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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088180/nuclear-envelope-structural-proteins-facilitate-nuclear-shape-changes-accompanying-embryonic-differentiation-and-fidelity-of-gene-expression
#1
Elizabeth R Smith, Yue Meng, Robert Moore, Jeffrey D Tse, Arn G Xu, Xiang-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND: Nuclear size and shape are specific to a cell type, function, and location, and can serve as indicators of disease and development. We previously found that lamin A/C and associated nuclear envelope structural proteins were upregulated when murine embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated to primitive endoderm cells. Here we further investigated the morphological changes of nuclei that accompany this differentiation. RESULTS: The nuclei of undifferentiated wild type cells were found shaped as flattened, irregular ovals, whereas nuclei of Gata4-positive endoderm cells were more spherical, less flattened, and with a slightly reduced volume...
January 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087715/sf3b1-hsh155-heat-motif-mutations-affect-interaction-with-the-spliceosomal-atpase-prp5-resulting-in-altered-branch-site-selectivity-in-pre-mrna-splicing
#2
Qing Tang, Susana Rodriguez-Santiago, Jing Wang, Jia Pu, Andrea Yuste, Varun Gupta, Alberto Moldón, Yong-Zhen Xu, Charles C Query
Mutations in the U2 snRNP component SF3B1 are prominent in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and other cancers and have been shown recently to alter branch site (BS) or 3' splice site selection in splicing. However, the molecular mechanism of altered splicing is not known. We show here that hsh155 mutant alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, counterparts of SF3B1 mutations frequently found in cancers, specifically change splicing of suboptimal BS pre-mRNA substrates. We found that Hsh155p interacts directly with Prp5p, the first ATPase that acts during spliceosome assembly, and localized the interacting regions to HEAT (Huntingtin, EF3, PP2A, and TOR1) motifs in SF3B1 associated with disease mutations...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087416/the-path-of-a-click-stimulus-from-ear-canal-to-umbo
#3
Mario Milazzo, Elika Fallah, Michael Carapezza, Nina S Kumar, Jason H Lei, Elizabeth S Olson
The tympanic membrane (TM) has a key role in transmitting sounds to the inner ear, but a concise description of how the TM performs this function remains elusive. This paper probes TM operation by applying a free field click stimulus to the gerbil ear and exploring the consequent motions of the TM and umbo. Motions of the TM were measured both on radial tracks starting close to the umbo and on a grid distal and adjacent to the umbo. The experimental results confirmed the high fidelity of sound transmission from the ear canal to the umbo...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087249/nick-initiated-homologous-recombination-protecting-the-genome-one-strand-at-a-time
#4
REVIEW
Lianne E M Vriend, Przemek M Krawczyk
Homologous recombination (HR) is an essential, widely conserved mechanism that utilizes a template for accurate repair of DNA breaks. Some early HR models, developed over five decades ago, anticipated single-strand breaks (nicks) as initiating lesions. Subsequent studies favored a more double-strand break (DSB)-centered view of HR initiation and at present this pathway is primarily considered to be associated with DSB repair. However, mounting evidence suggests that nicks can indeed initiate HR directly, without first being converted to DSBs...
December 29, 2016: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087224/5-ht6-receptor-blockade-regulates-primary-cilia-morphology-in-striatal-neurons
#5
Matthew Brodsky, Adam J Lesiak, Alex Croicu, Nathalie Cohenca, Jane M Sullivan, John F Neumaier
The 5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including habitual behaviors, learning, and memory. It is found almost exclusively in the brain, is expressed abundantly in striatum, and localizes to neuronal primary cilia. Primary cilia are antenna-like, sensory organelles found on most neurons that receive both chemical and mechanical signals from other cells and the surrounding environment; however, the effect of 5-HT6 receptor function on cellular morphology has not been examined...
January 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086870/a-pilot-study-of-a-community-health-agent-led-type-2-diabetes-self-management-program-using-motivational-interviewing-based-approaches-in-a-public-primary-care-center-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#6
Thais Moura Ribeiro do Valle Nascimento, Ken Resnicow, Marcia Nery, Alexandra Brentani, Elizabeth Kaselitz, Pooja Agrawal, Simanjit Mand, Michele Heisler
BACKGROUND: Rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as type 2 diabetes are escalating in low and middle-income countries such as Brazil. Scalable primary care-based interventions are needed to improve self-management and clinical outcomes of adults with diabetes. This pilot study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of training community health agents (CHAs) in Motivational Interviewing (MI)-based counseling for patients with poorly controlled diabetes in a primary care center in São Paulo, Brazil...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086867/process-evaluation-of-an-integrated-care-pathway-in-geriatric-rehabilitation-for-people-with-complex-health-problems
#7
Irma H J Everink, Jolanda C M van Haastregt, Jose M C Maessen, Jos M G A Schols, Gertrudis I J M Kempen
BACKGROUND: An integrated care pathway in geriatric rehabilitation was developed to improve coordination and continuity of care for community-living older adults in the Netherlands, who go through the process of hospital admission, admission to a geriatric rehabilitation facility and discharge back to the home situation. This pathway is a complex intervention and is focused on improving communication, triage and transfers of patients between the hospital, geriatric rehabilitation facility and primary care organisations...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081160/estimates-of-abundance-and-trend-of-chilean-blue-whales-off-isla-de-chilo%C3%A3-chile
#8
Barbara Galletti Vernazzani, Jennifer A Jackson, Elsa Cabrera, Carole A Carlson, Robert L Brownell
Since 1970, blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have been seen feeding in the waters off southern Chile during the summer and autumn (December to May). Investigation of the genetic, acoustic and morphological characteristics of these blue whales shows that they are a distinct but unnamed subspecies, called the Chilean blue whales. Photo-identification surveys have been conducted in the waters off northwestern Isla Grande de Chiloé, southern Chile from 2004-2012 and Isla Chañaral, central Chile in 2012. Over this time, 1,070 blue whales were encountered yielding, after photo-quality control, 318 and 267 unique photographs of the left and right side of the flank respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079754/ultrasound-guided-needle-technique-accuracy-prospective-comparison-of-passive-magnetic-tracking-versus-unassisted-echogenic-needle-localization
#9
Angela N Johnson, Jeffery S Peiffer, Nahi Halmann, Luke Delaney, Cindy A Owen, Jeff Hersh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia facilitates an approach to sensitive targets such as nerve clusters without contact or inadvertent puncture. We compared accuracy of needle placement with a novel passive magnetic ultrasound needle guidance technology (NGT) versus conventional ultrasound (CU) with echogenic needles. METHODS: Sixteen anesthesiologists and 19 residents performed a series of 16 needle insertion tasks each, 8 using NGT (n = 280) and 8 using CU (n = 280), in high-fidelity porcine phantoms...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079267/estimating-4d-cbct-from-prior-information-and-extremely-limited-angle-projections-using-structural-pca-and-weighted-free-form-deformation-for-lung-radiotherapy
#10
Wendy Harris, You Zhang, Fang-Fang Yin, Lei Ren
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using structural-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. METHODS: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#11
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077660/muscle-spindles-in-human-tibialis-anterior-encode-muscle-fascicle-length-changes
#12
James Thomas Day, Leah R Bent, Ingvars Birznieks, Vaughan G Macefield, Andrew G Cresswell
Muscle spindles provide exquisitely sensitive proprioceptive information regarding joint position and movement. Through passively driven length changes in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), muscle spindles detect joint rotations because of their in-parallel mechanical linkage to muscle fascicles. In human microneurography studies, muscle fascicles are assumed to follow the MTU and, as such, fascicle length is not measured in such studies. However, under certain mechanical conditions compliant structures can act to decouple the fascicles, and therefore the spindles, from the MTU...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077437/sensitized-signalling-between-l-type-ca2-channels-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-the-absence-or-inhibition-of-fkbp12-6-in-cardiomyocytes
#13
Yan-Ting Zhao, Yun-Bo Guo, Lei Gu, Xue-Xin Fan, Hua-Qian Yang, Zheng Chen, Peng Zhou, Qi Yuan, Guang-Ju Ji, Shi-Qiang Wang
AIMS: The heart contraction is controlled by the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+ )release (CICR) between L-type Ca(2+ )channels and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). The FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6 binds to RyR subunits, but its role in stabilizing RyR function has been debated for long. Recent reports of high-resolution RyR structure show that the HD2 domain that binds to the SPRY2 domain of neighbouring subunit in FKBP-bound RyR1 is detached and invisible in FKBP-null RyR2. The present study was to test the consequence of FKBP12...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077421/aortic-wave-reflection-during-orthostatic-challenges-influence-of-body-position-and-venous-pooling
#14
William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
BACKGROUND: Aortic wave reflection (augmentation index; AIx) decreases during orthostatic challenges despite increased peripheral resistance, which is thought to be due to venous pooling. The purpose of this study was to examine if the decrease in AIx during an orthostatic challenge is due to venous pooling alone or body position manipulation. METHODS: Twenty-three young, healthy adults (11F/12M) participated in 3 separate orthostatic challenges (5 minutes each); 60° head-up tilt (HUT), 60° HUT with bilateral rhythmic blood pressure (BP) cuff inflation on calves (75 mm Hg) to minimize venous pooling, and lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -30 mm Hg) for venous pooling independent of body position...
February 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077414/implementation-of-a-consumer-focused-ehealth-intervention-for-people-with-moderate-to-high-cardiovascular-disease-risk-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-process-evaluation
#15
Genevieve M Coorey, Lis Neubeck, Timothy Usherwood, David Peiris, Sharon Parker, Annie Y S Lau, Clara Chow, Kathryn Panaretto, Mark Harris, Nicholas Zwar, Julie Redfern
INTRODUCTION: Technology-mediated strategies have potential to engage patients in modifying unhealthy behaviour and improving medication adherence to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, electronic tools offer a medium by which consumers can more actively navigate personal healthcare information. Understanding how, why and among whom such strategies have an effect can help determine the requirements for implementing them at a scale. This paper aims to detail a process evaluation that will (1) assess implementation fidelity of a multicomponent eHealth intervention; (2) determine its effective features; (3) explore contextual factors influencing and maintaining user engagement; and (4) describe barriers, facilitators, preferences and acceptability of such interventions...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075177/function-and-origin-of-mistranslation-in-distinct-cellular-contexts
#16
Michael H Schwartz, Tao Pan
Mistranslation describes errors during protein synthesis that prevent the amino acid sequences specified in the genetic code from being reflected within proteins. For a long time, mistranslation has largely been considered an aberrant cellular process that cells actively avoid at all times. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that cells from all three domains of life not only tolerate certain levels and forms of mistranslation, but actively induce mistranslation under certain circumstances. To this end, dedicated biological mechanisms have recently been found to reduce translational fidelity, which indicates that mistranslation is not exclusively an erroneous process and can even benefit cells in particular cellular contexts...
January 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074572/the-sbirt-program-matrix-a-conceptual-framework-for-program-implementation-and-evaluation
#17
Frances K Del Boca, Bonnie McRee, Janice Vendetti, Donna Damon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a comprehensive, integrated, public health approach to the delivery of services to those at risk for the adverse consequences of alcohol and other drug use, and for those with probable substance use disorders. Research on successful SBIRT implementation has lagged behind studies of efficacy and effectiveness. This paper (1) outlines a conceptual framework, the SBIRT Program Matrix, to guide implementation research and program evaluation and (2) specifies potential implementation outcomes...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073664/extract-of-bulbus-fritillaria-cirrhosa-perturbs-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-induces-mitotic-aberrations-and-genomic-instability-in-human-colon-epithelial-cell-line
#18
Xihan Guo, Juan Ni, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
BACKGROUND: Bulbus Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don (BFC) has been used in China as a folk medicine for the treatment of cough and asthma for more than 2000 years. The antitussive and antiasthmatic effects of BFC have been reported before, nevertheless its toxicity and safety have not been documented. This study investigated the possible effects of BFC on spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic fidelity and genomic stability in human NCM460 colon epithelial cells. METHODS: Cells were treated with BFC (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160μg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72h and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073642/long-term-impact-of-primary-domestic-sewage-on-metal-loid-accumulation-in-drainage-ditch-sediments-plants-and-water-implications-for-phytoremediation-and-restoration
#19
Mathieu Nsenga Kumwimba, Bo Zhu, Fidèle Suanon, Diana Kavidia Muyembe, Mawuli Dzakpasu
We evaluate the long-term performance of a vegetated drainage ditch (VDD) treating domestic sewage with respect to heavy metal/metalloid (HM/M) accumulation in sediments, plants and water. VDD sediment contained significantly higher macro and trace elements compared to an agricultural ditch (AD) sediment. However, concentrations of HM/Ms in VDD sediment were below the ranges considered toxic to plants. Most HM/Ms were efficiently removed in the VDD, whereby removal efficiencies varied between 11% for Al and 89% for K...
January 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072761/immediate-chest-x-ray-for-patients-at-risk-of-lung-cancer-presenting-in-primary-care-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial
#20
Richard D Neal, Allan Barham, Emily Bongard, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Jim Fitzgibbon, Gareth Griffiths, Willie Hamilton, Kerenza Hood, Annmarie Nelson, David Parker, Cath Porter, Hayley Prout, Kirsty Roberts, Trevor Rogers, Emma Thomas-Jones, Angela Tod, Seow Tien Yeo, Chris N Hurt
BACKGROUND: Achieving earlier stage diagnosis is one option for improving lung cancer outcomes in the United Kingdom. Patients with lung cancer typically present with symptoms to general practitioners several times before referral or investigation. METHODS: We undertook a mixed methods feasibility individually randomised controlled trial (the ELCID trial) to assess the feasibility and inform the design of a definitive, fully powered, UK-wide, Phase III trial of lowering the threshold for urgent investigation of suspected lung cancer...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
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