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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914903/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-short-term-psychoanalytical-psychotherapy-versus-a-brief-psychosocial-intervention-in-adolescents-with-unipolar-major-depressive-disorder-impact-a-multicentre-pragmatic-observer-blind-randomised-controlled-superiority-trial
#1
Ian M Goodyer, Shirley Reynolds, Barbara Barrett, Sarah Byford, Bernadka Dubicka, Jonathan Hill, Fiona Holland, Raphael Kelvin, Nick Midgley, Chris Roberts, Rob Senior, Mary Target, Barry Widmer, Paul Wilkinson, Peter Fonagy
BACKGROUND: Psychological treatments for adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder are associated with diagnostic remission within 28 weeks in 65-70% of patients. We aimed to assess the medium-term effects and costs of psychological therapies on maintenance of reduced depression symptoms 12 months after treatment. METHODS: We did this multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial (IMPACT) at 15 National Health Service child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinics in three regions in England...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914380/an-airborne-acoustic-method-to-reconstruct-a-dynamically-rough-flow-surface
#2
Anton Krynkin, Kirill V Horoshenkov, Timothy Van Renterghem
Currently, there is no airborne in situ method to reconstruct with high fidelity the instantaneous elevation of a dynamically rough surface of a turbulent flow. This work proposes a holographic method that reconstructs the elevation of a one-dimensional rough water surface from airborne acoustic pressure data. This method can be implemented practically using an array of microphones deployed over a dynamically rough surface or using a single microphone which is traversed above the surface at a speed that is much higher than the phase velocity of the roughness pattern...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914291/influence-of-laser-power-on-atom-probe-tomographic-analysis-of-boron-distribution-in-silicon
#3
Y Tu, H Takamizawa, B Han, Y Shimizu, K Inoue, T Toyama, F Yano, A Nishida, Y Nagai
The relationship between the laser power and the three-dimensional distribution of boron (B) in silicon (Si) measured by laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) is investigated. The ultraviolet laser employed in this study has a fixed wavelength of 355nm. The measured distributions are almost uniform and homogeneous when using low laser power, while clear B accumulation at the low-index pole of single-crystalline Si and segregation along the grain boundaries in polycrystalline Si are observed when using high laser power (100pJ)...
November 25, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914203/multiple-processes-drive-genetic-structure-of-humpback-whale-megaptera-novaeangliae-populations-across-spatial-scales
#4
Francine Kershaw, Inês Carvalho, Jacqueline Loo, Cristina Pomilla, Peter B Best, Ken P Findlay, Salvatore Cerchio, Tim Collins, Marcia H Engel, Gianna Minton, Peter Ersts, Jaco Barendse, P G H Kotze, Yvette Razafindrakoto, Solange Ngouessono, Michael Meÿer, Meredith Thorton, Howard C Rosenbaum
Elucidating patterns of population structure for species with complex life histories, and disentangling the processes driving such patterns, remains a significant analytical challenge. Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) populations display complex genetic structures that have not been fully resolved at all spatial scales. We generated a data set of nuclear markers for 3,575 samples spanning the seven breeding stocks and substocks found in the South Atlantic and western and northern Indian Oceans. For the total sample, and males and females separately, we assessed genetic diversity, tested for genetic differentiation between putative populations and isolation by distance, estimated the number of genetic clusters without a priori population information, and estimated rates of gene flow using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913902/a-new-multiscale-micromechanical-model-of-vertebral-trabecular-bones
#5
Rami Haj-Ali, Eyass Massarwa, Jacob Aboudi, Fabio Galbusera, Uwe Wolfram, Hans-Joachim Wilke
A new three-dimensional (3D) multiscale micromechanical model has been suggested as adept at predicting the overall linear anisotropic mechanical properties of a vertebral trabecular bone (VTB) highly porous microstructure. A nested 3D modeling analysis framework spanning the multiscale nature of the VTB is presented herein. This hierarchical analysis framework employs the following micromechanical methods: the 3D parametric high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) as well as the 3D sublaminate model...
December 2, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913727/regulated-complex-assembly-safeguards-the-fidelity-of-sleeping-beauty-transposition
#6
Yongming Wang, Diana Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Enikö Éva Nagy, Christopher D Kaufman, Manvendra Singh, Steve Yant, Jichang Wang, Anna Dalda, Mark A Kay, Zoltán Ivics, Zsuzsanna Izsvák
The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912190/nanostructured-3d-porous-graphene-hydrogel-based-ti-sb-sno2-gr-electrode-with-enhanced-electrocatalytic-activity
#7
Sumreen Asim, Yunqing Zhu, Masud Rana, Jiao Yin, Muhammad Wajid Shah, Yingxuan Li, Chuanyi Wang
Nanostructured highly porous 3D-Ti/Sb-SnO2-Gr electrode, based on 3D porous graphene hydrogel was fabricated via a fast-evaporation technique through layer by layer (LBL) deposition. The 3D pores are uniformly distributed on the high fidelity of substrate with pore sizes of 7-12 nm, as confirmed by SEM analysis. Compared to Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrode, the fabricated 3D porous electrode possesses high oxygen evolution potential (2.40 V), smaller charge transfer resistance (29.40 Ω cm(-2)), higher porosity (0...
November 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911530/experimental-ten-photon-entanglement
#8
Xi-Lin Wang, Luo-Kan Chen, W Li, H-L Huang, C Liu, C Chen, Y-H Luo, Z-E Su, D Wu, Z-D Li, H Lu, Y Hu, X Jiang, C-Z Peng, L Li, N-L Liu, Yu-Ao Chen, Chao-Yang Lu, Jian-Wei Pan
We report the first experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement among ten spatially separated single photons. A near-optimal entangled photon-pair source was developed with simultaneously a source brightness of ∼12  MHz/W, a collection efficiency of ∼70%, and an indistinguishability of ∼91% between independent photons, which was used for a step-by-step engineering of multiphoton entanglement. Under a pump power of 0.57 W, the ten-photon count rate was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude compared to previous experiments, while maintaining a state fidelity sufficiently high for proving the genuine ten-particle entanglement...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910318/physics-design-of-the-in-vessel-collection-optics-for-the-iter-electron-cyclotron-emission-diagnostic
#9
W L Rowan, S Houshmandyar, P E Phillips, M E Austin, J H Beno, A E Hubbard, A Khodak, A Ouroua, G Taylor
Measurement of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is one of the primary diagnostics for electron temperature in ITER. In-vessel, in-vacuum, and quasi-optical antennas capture sufficient ECE to achieve large signal to noise with microsecond temporal resolution and high spatial resolution while maintaining polarization fidelity. Two similar systems are required. One views the plasma radially. The other is an oblique view. Both views can be used to measure the electron temperature, while the oblique is also sensitive to non-thermal distortion in the bulk electron distribution...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910041/efficient-genome-editing-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-with-engineered-nucleases-in-vitro
#10
Vittavat Termglinchan, Timon Seeger, Caressa Chen, Joseph C Wu, Ioannis Karakikes
Precision genome engineering is rapidly advancing the application of the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology for in vitro disease modeling of cardiovascular diseases. Targeted genome editing using engineered nucleases is a powerful tool that allows for reverse genetics, genome engineering, and targeted transgene integration experiments to be performed in a precise and predictable manner. However, nuclease-mediated homologous recombination is an inefficient process. Herein, we describe the development of an optimized method combining site-specific nucleases and the piggyBac transposon system for "seamless" genome editing in pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency and fidelity in vitro...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909101/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#11
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important, because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher order areas for further processing and localization...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906280/generation-and-applications-of-an-ultrahigh-fidelity-four-photon-greenberger-horne-zeilinger-state
#12
Chao Zhang, Yun-Feng Huang, Cheng-Jie Zhang, Jian Wang, Bi-Heng Liu, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo
High-quality entangled photon pairs generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion have made great contributions to the modern quantum information science and the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. However, the quality of the entangled states decreases sharply when moving from biphoton to multiphoton experiments, mainly due to the lack of interactions between photons. Here, for the first time, we generate a four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with a fidelity of 98%, which is even comparable to the best fidelity of biphoton entangled states...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905909/development-of-a-measure-of-model-fidelity-for-mental-health-crisis-resolution-teams
#13
Brynmor Lloyd-Evans, Gary R Bond, Torleif Ruud, Ada Ivanecka, Richard Gray, David Osborn, Fiona Nolan, Claire Henderson, Oliver Mason, Nicky Goater, Kathleen Kelly, Gareth Ambler, Nicola Morant, Steve Onyett, Danielle Lamb, Sarah Fahmy, Ellie Brown, Beth Paterson, Angela Sweeney, David Hindle, Kate Fullarton, Johanna Frerichs, Sonia Johnson
BACKGROUND: Crisis Resolution Teams (CRTs) provide short-term intensive home treatment to people experiencing mental health crisis. Trial evidence suggests CRTs can be effective at reducing hospital admissions and increasing satisfaction with acute care. When scaled up to national level however, CRT implementation and outcomes have been variable. We aimed to develop and test a fidelity scale to assess adherence to a model of best practice for CRTs, based on best available evidence. METHODS: A concept mapping process was used to develop a CRT fidelity scale...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905904/evaluating-the-implementation-process-of-a-participatory-organizational-level-occupational-health-intervention-in-schools
#14
Roosmarijn M C Schelvis, Noortje M Wiezer, Birgitte M Blatter, Joost A G M van Genabeek, Karen M Oude Hengel, Ernst T Bohlmeijer, Allard J van der Beek
BACKGROUND: The importance of process evaluations in examining how and why interventions are (un) successful is increasingly recognized. Process evaluations mainly studied the implementation process and the quality of the implementation (fidelity). However, in adopting this approach for participatory organizational level occupational health interventions, important aspects such as context and participants perceptions are missing. Our objective was to systematically describe the implementation process of a participatory organizational level occupational health intervention aimed at reducing work stress and increasing vitality in two schools by applying a framework that covers aspects of the intervention and its implementation as well as the context and participants perceptions...
December 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905492/high-fidelity-computational-simulation-of-thrombus-formation-in-thoratec-heartmate-ii-continuous-flow-ventricular-assist-device
#15
Wei-Tao Wu, Fang Yang, Jingchun Wu, Nadine Aubry, Mehrdad Massoudi, James F Antaki
Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) provide a life-saving therapy for severe heart failure. However, in recent years, the incidence of device-related thrombosis (resulting in stroke, device-exchange surgery or premature death) has been increasing dramatically, which has alarmed both the medical community and the FDA. The objective of this study was to gain improved understanding of the initiation and progression of thrombosis in one of the most commonly used cfVADs, the Thoratec HeartMate II...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904991/eat-up%C3%A2-family-centered-feeding-intervention-to-promote-food-acceptance-and-decrease-challenging-behaviors-a-single-case-experimental-design-replicated-across-three-families-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Joanna Cosbey, Deirdre Muldoon
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-centered feeding intervention, Easing Anxiety Together with Understanding and Perseverance (EAT-UP™), for promoting food acceptance of children with autism spectrum disorder at home. A concurrent multiple-baseline design was used with systematic replication across three families. Baseline was followed by an 'Intervention-Coaching' phase and then an 'Intervention-Independent' phase. Using direct observation and pre- and post-intervention questionnaires, data on acceptance of less preferred foods and challenging mealtime behaviors were collected...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903912/the-complex-evolutionary-history-of-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases
#17
Anargyros Chaliotis, Panayotis Vlastaridis, Dimitris Mossialos, Michael Ibba, Hubert D Becker, Constantinos Stathopoulos, Grigorios D Amoutzias
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) are a superfamily of enzymes responsible for the faithful translation of the genetic code and have lately become a prominent target for synthetic biologists. Our large-scale analysis of >2500 prokaryotic genomes reveals the complex evolutionary history of these enzymes and their paralogs, in which horizontal gene transfer played an important role. These results show that a widespread belief in the evolutionary stability of this superfamily is misconceived. Although AlaRS, GlyRS, LeuRS, IleRS, ValRS are the most stable members of the family, GluRS, LysRS and CysRS often have paralogs, whereas AsnRS, GlnRS, PylRS and SepRS are often absent from many genomes...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903904/yeast-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-maintains-consistent-activity-and-mutagenicity-across-a-wide-range-of-physiological-dntp-concentrations
#18
Olga V Kochenova, Rachel Bezalel-Buch, Phong Tran, Alena V Makarova, Andrei Chabes, Peter M J Burgers, Polina V Shcherbakova
In yeast, dNTP pools expand drastically during DNA damage response. We show that similar dNTP elevation occurs in strains, in which intrinsic replisome defects promote the participation of error-prone DNA polymerase ζ (Polζ) in replication of undamaged DNA. To understand the significance of dNTP pools increase for Polζ function, we studied the activity and fidelity of four-subunit Polζ (Polζ4) and Polζ4-Rev1 (Polζ5) complexes in vitro at 'normal S-phase' and 'damage-response' dNTP concentrations. The presence of Rev1 inhibited the activity of Polζ and greatly increased the rate of all three 'X-dCTP' mispairs, which Polζ4 alone made extremely inefficiently...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902801/achieving-plant-crispr-targeting-that-limits-off-target-effects
#19
Jeffrey D Wolt, Kan Wang, Dipali Sashital, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill
The CRISPR-Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with associated Cas9 protein) has been used to generate targeted changes for direct modification of endogenous genes in an increasing number of plant species; but development of plant genome editing has not yet fully considered potential off-target mismatches that may lead to unintended changes within the genome. Assessing the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9 for increasing editing efficiency as well as the potential for unanticipated downstream effects from off-target mutations is an important regulatory consideration for agricultural applications...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901081/driving-a-superconductor-to-insulator-transition-with-random-gauge-fields
#20
H Q Nguyen, S M Hollen, J Shainline, J M Xu, J M Valles
Typically the disorder that alters the interference of particle waves to produce Anderson localization is potential scattering from randomly placed impurities. Here we show that disorder in the form of random gauge fields that act directly on particle phases can also drive localization. We present evidence of a superfluid bose glass to insulator transition at a critical level of this gauge field disorder in a nano-patterned array of amorphous Bi islands. This transition shows signs of metallic transport near the critical point characterized by a resistance , indicative of a quantum phase transition...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
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