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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334825/the-impact-of-base-stacking-on-the-conformations-and-electrostatics-of-single-stranded-dna
#1
Alex Plumridge, Steve P Meisburger, Kurt Andresen, Lois Pollack
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is notable for its interactions with ssDNA binding proteins (SSBs) during fundamentally important biological processes including DNA repair and replication. Previous work has begun to characterize the conformational and electrostatic properties of ssDNA in association with SSBs. However, the conformational distributions of free ssDNA have been difficult to determine. To capture the vast array of ssDNA conformations in solution, we pair small angle X-ray scattering with novel ensemble fitting methods, obtaining key parameters such as the size, shape and stacking character of strands with different sequences...
February 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334630/probing-the-oxidative-etching-induced-dissolution-of-palladium-nanocrystals-in-solution-by-liquid-cell-transmission-electron-microscopy
#2
Yingying Jiang, Guomin Zhu, Ganxing Dong, Fang Lin, Hui Zhang, Jun Yuan, Ze Zhang, Chuanhong Jin
A microscopic study of dissolution process of nanocrystals, an opposite while functioning cooperatively with growth in many cases, is an essential issue in variety aspects of research on nanocrystals. In this work, an in situ study of the dynamic dissolution process of palladium nanocrystals by liquid cell transmission electron microscope (TEM) is presented. The effective critical size (Rcritical) for monodispersed nanocrystals is determined to be about 5nm in the experimental condition of this article. When the size of nanocrystal is above Rcritical, the dissolution rate (dr/dt) is nearly a constant...
March 7, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333391/high-performance-nonfullerene-polymer-solar-cells-based-on-imide-functionalized-wide-bandgap-polymers
#3
Baobing Fan, Kai Zhang, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Lei Ying, Fei Huang, Yong Cao
High-performance nonfullerene polymer solar cells (PSCs) are developed by integrating the nonfullerene electron-accepting material 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophne) (ITIC) with a wide-bandgap electron-donating polymer PTzBI or PTzBI-DT, which consists of an imide functionalized benzotriazole (TzBI) building block. Detailed investigations reveal that the extension of conjugation can affect the optical and electronic properties, molecular aggregation properties, charge separation in the bulk-heterojunction films, and thus the overall photovoltaic performances...
March 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332401/ultrafast-excited-state-dynamics-of-cytosine-aza-derivative-and-analogues
#4
Zhongneng Zhou, Xueyao Zhou, Xueli Wang, Bin Jiang, Yongle Li, Jinquan Chen, Jianhua Xu
Excited state dynamics of 5-azacytosine (5-AC), 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine (2,4-DT), and 2-amino-1,3,5-triazine (2-AT) were comprehensively investigated with steady state absorption, fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations were performed to help assign the absorption bands and understand the excited state decay mechanisms. The experimental results of excited singlet state dynamics for 5-AC, 2,4-DT and 2-AT with femtosecond time resolution were reported for the first time...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332015/doubling-time-of-thymic-epithelial-tumours-on-ct-correlation-with-histological-subtype
#5
Jooae Choe, Sang Min Lee, Soyeoun Lim, Se Hoon Choi, Namkug Kim, Kyung-Hyun Do, Joon Beom Seo
OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively evaluated the doubling time (DT) of thymic epithelial tumours (TET) according to the histological subtype on CT. METHODS: From January 2005 to June 2016, we enrolled 53 patients who had pathologically confirmed TET and at least two CT scans. Tumour size was measured using a two-dimensional method, and the DT was calculated. DTs were compared among histological subtypes, and factors associated with rapid tumour growth (DT <180 days) were assessed...
March 22, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328712/resistance-training-induced-elevations-in-muscular-strength-in-trained-men-are-maintained-after-2-weeks-of-detraining-and-not-differentially-affected-by-whey-protein-supplementation
#6
Paul S Hwang, Thomas L Andre, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Flor E Morales Marroquín, Joshua J Gann, Joon J Song, Darryn S Willoughby
Hwang, PS, Andre, TL, McKinley-Barnard, SK, Morales Marroquín, FE, Gann, JJ, Song, JJ, and Willoughby, DS. Resistance training-induced elevations in muscular strength in trained men are maintained after 2 weeks of detraining and not differentially affected by whey protein supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 869-881, 2017-Resistance training (RT) with nutritional strategies incorporating whey protein intake postexercise can stimulate muscle protein synthesis and elicit hypertrophy. The early phases of training-induced anabolic responses can be attenuated with longer-term training...
April 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325947/spin-relaxation-dynamics-of-holes-in-intrinsic-gaas-quantum-wells-studied-by-transient-circular-dichromatic-absorption-spectroscopy-at-room-temperature
#7
Shaoyin Fang, Ruidan Zhu, Tianshu Lai
Spin relaxation dynamics of holes in intrinsic GaAs quantum wells is studied using time-resolved circular dichromatic absorption spectroscopy at room temperature. It is found that ultrafast dynamics is dominated by the cooperative contributions of band filling and many-body effects. The relative contribution of the two effects is opposite in strength for electrons and holes. As a result, transient circular dichromatic differential transmission (TCD-DT) with co- and cross-circularly polarized pump and probe presents different strength at several picosecond delay time...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325164/development-of-a-decision-making-tool-for-reporting-drivers-with-mild-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-transportation-administrators
#8
Duncan H Cameron, Carla Zucchero Sarracini, Linda Rozmovits, Gary Naglie, Nathan Herrmann, Frank Molnar, John Jordan, Anna Byszewski, David Tang-Wai, Jamie Dow, Christopher Frank, Blair Henry, Nicholas Pimlott, Dallas Seitz, Brenda Vrkljan, Rebecca Taylor, Mario Masellis, Mark J Rapoport
BACKGROUND: Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators...
March 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324209/molecular-cloning-structural-modeling-and-the-production-of-soluble-triple-mutated-diphtheria-toxoid-k51e-g52e-e148k-co-expressed-with-molecular-chaperones-in-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#9
Naphatsamon Uthailak, Pornpimol Mahamad, Pamorn Chittavanich, Somchai Yanarojana, Wassana Wijagkanalan, Jean Petre, Watanalai Panbangred
CRM197 is a diphtheria toxin (DT) mutant (G52E) which has been used as a carrier protein for conjugate vaccines. However, it still possesses cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. The goal of this project was to produce a non-toxic and soluble CRM197EK through introduction of triple amino acid substitutions (K51E/G52E/E148K) in Escherichia coli. The expression of CRM197EKTrxHis was optimized and co-expressed with different molecular chaperones. The soluble CRM197EKTrxHis was produced at a high concentration (97...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322590/randomized-clinical-trials-of-gene-transfer-for-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#10
William F Penny, H Kirk Hammond
Despite improvement in drug and device therapy for heart failure, hospitalization rates and mortality have changed little in the past decade. Randomized clinical trials using gene transfer to improve function of the failing heart are the focus of this review. Four randomized clinical trials of gene transfer in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have been published. Each enrolled patients with stable symptomatic HFrEF and used either intracoronary delivery of a virus vector or endocardial injection of a plasmid (1 trial)...
March 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320992/right-ventricular-enlargement-and-renal-function-are-associated-with-smooth-introduction-of-adaptive-servo-ventilation-therapy-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#11
Toshihiro Iwasaku, Yoshitaka Okuhara, Akiyo Eguchi, Tomotaka Ando, Yoshiro Naito, Tohru Masuyama, Shinichi Hirotani
Although adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy has beneficial effects on chronic heart failure (CHF), a relatively large number of CHF patients cannot undergo ASV therapy due to general discomfort from the mask and/or positive airway pressure. The present study aimed to clarify baseline patient characteristics which are associated with the smooth introduction of ASV treatment in stable CHF inpatients.Thirty-two consecutive heart failure (HF) inpatients were enrolled (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 10 mL/minute/1...
March 21, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320447/subclinical-dermal-involvement-is-detectable-by-high-frequency-ultrasound-even-in-patients-with-limited-cutaneous-systemic-sclerosis
#12
A Sulli, B Ruaro, V Smith, S Paolino, C Pizzorni, G Pesce, M Cutolo
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to detect by skin high-frequency ultrasound (US) possible subclinical skin involvement in patients affected by limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc), in those skin areas apparently not affected by the disease on the basis of a normal modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Differences in dermal thickness (DT) in comparison with healthy subjects were investigated. METHODS: Fifty patients with lcSSc (age 62 ± 13 years (mean ± SD), disease duration 5 ± 5 years) and 50 sex-matched and age-matched healthy subjects (age 62 ± 11 years) were enrolled...
March 20, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320095/dt-13-a-saponin-monomer-13-of-the-dwarf-lilyturf-tuber-synergized-with-vinorelbine-to-induce-mitotic-arrest-via-activation-of-erk-signaling-pathway-in-nci-h1299-cells
#13
Hongyang Li, Li Sun, Hang Li, Xiaodan Lv, Herve Semukunzi, Ruiming Li, Jun Yu, Shengtao Yuan, Sensen Lin
Vinorelbine (NVB) is a semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid that is approved for the clinical therapy of lung cancer. However, the clinical application of NVB was limited because of the acquisition of resistance and inacceptable toxicity. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop low-cytotoxic drugs that can synergize with NVB. DT-13, a saponin monomer 13 of the Dwarf lilyturf tuber, showed inhibitory effects on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis in the previous studies. Here, we found that DT-13 combined with NVB exhibited synergistic effect to inhibit the cell proliferation in human lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells rather than human embryonic lung fibroblasts WI-38...
March 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318037/deoxycytidine-and-deoxythymidine-treatment-for-thymidine-kinase-2-deficiency
#14
Carlos Lopez-Gomez, Rebecca J Levy, Maria J Sanchez-Quintero, Marti Juanola-Falgarona, Emanuele Barca, Beatriz Garcia-Diaz, Saba Tadesse, Caterina Garone, Michio Hirano
OBJECTIVE: Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), a critical enzyme in the mitochondrial pyrimidine salvage pathway, is essential for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. Mutations in the nuclear gene TK2 cause TK2 deficiency, which manifests predominantly in children as myopathy with mtDNA depletion. Molecular bypass therapy with the TK2 products, dCMP and dTMP, prolongs the lifespan of Tk2-deficient (Tk2(-/-) ) mice by 2-3 fold. Because we observed rapid catabolism of the deoxynucleoside monophosphates to deoxythymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC), we hypothesized that: 1) deoxynucleosides might be the major active agents and 2) inhibition of deoxycytidine deamination might enhance dTMP+dCMP therapy...
March 20, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306316/first-measurements-of-deuterium-tritium-and-deuterium-deuterium-fusion-reaction-yields-in-ignition-scalable-direct-drive-implosions
#15
C J Forrest, P B Radha, J P Knauer, V Yu Glebov, V N Goncharov, S P Regan, M J Rosenberg, T C Sangster, W T Shmayda, C Stoeckl, M Gatu Johnson
The deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium neutron yield ratio in cryogenic inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is used to examine multifluid effects, traditionally not included in ICF modeling. This ratio has been measured for ignition-scalable direct-drive cryogenic DT implosions at the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)OPCOB80030-401810.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2] using a high-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The experimentally inferred yield ratio is consistent with both the calculated values of the nuclear reaction rates and the measured preshot target-fuel composition...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303410/downregulation-of-myogenic-micrornas-in-sub-chronic-but-not-in-sub-acute-model-of-daunorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy
#16
Gabriel Doka, Eva Malikova, Kristina Galkova, Giampiero La Rocca, Peter Kruzliak, Mariusz Adamek, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Krenek, Jan Klimas
Cardiac muscle-related microRNAs play important roles in cardiac development and disease by translational silencing of mRNAs, the dominant mechanism of microRNA action. To test whether they could be involved in daunorubicin-associated cardiomyopathy (DACM), we determined expression patterns of myomiRs in two distinct models of DACM. We used 10-12 weeks old male Wistar rats. In the sub-acute model, rats were administered with six doses of daunorubicin (DAU-A, 3 mg/kg, i.p., every 48 h). Rats were sacrificed two days after the last dose...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301568/toxicity-of-spinosad-to-temephos-resistant-aedes-aegypti-populations-in-brazil
#17
Luciana Dos Santos Dias, Maria de Lourdes da Graça Macoris, Maria Teresa Macoris Andrighetti, Vanessa Camargo Garbeloto Otrera, Adriana Dos Santos Dias, Luiz Guilherme Soares da Rocha Bauzer, Cynara de Melo Rodovalho, Ademir Jesus Martins, José Bento Pereira Lima
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of different arboviruses and represents a major public health problem. Several Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti have developed resistance to temephos, the most used organophosphate larvicide. New tools which are less harmful to the environment and safer for humans are becoming increasingly important to control this insect vector. Spinosad, an aerobic fermentation product of a soil actinobacteria, has a favorable environmental profile. It presents selective insecticide properties, a mechanism of action that differs from those of many synthetic chemical insecticides...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293860/tissue-specific-daily-variation-in-the-oxidative-status-of-sturgeon-acipenser-naccarii-and-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-a-comparative-study
#18
M C Hidalgo, C E Trenzado, M Furné, A Beltrán, C Manzaneda, M García-Gallego, A Domezain, A Sanz
The oxidative status is associated with animal lifespan, metabolism, activity and circadian rhythms. The objective of this work is to study the time course of the oxidative status over a daily cycle in the plasma, liver and brain, and the changes in the plasma cortisol levels of sturgeon and trout. The knowledge of daily oxidative status will provide a better understanding of the trout and sturgeon physiology and adequate maintenance and food supply of farmed fish in relation to photoperiod. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase, DT-diaphorase activities, lipid peroxidation and cortisol were measured...
March 14, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290687/direct-nmr-evidence-that-transient-tautomeric-and-anionic-states-in-dg%C3%A2-dt-form-watson-crick-like-base-pairs
#19
Eric S Szymanski, Isaac J Kimsey, Hashim M Al-Hashimi
The replicative and translational machinery utilizes the unique geometry of canonical G·C and A·T/U Watson-Crick base pairs to discriminate against DNA and RNA mismatches in order to ensure high fidelity replication, transcription, and translation. There is growing evidence that spontaneous errors occur when mismatches adopt a Watson-Crick-like geometry through tautomerization and/or ionization of the bases. Studies employing NMR relaxation dispersion recently showed that wobble dG·dT and rG·rU mismatches in DNA and RNA duplexes transiently form tautomeric and anionic species with probabilities (≈0...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290673/oxidations-at-sulfur-centers-by-aqueous-hypochlorous-acid-and-hypochlorite-cl-versus-o-atom-transfer
#20
Ying Hu, Guangyuan Xie, David M Stanbury
Sulfur-containing compounds are known to be susceptible to oxidation by aqueous HOCl, but the factors affecting the rates of these reactions are not well-established. Here we report on the kinetics of oxidation of thiosulfate, thiourea, thioglycolate, (methylthio)acetate, tetrathionate, dithiodiglycolate, and dithiodipropionate at 25 °C and 0.4 M ionic strength. These reactions obey the general rate law -d[OCl(-)]/dt = (kOCl(-)[OCl(-)] + kHOCl[HOCl])[substrate] with some exceptions: tetrathionate and the two disulfides undergo rate-limiting hydrolysis at high pH, and dithiodiglycolate has an additional term in the rate law that is second order in [substrate]...
March 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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