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heavy metal

H Setälä, G Francini, J A Allen, A Jumpponen, N Hui, D J Kotze
Urban greenspaces provide ecosystem services like more natural ecosystems do. For instance, vegetation modifies soil properties, including pH and soil organic matter content, yet little is known about its effect on metals. We investigated whether the accumulation and mobility of heavy metals, nutrients and carbon is affected by plant functional types (evergreen or deciduous trees, lawns) in urban parks of varying ages in southern Finland. Plant types modified soil physico-chemical parameters differently, resulting in diverging accumulation and mobility of metals and other elements in park soils...
August 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Agata Zaborska, Agnieszka Beszczyńska-Möller, Maria Włodarska-Kowalczuk
In this study temporal changes of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu concentrations were studied in 19 dated sediment cores collected from Svalbard fjords and the Barents Sea. The main aim was to study spatial and historical variations in heavy metal concentrations, deposition rates and sources in the context of different metal transport pathways. Metal concentrations ranged from 5.7 to 45.8 mg kg(-1) for Pb, from 13.4 to 54.5 mg kg(-1) for Cu, from 0.01 to 0.90 mg kg(-1) for Cd and from 55.6 to 130.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn...
August 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Haixia Tian, Long Kong, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Wenxiang He
Sorption and desorption are critical processes to control the mobility and biotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) in soils. It is known that attendant anion species of heavy metals could affect metal adsorption on soils and might further alter their biotoxicity. However, for Cd, the influence of attendant anions on its sorption in soils and subsequent toxicity on soil enzymes are still unknown. In this work, four Cd compounds with different salt anions (SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), and Ac(-)) were selected to investigate their impact of on the sorption, soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP)...
August 17, 2017: Chemosphere
Juan Ramos-Treviño, Susana Bassol-Mayagoitia, Pablo Ruiz-Flores, Perla Karina Espino-Silva, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas, Sheila Adela Villa-Cedillo, Martha P Nava-Hernández
The Sertoli cell plays a vital role during the spermatogenesis process and has been identified as one of the main targets of the toxic action of heavy metals on the seminiferous epithelium. In the present work, the effect of lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), and Cadmium (Cd) in primary cultures of Sertoli cells was analyzed by measuring the expression of the genes Cldn11, Ocln, and Gja1 that participate in the tight and gap junctions, which are responsible for maintaining the blood-testis barrier. Sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of Wistar rats...
August 22, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Weihua Gu, Jianfeng Bai, Haiyan Yao, Jing Zhao, Xuning Zhuang, Qing Huang, Chenglong Zhang, JingWei Wang
For the objective of evaluating the contamination degree of heavy metals and analysing its variation trend in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in Shanghai, China, evaluation methods, which include single factor index method, geo-accumulation index method, comprehensive pollution index method, and potential ecological risk index method, were adopted in this study. The results revealed that the soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area was polluted by arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Wanying Zhang, Jie Yang, Zhongyuan Li, Dongmei Zhou, Fei Dang
The in situ stabilization has been widely used to remediate metal-contaminated soil. However, the long-term retaining performance of heavy metals and the associated risk after in situ stabilization remains unclear and has evoked amounting concerns. Here, Pb- or As-contaminated soil was stabilized by a commercial amendment. The availability of Pb and As after in situ stabilization were estimated by ten different in vitro chemical extractions and DGT technique. After amendment application, a significant decline in extractable Pb or As was observed in treatments of Milli-Q water, 0...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Memet Varol, Muhammet Raşit Sünbül
In this study, levels of ten metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc) in muscles of farmed and escaped farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Keban Dam Reservoir (Turkey) were determined. Also, human health risks associated with their consumption were assessed. Of ten metals, only Co and Fe levels in escaped rainbow trout were significantly higher than those in farmed rainbow trout. The metal levels in farmed and escaped rainbow trout were below the maximum permissible limits...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Li Wang, Yixin Lu, Chen Yang, Chengyu Chen, Weilin Huang, Zhi Dang
The stability of nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic environments is important to evaluate their adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Nanoparticle stability is known to be influenced by coexisting ions and dissolved organic matter. This study was designed to investigate the effects of coexisting low-level Cd(II) on the stability of humic acid-coated nano-TiO2 (HA-TiO2) particles in aquatic environments by measuring their aggregation kinetics through time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) and monitoring suspended HA-TiO2 concentrations via optical absorbance changes over time...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yongchao Zhou, Ping Zhang, Yiping Zhang, Jin Li, Tuqiao Zhang, Tingchao Yu
Sewer sediments and their associated contaminant released along with wet-weather discharges pose potential pollution risks to environment. This paper presents total characteristics of sediments collected from Jiaxing, China. Size distribution and concentrations of volatile solids (VS) and four metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr) of sediment samples from seven land use categories were analyzed. Then, the sediment samples were graded five fractions according to its settling velocity through the custom-built settling velocity-grading device...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guocheng Zhu, Yongning Bian, Andrew S Hursthouse, Peng Wan, Katarzyna Szymanska, Jiangya Ma, Xiaofeng Wang, Zilong Zhao
Natural organic matter (NOM) found in water sources is broadly defined as a mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules, characterized by its complex structure and paramount influence on water quality. Because the inevitable release of pollutants into aquatic environments due to an ineffective control of industrial and agricultural pollution, the evaluation of the interaction of NOM with heavy metals, nanoparticles, organic pollutants and other pollutants in the aquatic environment, has greatly increased. Three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence has the potential to reveal the interaction mechanisms between NOM and pollutants as well as the source of NOM pollution...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
M F Zaranyika, W Nyati
The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the existence of metal-metal interactions in plants and their implications for the absorption of toxic elements like Cr. Typha capensis, a good accumulator of heavy metals, was chosen for the study. Levels of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the soil and roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of T. capensis from three Sites A, B and C polluted by effluent from a chrome ore processing plant, a gold ore processing plant, and a nickel ore processing plant, respectively...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Brittany Twibell, Kalie Somerville, Geoffrey Manani, Molly Duszynski, Adam Wanekaya, Paul Schweiger
The growing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in industrial and consumer products raises important questions about their environmental fate and impact on prokaryotes. In the environment, CNTs are exposed to a variety of conditions (e.g., UV light) that could lead to decomposition and changes in their chemical properties. Therefore, the potential cytotoxic effect of both pristine and artificially aged carboxyl functionalized CNTRENE(®) C100LM CNTmaterial at neutral and acidic conditions on Escherichia coli K12 was analyzed using a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, which also allowed monitoring of non-lethal growth effects...
2017: PeerJ
Boopathy Usharani, Namasivayam Vasudevan
Secondary metabolites play a vital role in the treatment of various ailments as well as in phytoremediation. The link between secondary metabolites and phytoremediation needs exploration. Hitherto, no information is available regarding the phytochemical components that exist in the root exudates of Cyperus alternifolius. This study was designed to determine the phytocomponents in the root exudates of C. alternifolius under heavy metal stress. C. alternifolius was grown by a novel technique in partial hydroponic conditions and imperiled to a mixture of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Fe) at different concentrations...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Giftania Wardani, Nuraini Farida, Rina Andayani, Mahmiah Kuntoro, Sri Agus Sudjarwo
BACKGROUND: Lead is one of the most toxic metals, producing severe organ damage in animals and humans. Oxidative stress is reported to play an important role in lead acetate-induced liver injury. AIM: This study was carried out to investigate the role of ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii in protecting against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity in male mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample used fifty male mice which were divided into five groups: negative control (mice were given daily with Aquadest); positive control (mice were given daily with lead acetate 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) orally once in a day for 21 days); and the treatment group (mice were given E...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Markus Hoffmann, Bernd Zimmermann, Gideon P Müller, Daniel Schürhoff, Nikolai S Kiselev, Christof Melcher, Stefan Blügel
Chiral magnets are an emerging class of topological matter harboring localized and topologically protected vortex-like magnetic textures called skyrmions, which are currently under intense scrutiny as an entity for information storage and processing. Here, on the level of micromagnetics we rigorously show that chiral magnets can not only host skyrmions but also antiskyrmions as least energy configurations over all non-trivial homotopy classes. We derive practical criteria for their occurrence and coexistence with skyrmions that can be fulfilled by (110)-oriented interfaces depending on the electronic structure...
August 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Wanqiang Wang, Wenjuan Zhang, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Rui Tang, Feng Zhang, Qizhi Yang, Fen Zhu
With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
I P Shanura Fernando, K K Asanka Sanjeewa, Seo-Young Kim, Jung Suck Lee, You-Jin Jeon
Heavy metal contamination has become a major problem that causes severe environmental and health issues due to their biosorption, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate heavy metal chelating abilities of alginic acid (AA) extracted from the brown seaweed Ecklonia cava and two of its derivatives prepared by the partial oxidation of the 2° OH groups (OAA) and partial carboxylation of the monomeric units (CAA) upon reducing the heavy metal biosorption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) modal...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Changzi Ge, Xiru Yu, Manman Kan, Chunfeng Qu
The multiple-contamination of heavy metals and nutrients worsens increasingly and Ulva sp. green tide occurs almost simultaneously. To reveal the biological mechanism for outbreak of the green tide, Ulva pertusa was exposed to seven-day-multiple-contamination. The relation between pH variation (VpH), Chl a content, ratio of (Chl a content)/(Chl b content) (Rchla/chlb), SOD activity of U. pertusa (ASOD) and contamination concentration is [Formula: see text] (p<0.05), Cchla=0.88±0.09-0.01±0.00×CCd (p<0...
August 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yang-Guang Gu, Jun Ouyang, Hong An, Shi-Jun Jiang, Hong-Qu Tang
Settling particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected monthly during a 21-month-long (April 2014 to December 2015) monitoring program from a fish cage and a large seaweed (Gracilaria lemaneiformis) cultivation in a typical mariculture base in eastern coast of Guangdong Province, South China. The concentrations of eight heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, V and Mn) showed a clear seasonality with relatively higher levels in the rainy season for most metals. In addition, five metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) showed slightly higher concentrations in the fish cage than in the large seaweed cultivation...
August 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Patrick Fénichel, Nicolas Chevalier
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects...
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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