Juan Wang, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Jiang-Fan Chen, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in behaviors that depend on heightened wakefulness, but its impact on arousal remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that NAc dopamine D1 receptor (D1 R)-expressing neurons are essential for behavioral arousal. Using in vivo fiber photometry in mice, we find arousal-dependent increases in population activity of NAc D1 R neurons. Optogenetic activation of NAc D1 R neurons induces immediate transitions from non-rapid eye movement sleep to wakefulness, and chemogenetic stimulation prolongs arousal, with decreased food intake...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
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