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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351627/repair-kinetics-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-and-incidence-of-apoptosis-in-mouse-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-and-their-differentiated-neurons-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#1
Hiroki Kashiwagi, Kazunori Shiraishi, Kenta Sakaguchi, Tomoya Nakahama, Seiji Kodama
Neuronal loss leads to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Because of their long lifespans, neurons are assumed to possess highly efficient DNA repair ability and to be able to protect themselves from deleterious DNA damage such as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by intrinsic and extrinsic sources. However, it remains largely unknown whether the DSB repair ability of neurons is more efficient compared with that of other cells. Here, we investigated the repair kinetics of X-ray-induced DSBs in mouse neural cells by scoring the number of phosphorylated 53BP1 foci post irradiation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350951/high-fidelity-preservation-of-quantum-information-during-trapped-ion-transport
#2
Peter Kaufmann, Timm F Gloger, Delia Kaufmann, Michael Johanning, Christof Wunderlich
A promising scheme for building scalable quantum simulators and computers is the synthesis of a scalable system using interconnected subsystems. A prerequisite for this approach is the ability to faithfully transfer quantum information between subsystems. With trapped atomic ions, this can be realized by transporting ions with quantum information encoded into their internal states. Here, we measure with high precision the fidelity of quantum information encoded into hyperfine states of a ^{171}Yb^{+} ion during ion transport in a microstructured Paul trap...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350945/controlled-phase-gate-for-photons-based-on-stationary-light
#3
Ivan Iakoupov, Johannes Borregaard, Anders S Sørensen
We propose a method to induce strong effective interactions between photons mediated by an atomic ensemble. To achieve this, we use the so-called stationary light effect to enhance the interaction. Regardless of the single-atom coupling to light, the interaction strength between the photons can be enhanced by increasing the total number of atoms. For sufficiently many atoms, the setup can be viable as a controlled-phase gate for photons. We derive analytical expressions for the fidelities for two modes of gate operation: deterministic and heralded conditioned on the presence of two photons at the output...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349918/dual-drug-backboned-shattering-polymeric-theranostic-nanomedicine-for-synergistic-eradication-of-patient-derived-lung-cancer
#4
Yuwei Cong, Haihua Xiao, Hejian Xiong, Zigui Wang, Jianxun Ding, Chan Li, Xuesi Chen, Xing-Jie Liang, Dongfang Zhou, Yubin Huang
Most of the current nanoparticle-based therapeutics worldwide failing in clinical trials face three major challenges: (i) lack of an optimum drug delivery platform with precise composition, (ii) lack of a method of directly monitoring the fate of a specific drug rather than using any other labelling molecules as a compromise, and (iii) lack of reliable cancer models with high fidelity for drug screen and evaluation. Here, starting from a PP2A inhibitor demethylcantharidin (DMC) and cisplatin, the design of a dual sensitive dual drug backboned shattering polymer (DDBSP) with exact composition at a fixed DMC/Pt ratio for precise nanomedicine is shown...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347910/getting-messier-with-tidier-embracing-context-and-complexity-in-intervention-reporting
#5
Sarah Cotterill, Sarah Knowles, Anne-Marie Martindale, Rebecca Elvey, Susan Howard, Nia Coupe, Paul Wilson, Michael Spence
BACKGROUND: The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide was developed by an international team of experts to promote full and accurate description of trial interventions. It is now widely used in health research. The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of using TIDieR outside of trials, in a range of applied health research contexts, and make recommendations on its usefulness in such settings. MAIN BODY: We used the TIDieR template for intervention description in six applied health research projects...
January 18, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347662/deciphering-the-kinetic-structure-of-multi-ion-plasma-shocks
#6
Brett D Keenan, Andrei N Simakov, Luis Chacón, William T Taitano
Strong collisional shocks in multi-ion plasmas are featured in many high-energy-density environments, including inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, their basic structure and its dependence on key parameters (e.g., the Mach number and the plasma ion composition) are poorly understood, and inconsistencies in that regard remain in the literature. In particular, the shock width's dependence on the Mach number has been hotly debated for decades. Using a high-fidelity Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP, and direct comparisons to multi-ion hydrodynamic simulations and semianalytic predictions, we resolve the structure of steady-state planar shocks in D-^{3}He plasmas...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347483/quantum-fidelity-approach-to-the-ground-state-properties-of-the-one-dimensional-axial-next-nearest-neighbor-ising-model-in-a-transverse-field
#7
O F de Alcantara Bonfim, B Boechat, J Florencio
In this work we analyze the ground-state properties of the s=1/2 one-dimensional axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model in a transverse field using the quantum fidelity approach. We numerically determined the fidelity susceptibility as a function of the transverse field B_{x} and the strength of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction J_{2}, for systems of up to 24 spins. We also examine the ground-state vector with respect to the spatial ordering of the spins. The ground-state phase diagram shows ferromagnetic, floating, and 〈2,2〉 phases, and we predict an infinite number of modulated phases in the thermodynamic limit (L→∞)...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347290/turbulent-transport-and-mixing-in-transitional-rayleigh-taylor-unstable-flow-a-priori-assessment-of-gradient-diffusion-and-similarity-modeling
#8
Oleg Schilling, Nicholas J Mueschke
Data from a 1152×760×1280 direct numerical simulation [N. J. Mueschke and O. Schilling, Phys. Fluids 21, 014106 (2009)PHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.3064120] of a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer modeled after a small-Atwood-number water-channel experiment is used to investigate the validity of gradient diffusion and similarity closures a priori. The budgets of the mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, heavy-fluid mass fraction variance, and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance dissipation rate transport equations across the mixing layer were previously analyzed [O...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347065/theory-of-wavelet-based-coarse-graining-hierarchies-for-molecular-dynamics
#9
Berend Christopher Rinderspacher, Jaydeep P Bardhan, Ahmed E Ismail
We present a multiresolution approach to compressing the degrees of freedom and potentials associated with molecular dynamics, such as the bond potentials. The approach suggests a systematic way to accelerate large-scale molecular simulations with more than two levels of coarse graining, particularly applications of polymeric materials. In particular, we derive explicit models for (arbitrarily large) linear (homo)polymers and iterative methods to compute large-scale wavelet decompositions from fragment solutions...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346901/method-of-model-reduction-and-multifidelity-models-for-solute-transport-in-random-layered-porous-media
#10
Zhijie Xu, Alexandre M Tartakovsky
This work presents a method of model reduction that leads to models with three solutions of increasing fidelity (multifidelity models) for solute transport in a bounded layered porous media with random permeability. The model generalizes the Taylor-Aris dispersion theory to stochastic transport in random layered porous media with a known velocity covariance function. In the reduced model, we represent (random) concentration in terms of its cross-sectional average and a variation function. We derive a one-dimensional stochastic advection-dispersion-type equation for the average concentration and a stochastic Poisson equation for the variation function, as well as expressions for the effective velocity and dispersion coefficient...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346298/motion-tracking-system-for-robust-non-contact-blood-perfusion-sensor
#11
Masaaki Hashimoto, Yoshihiro Taguchi
We propose a motion-robust laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) system that can be used as a non-contact blood perfusion sensor for medical diagnosis. Endoscopic LDF systems are typically limited in their usefulness in clinical contexts by the need for the natural organs to be immobilized, as serious motion artifacts due to the axial surface displacement can interfere with blood perfusion measurements. In our system, the focusing lens moves to track the motion of the target using a low-frequency reference signal in the optical data, enabling the suppression of these motion artifacts in the axial direction...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346205/-that-s-not-what-i-said-seeking-fidelity-in-citations
#12
David B Waisel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344874/laser-capture-microdissection-based-rna-seq-of-barley-grain-tissues
#13
Ronny Brandt, Martin Mascher, Johannes Thiel
Spatiotemporal patterning throughout the plant body depends to a large degree on cell- and tissue-specific expression of genes. Subsequently, for a better understanding of cell and tissue differentiation processes during plant development it is important to conduct transcript analyses in individual cells or tissue types rather than in bulk tissues. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) provides a useful method for isolating specific cell types from complex tissue structures for downstream applications. Contrasting to mammalian cells, the texture of plant cells is more critical due to hard, cellulose-rich cell walls, large vacuoles, and air spaces which complicates tissue preparation and extraction of macromolecules, like DNA and RNA...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344773/beyond-content-cultural-perspectives-on-using-the-internet-to-deliver-a-sexual-health-intervention-to-american-indian-youth
#14
Kirsten J Black, Bradley Morse, Nicole Tuitt, CeCe Big Crow, Carly Shangreau, Carol E Kaufman
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) youth are characterized by high rates of pregnancy and risky sexual behavior. Reaching these youth with culturally appropriate interventions is difficult due to geographic dispersion and cultural isolation. Online interventions can provide opportunities for reaching and engaging AIAN youth. However, electronic interventions are also impersonal and this can be culturally incongruous for AIANs and other populations for whom traditional ceremonies, practices and patterns of interpersonal communication are central...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344401/protocol-for-moving-on-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-increase-outcome-expectations-and-exercise-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#15
Rachel Hirschey, Gretchen Kimmick, Marilyn Hockenberry, Ryan Shaw, Wei Pan, Isaac Lipkus
Aim: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and fidelity of an intervention, Moving On, aimed to increase outcome expectations OEs (i.e. what one expects to obtain or avoid as a result of a behaviour) and exercise among breast cancer survivors. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Intervention arm participants will be given a theory-guided booklet that was co-created by the research team and three physically active breast cancer survivors who exercise to manage late and long-term treatment effects...
January 2018: Nursing Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344354/a-study-on-the-implementation-fidelity-of-the-performance-based-financing-policy-in-burkina-faso-after-12%C3%A2-months
#16
Oriane Bodson, Ahmed Barro, Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Nestor Zanté, Paul-André Somé, Valéry Ridde
Background: Performance-based financing (PBF) in the health sector has recently gained momentum in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as one of the ways forward for achieving Universal Health Coverage. The major principle underlying PBF is that health centers are remunerated based on the quantity and quality of services they provide. PBF has been operating in Burkina Faso since 2011, and as a pilot project since 2014 in 15 health districts randomly assigned into four different models, before an eventual scale-up...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343235/comparison-of-three-assembly-strategies-for-a-heterozygous-seedless-grapevine-genome-assembly
#17
Sagar Patel, Zhixiu Lu, Xiaozhu Jin, Padmapriya Swaminathan, Erliang Zeng, Anne Y Fennell
BACKGROUND: De novo heterozygous assembly is an ongoing challenge requiring improved assembly approaches. In this study, three strategies were used to develop de novo Vitis vinifera 'Sultanina' genome assemblies for comparison with the inbred V. vinifera (PN40024 12X.v2) reference genome and a published Sultanina ALLPATHS-LG assembly (AP). The strategies were: 1) a default PLATANUS assembly (PLAT_d) for direct comparison with AP assembly, 2) an iterative merging strategy using METASSEMBLER to combine PLAT_d and AP assemblies (MERGE) and 3) PLATANUS parameter modifications plus GapCloser (PLAT*_GC)...
January 17, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343130/a-community-based-exercise-program-to-increase-participation-in-physical-activities-among-youth-with-disability-a-feasibility-study
#18
Nora Shields, Roos van den Bos, Kirsty Buhlert-Smith, Luke Prendergast, Nicholas Taylor
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of a student-mentored community-based exercise program for youth with disability. METHOD: Nineteen youth (nine female; mean age 18 years) with disability (seven cerebral palsy, six Down syndrome, three spina bifida, two autism spectrum disorder, one spinal cord injury) were recruited. Each participant was matched with a student mentor and exercised twice a week for 12 weeks at their local gymnasium. Five domains of feasibility were assessed: demand, implementation, practicality, limited efficacy testing, and acceptability...
January 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342242/meiotic-spindle-formation-in-mammalian-oocytes-implications-for-human-infertility
#19
Suk Namgoong, Nam-Hyung Kim
In the final stage of oogenesis, mammalian oocytes generate a meiotic spindle and undergo chromosome segregation to yield an egg that is ready for fertilization. Herein, we describe the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms controlling formation of the meiotic spindle in metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) in mammalian oocytes, and focus on the differences between mouse and human oocytes. Unlike mitotic cells, mammalian oocytes lack typical centrosomes that consist of two centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar matrix proteins (PCM), which serve as microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most somatic cells...
January 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341777/high-fidelity-single-shot-singlet-triplet-readout-of-precision-placed-donors-in-silicon
#20
M A Broome, T F Watson, D Keith, S K Gorman, M G House, J G Keizer, S J Hile, W Baker, M Y Simmons
In this work we perform direct single-shot readout of the singlet-triplet states in exchange coupled electrons confined to precision-placed donor atoms in silicon. Our method takes advantage of the large energy splitting given by the Pauli-spin blockaded (2,0) triplet states, from which we can achieve a single-shot readout fidelity of 98.4±0.2%. We measure the triplet-minus relaxation time to be of the order 3 s at 2.5 T and observe its predicted decrease as a function of magnetic field, reaching 0.5 s at 1 T...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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