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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913073/chronotype-and-environmental-light-exposure-in-a-student-population
#1
Kate Porcheret, Lucien Wald, Lin Fritschi, Menno Gerkema, Marijke Gordijn, Martha Merrrow, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Daniel Rock, Tracey L Sletten, Guy Warman, Katharina Wulff, Till Roenneberg, Russell G Foster
In humans and most other species, changes in the intensity and duration of light provide a critical set of signals for the synchronisation of the circadian system to the astronomical day. The timing of activity within the 24 h day defines an individual's chronotype, i.e. morning, intermediate or evening type. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between environmental light exposure, due to geographical location, on the chronotype of university students. Over 6 000 university students from cities in the Northern Hemisphere (Oxford, Munich and Groningen) and Southern Hemisphere (Perth, Melbourne and Auckland) completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire...
June 18, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913000/protecting-infants-from-sleep-related-deaths-a-wake-up-call
#2
Kyran P Quinlan, Douglas R Roehler, Jean Silvestri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912983/efficacy-of-melatonin-with-behavioural-sleep-wake-scheduling-for-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#3
Tracey L Sletten, Michelle Magee, Jade M Murray, Christopher J Gordon, Nicole Lovato, David J Kennaway, Stella M Gwini, Delwyn J Bartlett, Steven W Lockley, Leon C Lack, Ronald R Grunstein, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
BACKGROUND: Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) is characterised by sleep initiation insomnia when attempting sleep at conventional times and difficulty waking at the required time for daytime commitments. Although there are published therapeutic guidelines for the administration of melatonin for DSWPD, to our knowledge, randomised controlled trials are lacking. This trial tested the efficacy of 0.5 mg melatonin, combined with behavioural sleep-wake scheduling, for improving sleep initiation in clinically diagnosed DSWPD patients with a delayed endogenous melatonin rhythm relative to patient-desired (or -required) bedtime (DBT)...
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912420/susceptibility-of-cotton-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-to-diverse-pesticides-in-pakistan
#4
Mushtaq Ahmad, Khalid P Akhtar
The cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a serious pest of several summer crops in hot and dry climates. Its field populations (Asia II-1 biotype) were assessed for their susceptibility to diverse pesticides by using leaf-dip bioassay. There was no or a very low resistance to amitraz, hexythiazox, and pyridaben during 1992-2015. B. tabaci also exhibited no resistance to endosulfan during 1992-1997 and a very low resistance during 1998-2010, which then rose to a low level during 2011-2015...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912102/sleep-in-peace-and-wake-in-joy
#5
Paul Nyquist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911420/to-go-forward-we-must-look-back-the-importance-of-evolutionary-psychology-for-understanding-modern-politics
#6
Rose McDermott, Peter K Hatemi
As new waves of populism arise and cause disruption around the globe, there is both great interest in attempting to explain the origin of this dynamic as well as a need to ameliorate its potentially destructive impact. Perhaps the greatest signal of seismic change is the global dismantling of American institutional control of the postwar world following the election of Donald Trump in the United States. In the wake of such dramatic changes, it may seem odd to turn to evolutionary psychology which looks deeply into the past to try to understand current events, but, in fact, modern technology has dramatically changed the shape of political communication in just such a way as to make politics more personal once again, increasing the need to understand and interpret modern politics through an evolutionary lens...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911349/tales-around-the-clock-poly-a-tails-in-circadian-gene-expression
#7
REVIEW
Rafailia A A Beta, Nikolaos A A Balatsos
Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous time-keeping processes in eukaryotes with a period of ~24 hr. Light is perhaps the main environmental cue (zeitgeber) that affects several aspects of physiology and behaviour, such as sleep/wake cycles, orientation of birds and bees, and leaf movements in plants. Temperature can serve as the main zeitgeber in the absence of light cycles, even though it does not lead to rhythmicity through the same mechanism as light. Additional cues include feeding patterns, humidity, and social rhythms...
June 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910723/information-theoretical-analysis-of-eeg-microstate-sequences-in-python
#8
Frederic von Wegner, Helmut Laufs
We present an open-source Python package to compute information-theoretical quantities for electroencephalographic data. Electroencephalography (EEG) measures the electrical potential generated by the cerebral cortex and the set of spatial patterns projected by the brain's electrical potential on the scalp surface can be clustered into a set of representative maps called EEG microstates. Microstate time series are obtained by competitively fitting the microstate maps back into the EEG data set, i.e., by substituting the EEG data at a given time with the label of the microstate that has the highest similarity with the actual EEG topography...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909941/sleep-and-disruptive-mood-dysregulation-disorder-a-pilot-actigraphy-study
#9
R Delaplace, S Garny de La Rivière, M Bon Saint Come, H Lahaye, I Popov, N Rey, A Visticot, J-M Guilé
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics and motor activity profile during sleep periods of children and adolescents presenting with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). METHOD: Twenty-one youths (mean age±standard deviation, 11.7±3 years) wore a wrist actigraph for 9 consecutive days (including both school days and non-school days), to measure sleep parameters: sleep latency, sleep efficiency and the number and duration of periods of wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO)...
June 14, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909698/evidence-based-proposal-for-the-number-of-ambulatory-readings-required-for-assessing-blood-pressure-level-in-research-settings-an-analysis-of-the-idaco-database
#10
Wen-Yi Yang, Lutgarde Thijs, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Kei Asayama, José Boggia, Tine W Hansen, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Jørgen Jeppesen, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, Sofia Malyutina, Edoardo Casiglia, Yuri Nikitin, Yan Li, Ji-Guang Wang, Yutaka Imai, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz, Eoin O'Brien, Jan A Staessen
BACKGROUND: Guidelines on the required number of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) readings focus on individual patients. Clinical researchers often face the dilemma of applying recommendations and discarding potentially valuable information or accepting fewer readings. METHODS: Starting from ABP recordings with ≥30/≥10 awake/asleep readings in 4277 participants enrolled in eight population studies in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO), we randomly selected a certain number of readings (from 30 to 1 awake and 10 to 1 asleep readings) at a time over 1000 bootstraps at each step...
June 17, 2018: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909667/haematomas-after-carotid-endarterectomy-can-be-reduced-by-direct-pressure-to-the-neck-postoperatively
#11
R Saghir, G Humm, T Rix
Introduction A recognised complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is postoperative haematoma, which can threaten the airway. Previous studies have looked at medical methods of preventing this complication. This study aims to evaluate the impact of simple direct pressure postoperatively on the development of haematoma. Materials and methods From 2011 to 2016, 161 consecutive CEA were performed by a single surgeon or trainee under supervision. After 80 operations, the postoperative technique was altered, with additional pressure being applied by the surgeon to the skin incision from completion of suturing until each patient was awake in the recovery room...
June 18, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908972/bidirectional-relationships-between-sleep-and-amyloid-beta-in-the-hippocampus
#12
Julien Dufort-Gervais, Valérie Mongrain, Jonathan Brouillette
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive hippocampal-dependent explicit memory deficits that begin at the onset of the illness. An early hallmark of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) proteins in brain structures involved in encoding and consolidation of memory, like the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Aß neurotoxicity is known to induce synaptic dysfunctions and neuronal death leading to cognitive decline. Another recurrent event observed in AD is sleep disturbances...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908426/physical-activity-and-sleep-problems-in-38-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Lee Smith, Mats Hallgren, Joseph Firth, Matthew P Herring, Michel Probst, Ai Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: Although physical activity (PA) is associated with a reduction of a wide range of sleep problems, it remains uncertain whether complying with the international guidelines of 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week can reduce sleep problems in adults. This research investigated the relationship between compliance with the PA recommendations of the World Health Organization and sleep problems in 38 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based data from the World Health Survey were analyzed...
May 24, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908300/acute-and-chronic-escitalopram-alter-eeg-gamma-oscillations-differently-relevance-to-therapeutic-effects
#14
Noémi Papp, Szilvia Vas, Emese Bogáthy, Zita Kátai, Diána Kostyalik, György Bagdy
Brain oscillations in the gamma frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been implicated in several sensory and cognitive processes, and have also been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), similarly to other antidepressants, are known to produce markedly different effects on sleep and behavioral measures with acute and chronic administration. Although there are studies examining the acute effect of escitalopram on slower (<30 Hz) oscillations, we hardly could find any data about the effect of the drug on higher-frequency EEG oscillations (>30 Hz) in different sleep-wake stages, particularly comparing the acute and chronic effects of the drug concerning gamma oscillations...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908240/the-gabaergic-gudden-s-dorsal-tegmental-nucleus-a-new-relay-for-serotonergic-regulation-of-sleep-wake-behavior-in-the-mouse
#15
Marine Chazalon, Sylvie Dumas, Jean-François Bernard, Iman Sahly, François Tronche, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Michel Hamon, Joëlle Adrien, Véronique Fabre, Patricia Bonnavion
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are involved in wake promotion and exert a strong inhibitory influence on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Such effects have been ascribed, at least in part to the action of 5-HT at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1A R) in the brainstem, a major wake/REM sleep regulatory center. However, the neuroanatomical substrate through which 5-HT1A R influence sleep remains elusive. We therefore investigated whether a brainstem structure containing a high density of 5-HT1A R mRNA, the GABAergic Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTg), may contribute to 5-HT-mediated regulatory mechanisms of sleep-wake stages...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907640/differential-development-of-retroactive-and-proactive-interference-during-post-learning-wakefulness
#16
Timothy P Brawn, Howard C Nusbaum, Daniel Margoliash
Newly encoded, labile memories are prone to disruption during post-learning wakefulness. Here we examine the contributions of retroactive and proactive interference to daytime forgetting on an auditory classification task in a songbird. While both types of interference impair performance, they do not develop concurrently. The retroactive interference of task-B on task-A developed during the learning of task-B, whereas the proactive interference of task-A on task-B emerged during subsequent waking retention...
July 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906574/do-different-salience-cues-compete-for-dominance-in-memory-over-a-daytime-nap
#17
Sara E Alger, Shirley Chen, Jessica D Payne
Information that is the most salient and important for future use is preferentially preserved through active processing during sleep. Emotional salience is a biologically adaptive cue that influences episodic memory processing through interactions between amygdalar and hippocampal activity. However, other cues that influence the importance of information, such as the explicit direction to remember or forget, interact with the inherent salience of information to determine its fate in memory. It is unknown how sleep-based processes selectively consolidate this complex information...
June 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906207/human-performance-deterioration-due-to-prolonged-wakefulness-can-be-accurately-detected-using-time-varying-spectral-analysis-of-electrodermal-activity
#18
Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Jeffrey B Bolkhovsky, Michael Qin, Ki H Chon
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine if indices of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), derived from the electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrocardiogram (ECG), could be used to detect deterioration in human cognitive performance on healthy participants during 24-hour sleep deprivation. BACKGROUND: The ANS is highly sensitive to sleep deprivation. METHODS: Twenty-five participants performed a desktop-computer-based version of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) every 2 hours...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906165/kelvin-mach-wake-in-a-two-dimensional-fermi-sea
#19
Eugene B Kolomeisky, Joseph P Straley
The dispersion law for plasma oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas in the hydrodynamic approximation interpolates between Ω∝sqrt[q] and Ω∝q dependences as the wave vector q increases. As a result, downstream of a charged impurity in the presence of a uniform supersonic electric current flow, a wake pattern of induced charge density and potential is formed whose geometry is controlled by the Mach number M. For 1<M≤sqrt[2], the wake consists of transverse wave fronts confined within a sector, whose angle is given by the classic Mach condition...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904713/data-on-multimodal-approach-for-early-poor-outcome-cerebral-performance-categories-3-5-prediction-after-cardiac-arrest
#20
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Lolli, Riccardo Carrai, Marco Moretti, Maddalena Spalletti, Morena Cozzolino, Adriano Peris, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
The data presented in this article are related to our research article entitled 'Neurophysiological and neuroradiological multimodal approach for early poor outcome prediction after cardiac arrest' (Scarpino et al., 2018) [1]. We reported two additional analyses, including results gathered from somatosensory evoked potentials(SEPs), brain computed tomography(CT) and electroencephalography(EEG) performed on 183 subjects within the first 24 h after cardiac arrest(CA). In the first analysis, we considered the Cerebral Performance Categories(CPC) 3, 4 and 5a,b (severe disability, unresponsive wakefulness state, neurological death and non-neurological death, respectively) as poor outcomes...
August 2018: Data in Brief
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