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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150622/evidence-of-quantum-phase-transition-in-real-space-vacuum-entanglement-of-higher-derivative-scalar-quantum-field-theories
#1
S Santhosh Kumar, S Shankaranarayanan
In a bipartite set-up, the vacuum state of a free Bosonic scalar field is entangled in real space and satisfies the area-law- entanglement entropy scales linearly with area of the boundary between the two partitions. In this work, we show that the area law is violated in two spatial dimensional model Hamiltonian having dynamical critical exponent z = 3. The model physically corresponds to next-to-next-to-next nearest neighbour coupling terms on a lattice. The result reported here is the first of its kind of violation of area law in Bosonic systems in higher dimensions and signals the evidence of a quantum phase transition...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150562/the-role-of-mhc-e-in-t-cell-immunity-is-conserved-among-humans-rhesus-macaques-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#2
Helen L Wu, Roger W Wiseman, Colette M Hughes, Gabriela M Webb, Shaheed A Abdulhaqq, Benjamin N Bimber, Katherine B Hammond, Jason S Reed, Lina Gao, Benjamin J Burwitz, Justin M Greene, Fidel Ferrer, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Byung S Park, Simon Brackenridge, Nicholas J Maness, Andrew J McMichael, Louis J Picker, David H O'Connor, Scott G Hansen, Jonah B Sacha
MHC-E is a highly conserved nonclassical MHC class Ib molecule that predominantly binds and presents MHC class Ia leader sequence-derived peptides for NK cell regulation. However, MHC-E also binds pathogen-derived peptide Ags for presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Given this role in adaptive immunity and its highly monomorphic nature in the human population, HLA-E is an attractive target for novel vaccine and immunotherapeutic modalities. Development of HLA-E-targeted therapies will require a physiologically relevant animal model that recapitulates HLA-E-restricted T cell biology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150002/gene-editing-and-crispr-therapeutics-strategies-taught-by-cell-and-gene-therapy
#3
Juan C Ramirez
A few years ago, we assisted in the demonstration for the first time of the revolutionary idea of a type of adaptive-immune system in the bacteria kingdom. This system, named CRISPR, and variants engineered in the lab, have been demonstrated as functional with extremely high frequency and fidelity in almost all eukaryotic cells studied to date. The capabilities of this RNA-guided nuclease have added to the interest that was announced with the advent of previous technologies for genome editing tools, such as ZFN and TALEN...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149915/quality-of-intervention-delivery-in-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-a-qualitative-observational-study-with-lessons-for-fidelity
#4
Karen James, Alan Quirk, Sue Patterson, Geoff Brennan, Duncan Stewart
BACKGROUND: Understanding intervention fidelity is an essential part of the evaluation of complex interventions because fidelity not only affects the validity of trial findings, but also because studies of fidelity can be used to identify barriers and facilitators to successful implementation, and so provide important information about factors likely to impact the uptake of the intervention into clinical practice. Participant observation methods have been identified as being particularly valuable in studies of fidelity, yet are rarely used...
November 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149026/non-catalytic-roles-of-the-topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-c-terminal-domain
#5
REVIEW
Duncan J Clarke, Yoshiaki Azuma
DNA Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) is a ubiquitous enzyme in eukaryotes that performs the strand passage reaction where a double helix of DNA is passed through a second double helix. This unique reaction is critical for numerous cellular processes. However, the enzyme also possesses a C-terminal domain (CTD) that is largely dispensable for the strand passage reaction but is nevertheless important for the fidelity of cell division. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the roles of the Topo IIα CTD, in particular in mitotic mechanisms where the CTD is modified by Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO), which in turn provides binding sites for key regulators of mitosis...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148716/rapid-quantification-of-4-4-methylenedianiline-by-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#6
Samuel L Kleinman, Mark C Peterman, Merwan Benhabib, Michael T Cheng, James D Hudson, Rachel E Mohler
Methylenedianiline (MDA) is a common industrial chemical with health and product safety concerns. Common analysis methods require many steps including extraction and derivatization ending in GC-MS or HPLC analysis, which minimize its use as an on-line or at-line technique. The procedure can take hours, prohibiting its use as a real-time decision-making tool as well as using valuable resources and laboratory space. The new method presented here has been validated for MDA quantification in industrial grease samples over the concentration range of 1-40 ppm 4,4'-MDA...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147530/programmed-serial-stereochemical-relay-and-its-application-in-the-synthesis-of-morphinans
#7
Kun Ho Kenny Park, Rui Chen, David Y-K Chen
Herein we report a rationally designed, serial point-to-axial and axial-to-point stereoinduction and its integration into multi-step and target-oriented organic synthesis. In this proof-of-concept study, the configurational stability of several carefully designed atropisomeric intermediates and the fidelity of their unconventional stereoinductions were systematically investigated. The highly functionalized prepared synthetic intermediate was further applied in a novel chemical method to access the morphinans and it is potentially applicable to other structurally related alkaloids...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147168/study-of-the-characteristics-of-pulmonary-trunk-in-pulmonary-hypertension-secondary-to-left-heart-disease-using-pressure-velocity-loops-pu-loops
#8
Shizuo Hanya, Kengo Yoshii, Motoaki Sugawara
Objectives: Although pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by left heart disease (PH-LHD) is more common in PH, little is known about its properties of pulmonary artery (PA) in PH-LHD. The purpose of this study was to measure pulmonary regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and to quantify the magnitude of reflected waves in patients with PH-LHD by the analysis of the pressure-velocity loops (PU-loop). Methods: High-fidelity PA pressure (Pm) and PA velocity (Vm) were measured in 11 subjects with PH-LHD (mean Pm>25 mmHg), 1 subject with atrial septal defect (ASD) without PH and 12 control subjects, using multisensor catheters...
September 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146660/changing-physical-activity-behaviour-for-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial-istep-ms
#9
Jennifer M Ryan, Jennifer Fortune, Andrea Stennett, Cherry Kilbride, Nana Anokye, Christina Victor, Wendy Hendrie, Mohamed Abdul, Lorraine DeSouza, Grace Lavelle, Debbie Brewin, Lee David, Meriel Norris
INTRODUCTION: Although physical activity may reduce disease burden, fatigue and disability, and improve quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), many people with MS are physically inactive and spend significant time in sedentary behaviour. Behaviour change interventions may assist people with MS to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. However, few studies have investigated their effectiveness using objective measures of physical activity, particularly in the long term...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146385/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-implementation-of-good-life-with-osteoarthritis-in-denmark-gla-d-tm-group-education-and-exercise-for-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis-is-feasible-in-canada
#10
Aileen M Davis, Deborah Kennedy, Rosalind Wong, Susan Robarts, Søren T Skou, Rhona McGlasson, Linda C Li, Ewa Roos
OBJECTIVE: Adapt and evaluate the feasibility of implementing Good Life with osteoArthritis in Denmark (GLA:D(TM)) in Canada for people with mild to severe hip/knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Patients triaged to non-surgical management participated in two education sessions and 12 supervised, neuromuscular exercise classes. We used the RE-AIM implementation framework evaluating outcomes of Reach, Effectiveness/Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Patients completed surveys pre-program and at 3 months follow-up...
November 13, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145502/hi-fidelity-discrimination-of-isomirs-using-g-quadruplex-gatekeepers
#11
Nianjia Seow, Renzo A Fenati, Ashley R Connolly, Amanda V Ellis
Core microRNA (miRNA) sequences exist as populations of variants called isomiRs made up of different lengths and nucleotide compositions. In particular, the short sequences of miRNA make single-base isomiR mismatches very difficult to be discriminated. Non-specific hybridizations often arise when DNA probe-miRNA target hybridization is the primary, or initial, mode of detection. These errors then become exacerbated through subsequent amplification steps. Here, we present the design of DNA probes modified with poly-guanine (PG) tracts that were induced to form G-quadruplexes (G4) for hi-fidelity discrimination of miRNA core target sequence from single-base mismatched isomiRs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143446/realism-in-paediatric-emergency-simulations-a-prospective-comparison-of-in-situ-low-fidelity-and-centre-based-high-fidelity-scenarios
#12
Fenton O'Leary, Ioannis Pegiazoglou, Kathryn McGarvey, Ruza Novakov, Ingrid Wolfsberger, Jennifer Peat
OBJECTIVE: To measure scenario participant and faculty self-reported realism, engagement and learning for the low fidelity, in situ simulations and compare this to high fidelity, centre-based simulations. METHODS: A prospective survey of scenario participants and faculty completing in situ and centre-based paediatric simulations. RESULTS: There were 382 responses, 276 from scenario participants and 106 from faculty with 241 responses from in situ and 141 from centre-based simulations...
November 16, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142336/multi-atlas-based-ct-synthesis-from-conventional-mri-with-patch-based-refinement-for-mri-based-radiotherapy-planning
#13
Junghoon Lee, Aaron Carass, Amod Jog, Can Zhao, Jerry L Prince
Accurate CT synthesis, sometimes called electron density estimation, from MRI is crucial for successful MRI-based radiotherapy planning and dose computation. Existing CT synthesis methods are able to synthesize normal tissues but are unable to accurately synthesize abnormal tissues (i.e., tumor), thus providing a suboptimal solution. We propose a multi-atlas-based hybrid synthesis approach that combines multi-atlas registration and patch-based synthesis to accurately synthesize both normal and abnormal tissues...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142195/structural-basis-for-trna-dependent-cysteine-biosynthesis
#14
Meirong Chen, Koji Kato, Yume Kubo, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Yuchen Liu, Feng Long, William B Whitman, Pascal Lill, Christos Gatsogiannis, Stefan Raunser, Nobutaka Shimizu, Akira Shinoda, Akiyoshi Nakamura, Isao Tanaka, Min Yao
Cysteine can be synthesized by tRNA-dependent mechanism using a two-step indirect pathway, where O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase (SepRS) catalyzes the ligation of a mismatching O-phosphoserine (Sep) to tRNA(Cys) followed by the conversion of tRNA-bounded Sep into cysteine by Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (SepCysS). In ancestral methanogens, a third protein SepCysE forms a bridge between the two enzymes to create a ternary complex named the transsulfursome. By combination of X-ray crystallography, SAXS and EM, together with biochemical evidences, here we show that the three domains of SepCysE each bind SepRS, SepCysS, and tRNA(Cys), respectively, which mediates the dynamic architecture of the transsulfursome and thus enables a global long-range channeling of tRNA(Cys) between SepRS and SepCysS distant active sites...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141643/integrative-medicine-primary-care-assessing-the-practice-model-through-patients-experiences
#15
Robert L Crocker, Amy J Grizzle, Jason T Hurwitz, Rick A Rehfeld, Ivo Abraham, Randy Horwitz, Andrew Weil, Victoria Maizes
BACKGROUND: The University of Arizona Integrative Health Center (UAIHC) was an innovative integrative medicine (IM) adult primary care clinic in Phoenix, Arizona. UAIHC used a hybrid payment model to deliver comprehensive healthcare that includes conventional and complementary medical treatments. METHODS: Fidelity measures were collected to evaluate how well the IM care delivery process matched ideals for IM. Patient experiences are presented here. Patients visiting UAIHC on 1 of 10 randomly selected days between September 2013 and February 2015 were surveyed...
November 15, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#16
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141004/lack-of-mitochondrial-muts-homolog-1-in-toxoplasma-gondii-disrupts-maintenance-and-fidelity-of-mitochondrial-dna-and-reveals-metabolic-plasticity
#17
Tamila Garbuz, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
The importance of maintaining the fidelity of the mitochondrial genome is underscored by the presence of various repair pathways within this organelle. Presumably, the repair of mitochondrial DNA would be of particular importance in organisms that possess only a single mitochondrion, like the human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Understanding the machinery that maintains mitochondrial DNA in these parasites is of particular relevance, as mitochondrial function is a validated and effective target for anti-parasitic drugs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140344/experimental-realization-of-narrowband-four-photon-greenberger-horne-zeilinger-state-in-a-single-cold-atomic-ensemble
#18
Ming-Xin Dong, Wei Zhang, Zhi-Bo Hou, Yi-Chen Yu, Shuai Shi, Dong-Sheng Ding, Bao-Sen Shi
Multi-photon entangled states not only play a crucial role in research on quantum physics but also have many applications in quantum information fields such as quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum metrology. To fully exploit the multi-photon entangled states, it is important to establish the interaction between entangled photons and matter, which requires that photons have narrow bandwidth. Here, we report on the experimental generation of a narrowband four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with a fidelity of 64...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139595/structure-and-electronic-properties-of-unnatural-base-pairs-role-of-dispersion-interactions
#19
Ayan Datta, Sk Jahiruddin, Nilangshu Mandal
Recent report of the success of unnatural base pairs (UBPs) like d5SICS-dNaM to be incorporated within the gene sequence and get replicated with DNA is an important milestone in synthetic biology. Followed by this, several other UBPs like dTPT3-dNaM, dTPT3-dFIMO, dTPT3-IMO, dTPT3-FEMO, FTPT3-NaM, FTPT3-FIMO, FTPT3-IMO, FTPT3-FEMO, have demonstrated similar or better retention and fidelity inside cell. Among these base pairs, dNaM-dTPT3 has been optimized to be a better fit inside a pAIO plasmid. Based on both implicit and explicit dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that although the set of UBPs are significantly diverse in their elemental and structural configuration they do share a common trait of favoring a slipped parallel stacked dimer arrangement...
November 15, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139057/cadaveric-simulation-a-review-of-reviews
#20
REVIEW
M Yiasemidou, E Gkaragkani, D Glassman, C S Biyani
BACKGROUND: Traditional surgical training, largely based on the Halstedian model "see one, do one, teach one" is not as effective in the era of working time restrictions and elaborate shift-patterns. As a result, contemporary surgeons turned to educational methods outside the operating theatre such as simulation. Cadavers are high fidelity models but their use has ethical and cost implications and their availability may be limited. In this review, we explore the role of cadaveric simulation in modern surgical education...
November 14, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
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