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heavy metal

Daquan Sun, Lauren Hale, Gourango Kar, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Sina Adl
Phosphorus ore extraction for soil fertilization supports the demand of modern agriculture, but extractable resource limitations, due to scarcity, impose a P reuse and recycling research agenda. Here we propose to integrate biochar production (pyrogenic carbon) with municipal and agricultural waste management systems, to recover and reuse phosphorous that would otherwise be lost from the ecological food web. A meta-analysis and available data on total P in biochar indicated that P-enriched feedstocks include animal manure, human excreta, and plant-biomass collected from P-polluted sites...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Chao Huang, Rongzhong Wang, Guangming Zeng, Danlian Huang, Cui Lai, Jiachao Zhang, Zhihua Xiao, Jia Wan, Piao Xu, Xiaomin Gong, Wenjing Xue, Xiaoya Ren
Metals released into the environment continue to be of concern for human health. Using white-rot fungi as biosorbents for heavy metals removal is an attractive alternative owing to its good performance and low cost. However, the molecular mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance in white-rot fungi has not yet been fully elucidated. This study identified and analyzed the lead (Pb)-induced transcriptional changes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a well-known heavy metal hyperaccumulating white-rot fungus. The results confirmed its outstanding ability in Pb tolerance and effective defense system...
December 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Sayka Jahan, Vladimir Strezov
Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochemical and biological variables that affect the port water quality...
2017: PloS One
Idelma A A Terra, Luiza A Mercante, Rafaela S Andre, Daniel S Correa
The accumulation of heavy metals in the human body and/or in the environment can be highly deleterious for mankind, and currently, considerable efforts have been made to develop reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection. Among the detection methods, chemical sensors appear as a promising technology, with emphasis on systems employing optically active nanofibers. Such nanofibers can be obtained by the electrospinning technique, and further functionalized with optically active chromophores such as dyes, conjugated polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials and nanoparticles, in order to produce fluorescent and colorimetric nanofibers...
December 15, 2017: Biosensors
Hongzhi Liu
Two different silsesquioxane-based porous polymers (FHPPs), i.e. FHPP-1 and FHPP-2 were prepared, respectively, by changing acid scavengers from sodium bicarbonate to triethylamine in the Heck reaction between octavinylsilsesquioxane (OVS) and 1, 4-dibromotetrafluorobenzene. It was observed that defluorination occurred in the case of triethylamine. FHPP-1 possessed higher surface area of 600 m2 g-1 and a hierarchical pore structure; in contrast, FHPP-2 possessed SBET of 325 m2 g-1 and a microporous structure...
December 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ángela Ares, Misao Itouga, Yukari Kato, Hitoshi Sakakibara
In this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation, tissue distribution and physiological responses to different metal concentration (0.2 and 2 mM) and time of exposure of 1, 2 and 3 weeks with cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) using the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Our data showed, on one hand, a significant enrichment and tissue translocation of Cu, Zn, and specially Cd, reaching concentrations of 1800 µg g- 1 in 3 weeks. On the other hand, Pb exhibited the lowest concentration values (50 µg g- 1), and 90% of the total concentration in the rhizoids...
December 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yerin Kang, Woonwoo Lee, Sunghoon Kim, Geupil Jang, Bong-Gyu Kim, Youngdae Yoon
Metals are essential to all organisms; accordingly, cells employ numerous genes to maintain metal homeostasis as high levels can be toxic. In the present study, the gene operons responsive to metal(loid)s were employed to generate bacterial cell-based biosensors to detect target metal(loid)s. The cluster of genes related to copper transport known as the cop-operon is regulated by the interaction between the copA promoter region (copAp) and CueR, turning on and off gene expression upon copper ion binding. Therefore, the detection of copper ions could be achieved by inserting a plasmid harboring the fusion of copAp and reporter genes, such as enzymes and fluorescent genes...
December 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tingting Liu, Liying Zhu, Zhiping Zhang, He Huang, Zhidong Zhang, Ling Jiang
An isolated black yeast-like strain was obtained from radiation-polluted soil collected from Xinjiang province in northwest China. On the basis of ITS and LSU rDNA sequence analysis, in combination with the colony morphology and phenotypic properties, the isolated strain was revealed to represent a novel variety of Aureobasidium subglaciale, designated as A. subglaciale F134. Compared to other yeasts and bacteria, this isolate displayed superior resistance to gamma irradiation, UV light, and heavy metal ions...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hui Yun, Bin Liang, Deyong Kong, Aijie Wang
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have been tentatively applied for wastewater treatment processes, but the complex composition of wastewater could lead to difficulties in establishing functional biofilm or result in performance instability. Few studies have investigated the enrichment of biocathode with domestic wastewater (DW) and the function. A biocathode with multi-pollutant removal capabilities was enriched based on polarity inverted bioanode, which was established with DW. The biocathode function was examined using model pollutants (nitrate, nitrobenzene and Acid Orange 7) supplemented as sole or mixed electron acceptors...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Ling Liu, Jiwei Li, Feixue Yue, Xinwei Yan, Fayuan Wang, Sean Bloszies, Yanfang Wang
Experiments conducted to understand how arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation or biochar application affect plant growth and heavy metal uptake have thus far looked at single applications of either soil amendment. There is little evidence of their synergistic effects, in particular for plants grown in cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to investigate the effect of AM inoculation (Glomus intraradices BEG 141) and/or wheat-straw biochar amendment on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Hongdan No...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Savita R Tapase, Kisan M Kodam
Arsenic oxidizing α-proteobacterial strain Microvirga indica S-MI1b sp. nov. was isolated from metal industry soil and has the ability to oxidize 15 mM of arsenite [As(III)] completely in 39 h. The strain S-MI1b resists to different heavy metals and it oxidizes arsenite in presence of Li, Pb, Hg, Sb(III), Cd, Cr(VI), Ni, and exhibited growth inhibitory effect in presence of Hg, Cu, and Cd at higher concentration. The morphology of Microvirga indica S-MI1b changed in presence of heavy metals however there was no accumulation of As(III) in the cells...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Matheus Sampaio Carneiro Barreto, Edson Marcio Mattiello, Wedisson Oliveira Santos, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo Melo, Leonardus Vergütz, Roberto Ferreira Novais
The production of fertilizers with industrial wastes reduces the environmental impacts of waste disposal and improves environmental sustainability by generating added-value products. Our objective with this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance and potential soil/plant contamination with heavy metals of alternative phosphate (P) fertilizers, obtained from the acidulation of phosphate rocks (PR) by a metallurgical acidic waste. Seven P fertilizers were evaluated: three PR (Araxá, Patos, and Bayóvar), their respective acidulated products (PAPR), and triple superphosphate fertilizer (TSP)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Kenji Mishima, Xiaoyu Du, Shunsuke Sekiguchi, Naoki Kano
In this work, chitosan bead materials were modified by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (EP) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for the removal of heavy metals in wastewater. Using these cross-linked chitosan materials, the dependence of adsorption of chromate anions on pH was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results show that the adsorption process of the chromate (Cr) ions greatly depends on the pH of the solution, with the chitosan modified by cross-linking being an efficient adsorbent for chromate...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Guansheng Liu, Hua Zhong, Xin Yang, Yang Liu, Binbin Shao, Zhifeng Liu
The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the advances in the applications of rhamnolipids biosurfactants in soil and ground water remediation for removal of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminants. The properties of rhamnolipids associated with the contaminant removal, i.e. solubilization, emulsification, dispersion, foaming, wetting, complexation, and the ability to modify bacterial cell surface properties, were reviewed in the first place. Then current remediation technologies with integration of rhamnolipid were summarized, and the effects and mechanisms for rhamnolipid to facilitate contaminant removal for these technologies were discussed...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Scott A Read, Grant Parnell, David Booth, Mark W Douglas, Jacob George, Golo Ahlenstiel
Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine rich proteins characterized by a high affinity for monovalent and divalent cations, such as copper and zinc. Of the four known metallothionein isoforms, only members of the metallothionein 1 and 2 subfamilies are widely expressed, acting as metal chaperones whose primary role is to mediate intracellular zinc homeostasis. Metallothioneins are potently induced by heavy metals and other sources of oxidative stress where they facilitate metal binding and detoxification as well as free radical scavenging...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Sulata Maity, Janka Poráčová, Partha Dey, Janka Vašková, Ladislav Vaško, Vincent Sedlák, Marta Mydlárová Blaščáková
The soil of Slovak Republic is severely contaminated with heavy metals, creating hazards to soil health. In order to assess the current status with the prospect of selecting the appropriate treatment methods and land use, this investigation aimed to determine a panel of complementary and ecologically relevant biomarkers that reflect adverse biological responses towards terrestrial pollutants. To attain this objective, the concentration of reduced glutathione and enzymes of glutathione antioxidant system were assessed in clitellate earthworm, Aporrectodea caliginosa sampled from selected sites of eastern Slovakia along with the pH and total metal concentration (As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) of soils...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Nur Khaliesah Jamadon, Nurfatini Busairi, Amir Syahir
Mercury (II) ion is among the most common pollutants with the ability to affect the environment. The implications from their elevation in the environment are mainly due to the industrialisation and urbanisation processes. Current determination of heavy metal ions primarily depends on sophisticated instruments for heavy metal ions monitoring. A point-of-care detection method was developed using inhibitive enzymatic reaction monitored through a smartphone. Horseradish peroxidase converted 4-aminoantipyrene into a red coloured product visible with the naked eye...
December 13, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
Geetha Melangath, Titash Sen, Rakesh Kumar, Pushpinder Bawa, Subha Srinivasan, Usha Vijayraghavan
Budding yeast spliceosomal factors ScSlu7 and ScPrp18 interact and mediate intron 3'ss choice during second step pre-mRNA splicing. The fission yeast genome with abundant multi-intronic transcripts, degenerate splice signals and SR proteins is an apt unicellular fungal model to deduce roles for core spliceosomal factors in alternative splice-site choice, intron retention and to study the cellular implications of regulated splicing. From our custom microarray data we deduce a stringent reproducible subset of S...
2017: PloS One
Soma Giri, Abhay Kumar Singh
Metal contamination was studied in locally rearing chicken and eggs in the environs of mining areas of Singhbhum copper belt. Concentrations of metals were below Indian standards except for Cu, Ni and Zn in the case of chicken at some locations. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) suggested that the metals did not pose risk individually. However, considering the geometric mean of the metals, hazard index (HI) was above unity. Cu, Pb and Co were the key components contributing to a potential noncarcinogenic risk...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Donna Green, Marianne Sullivan, Nathan Cooper, Annika Dean, Cielo Marquez
Mount Isa, Queensland, is one of three Australian cities with significant lead emissions due to nonferrous mining and smelting. Unlike the two other cities with lead mines or smelters, Mount Isa currently has no system of annual, systematic, community-wide blood lead level testing; and testing rates among Indigenous children are low. In previous screenings, this group of children has been shown to have higher average blood lead levels than non-Indigenous children. The first aim of this study was to assess whether parents and children would participate in less invasive, rapid point-of-care capillary testing...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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