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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146664/the-effects-of-practice-based-training-on-graduate-teaching-assistants-classroom-practices
#1
Erin A Becker, Erin J Easlon, Sarah C Potter, Alberto Guzman-Alvarez, Jensen M Spear, Marc T Facciotti, Michele M Igo, Mitchell Singer, Christopher Pagliarulo
Evidence-based teaching is a highly complex skill, requiring repeated cycles of deliberate practice and feedback to master. Despite existing well-characterized frameworks for practice-based training in K-12 teacher education, the major principles of these frameworks have not yet been transferred to instructor development in higher educational contexts, including training of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). We sought to determine whether a practice-based training program could help GTAs learn and use evidence-based teaching methods in their classrooms...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145874/peripheral-immune-tolerance-alleviates-the-intracranial-lipopolysaccharide-injection-induced-neuroinflammation-and-protects-the-dopaminergic-neurons-from-neuroinflammation-related-neurotoxicity
#2
Yang Liu, Xin Xie, Li-Ping Xia, Hong Lv, Fan Lou, Yan Ren, Zhi-Yi He, Xiao-Guang Luo
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the onset and development of neurodegeneration disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The immune activities of the central nervous system are profoundly affected by peripheral immune activities. Immune tolerance refers to the unresponsiveness of the immune system to continuous or repeated stimulation to avoid excessive inflammation and unnecessary by-stander injury in the face of continuous antigen threat. It has been proved that the immune tolerance could suppress the development of various peripheral inflammation-related diseases...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143568/the-inter-rater-reliability-and-prognostic-value-of-coma-scales-in-nepali-children-with-acute-encephalitis-syndrome
#3
Stephen Ray, Ajit Rayamajhi, Laura J Bonnett, Tom Solomon, Rachel Kneen, Michael J Griffiths
Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a common cause of coma in Nepali children. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of coma in these patients and predict outcome. Alternative coma scales may have better inter-rater reliability and prognostic value in encephalitis in Nepali children, but this has not been studied. The Adelaide coma scale (ACS), Blantyre coma scale (BCS) and the Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive scale (AVPU) are alternatives to the GCS which can be used. Methods Children aged 1-14 years who presented to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu with AES between September 2010 and November 2011 were recruited...
November 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139276/preventing-stroke-and-assessing-risk-in-women
#4
Tracey Keteepe-Arachi, Sanjay Sharma
Ischaemic stroke is rare in premenopausal women but risk increases with advancing age and doubles in the ten years following the menopause. Up to the age of 75 years men have a 25% higher risk of suffering a stroke compared with women. However, the increased life expectancy of women ultimately results in a higher overall incidence. Twice as many women die from stroke compare with breast cancer. Women with cerebrovascular disease are more likely to present with atypical symptoms than men. Altered mental status (including unresponsiveness, confusion and behavioural change) is the most common nonconventional symptom, and is reported by 23% of women compared with 15% of men...
March 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138603/fatal-collapse-due-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-during-manual-self-evacuation-of-bowel-in-a-tetraplegic-patient-living-alone-lessons-to-learn
#5
Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Bakul M Soni, Paul Mansour, Tun Oo
Background: To identify areas for improvement, the National Health Service in England mandates the review of case reports of patients who have died, which should be translated into improved care for other patients. Case report: A 49-year-old Caucasian man sustained C-7 tetraplegia in a motorcycle accident in 1992. In 2009, he developed seizures and collapsed in the lavatory on a number of occasions during manual self-evacuation of his bowel. A 24-hour electrocardiogram recording at that time showed sinus rhythm with a maximum heart rate of 97 and a minimum of 39 beats per minute; there were no significant arrhythmias that could have contributed to his episodes of collapse...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136293/efficacy-and-safety-of-tofacitinib-for-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
REVIEW
C-M Kuo, T-H Tung, S-H Wang, C-C Chi
The effects of tofacitinib in treating moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were unclear. We aimed to assess the effects of tofacitinib in treating moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Four RCTs with 2,724 participants were included. Compared to placebo, tofacitinib significantly improved psoriasis (≥ 75% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score: 5 mg BID: risk difference (RD) 0...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133930/plc%C3%AE-dependent-mtor-signalling-controls-il-7-mediated-early-b-cell-development
#7
Mei Yu, Yuhong Chen, Hu Zeng, Yongwei Zheng, Guoping Fu, Wen Zhu, Ulrich Broeckel, Praful Aggarwal, Amy Turner, Geoffrey Neale, Cliff Guy, Nan Zhu, Hongbo Chi, Renren Wen, Demin Wang
The precise molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of early B cell lymphopoiesis is unclear. The PLCγ signaling pathway is critical for antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation, but its function in cytokine signaling is unknown. Here we show that PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double deficiency in mice blocks early B cell development at the pre-pro-B cell stage and renders B cell progenitors unresponsive to IL-7. PLCγ pathway inhibition blocks IL-7-induced activation of mTOR, but not Stat5. The PLCγ pathway activates mTOR through the DAG/PKC signaling branch, independent of the conventional Akt/TSC/Rheb signaling axis...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132677/adjuvant-therapies-in-food-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Wenyin Loh, Mimi Tang
Finding an effective curative treatment for food allergy is a research priority. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) is effective at inducing desensitization, the temporary nature of this effect and high rates of adverse reactions have highlighted a need for novel strategies to improve tolerance induction and safety. One such strategy is the use of an adjuvant together with food immunotherapy to either suppress allergic reactions and/or modulate the underlying allergic immune response. In particular, the use of bacterial adjuvants seems to be a promising means of enhancing OIT-induced sustained unresponsiveness and warrants further investigation...
February 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132070/sixteen-year-history-of-rituximab-therapy-for-1085-pemphigus-vulgaris-patients-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour, HamidReza Mahmoudi, Kamran Balighi, Robabeh Abedini, Maryam Daneshpazhooh
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Search in PubMed results in 114 relevant studies, which met the criteria...
November 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129806/treatment-of-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-immunomodulatory-approaches
#10
REVIEW
de Montjoye Laurence, Herman Anne, Nicolas Jean-François, Baeck Marie
This paper summarizes and reviews the mechanisms of action and data concerning efficacy of recommended treatments as well as other treatments that have been tested, independently of the outcomes, in the management of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Due to the central role of mast cells and histamine in the pathophysiology of this disease, H1-antihistamines remain the first-line treatment. However, current knowledge about this complex disease, also recognizes an important role for T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and autoantibodies...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129424/laparoscopic-ligation-of-cisterna-chyli-for-refractory-chylothorax-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Ilitch Diaz-Gutierrez, Madhuri Vasudev Rao, Rafael Santiago Andrade
OBJECTIVES: We describe an alternative surgical technique for the treatment of chylothorax in patients who have had failure of or are not candidates for transthoracic ligation or embolization by interventional radiology. METHODS: We describe our experience with laparoscopic ligation of the cisterna chyli in 3 such patients and compare our results with published literature. We used a 5-port approach as for foregut surgery. We retracted the liver, transected the gastrohepatic ligament, and retracted the stomach to the left...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127495/size-and-heterologous-elements-predict-metastases-in-malignant-phyllodes-tumours-of-the-breast
#12
Valerie Cui Yun Koh, Aye Aye Thike, Nur Diyana Md Nasir, George Wai Cheong Yip, Boon Huat Bay, Puay Hoon Tan
Phyllodes tumours (PTs) of the breast are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms comprising 0.3-1.0% of all primary breast tumours. The majority of PTs are benign and generally well managed with surgery. However, malignant PTs, and occasionally borderline PTs, can behave in a clinically aggressive manner by metastasizing to distant organs. Although distant metastasis is rare, the prognosis of patients with metastasis is dismal as many are unresponsive to standard chemotherapy and the risk of death is high. In this study, we correlated clinicopathological parameters to survival outcomes in a cohort of patients diagnosed with malignant PTs in our institution...
November 10, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126711/home-based-program-of-maintaining-unresponsiveness-in-children-with-allergic-reactions-to-larger-amounts-of-peanuts
#13
Peter D Arkwright, Vibha Sharma, Carol I Ewing, Stephen M Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123869/drug-induced-anaphylaxis-in-the-emergency-room
#14
REVIEW
Tomonori Takazawa, Kiyohiro Oshima, Shigeru Saito
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening, systemic allergic reaction that presents unique challenges for emergency care practitioners. Anaphylaxis occurs more frequently than previously believed. Therefore, proper knowledge regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of anaphylaxis is essential. In particular, the initial treatment strategy, followed by correct diagnosis, in the emergency room is critical for preventing fatal anaphylaxis, although making a diagnosis is not easy because of the broad and often atypical presentation of anaphylaxis...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122905/healthy-donor-faecal-transplant-for-corticosteroid-non-responsive-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#15
Cyriac Abby Philips, Nikhil Phadke, Karthik Ganesan, Philip Augustine
Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) have high mortality in the presence of steroid unresponsiveness in the absence of clear treatment recommendations. Liver transplantation is the curative option in such cases but is controversial in the wake of severe infections, post-transplant recidivism and long waiting on deceased donor listing. Animal and human studies have shed light on the beneficial effects of gut microbiota modulation in alcoholic liver disease. We present the first report of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in a steroid non-responder in whom, clinical, biochemical and liver disease severity scores improved post-FMT and demonstrate distinct bacterial population changes pre-FMT and post-FMT...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121293/brain-functional-connectivity-differentiates-dexmedetomidine-from-propofol-and-natural-sleep
#16
P Guldenmund, A Vanhaudenhuyse, R D Sanders, J Sleigh, M A Bruno, A Demertzi, M A Bahri, O Jaquet, J Sanfilippo, K Baquero, M Boly, J F Brichant, S Laureys, V Bonhomme
Background: We used functional connectivity measures from brain resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify human neural correlates of sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol and their similarities with natural sleep. Methods: Connectivity within the resting state networks that are proposed to sustain consciousness generation was compared between deep non-rapid-eye-movement (N3) sleep, dexmedetomidine sedation, and propofol sedation in volunteers who became unresponsive to verbal command...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121278/frontal-alpha-delta-eeg-does-not-preclude-volitional-response-during-anaesthesia-prospective-cohort-study-of-the-isolated-forearm-technique
#17
A L Gaskell, D F Hight, J Winders, G Tran, A Defresne, V Bonhomme, A Raz, J W Sleigh, R D Sanders
Background: The isolated forearm test (IFT) is the gold standard test of connected consciousness (awareness of the environment) during anaesthesia. The frontal alpha-delta EEG pattern (seen in slow wave sleep) is widely held to indicate anaesthetic-induced unconsciousness. A priori we proposed that one responder with the frontal alpha-delta EEG pattern would falsify this concept. Methods: Frontal EEG was recorded in a subset of patients from three centres participating in an international multicentre study of IFT responsiveness following tracheal intubation...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119217/psilocybin-with-psychological-support-for-treatment-resistant-depression-six-month-follow-up
#18
R L Carhart-Harris, M Bolstridge, C M J Day, J Rucker, R Watts, D E Erritzoe, M Kaelen, B Giribaldi, M Bloomfield, S Pilling, J A Rickard, B Forbes, A Feilding, D Taylor, H V Curran, D J Nutt
RATIONALE: Recent clinical trials are reporting marked improvements in mental health outcomes with psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy. OBJECTIVES: Here, we report on safety and efficacy outcomes for up to 6 months in an open-label trial of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: Twenty patients (six females) with (mostly) severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting...
November 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118500/iridoplasty-of-fixed-dilated-pupil-urrets-zavalia-syndrome-after-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty
#19
Efthalia Ntora, Nikolaos Ziakas
A 38-year-old woman with advanced keratoconus initially developed Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome (UZS) in the left eye after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. During the uneventful surgery, a 7-mm-wide pupil unresponsive to light was noticed. On the first postoperative day, intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated up to 45 mmHg with shallow anterior chamber (AC). A peripheral iridotomy in 2 o'clock position was conducted and a fixed combination of brinzolamide 1% and timolol 0.5% was administered topically. In the subsequent postoperative period, IOP was successfully reduced, but the patient reported severe photophobia, glare, and decreased vision...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115963/changes-in-vasoactive-pathways-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-associated-pulmonary-hypertension-explain-unresponsiveness-to-pharmacotherapy
#20
Daphne S Mous, Marjon J Buscop-van Kempen, Rene M H Wijnen, Dick Tibboel, Robbert J Rottier
BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have structural and functional different pulmonary vessels, leading to pulmonary hypertension. They often fail to respond to standard vasodilator therapy targeting the major vasoactive pathways, causing a high morbidity and mortality. We analyzed whether the expression of crucial members of these vasoactive pathways could explain the lack of responsiveness to therapy in CDH patients. METHODS: The expression of direct targets of current vasodilator therapy in the endothelin and prostacyclin pathway was analyzed in human lung specimens of control and CDH patients...
November 7, 2017: Respiratory Research
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