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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822287/blue-light-induced-free-radicals-from-riboflavin-in-degradation-of-crystal-violet-by-microbial-viability-evaluation
#1
Ji-Yuan Liang, Jeu-Ming P Yuann, Zong-Jhe Hsie, Shiuh-Tsuen Huang, Chiing-Chang Chen
Crystal violet (CV) is applied in daily use mainly as a commercial dye and antimicrobial agent. Waste water containing CV may affect aquatic ecosystems. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is non-toxic and an essential vitamin required for the functions of the human body. Riboflavin is photosensitive to UV and visible light in terms of generating reactive oxygen species. This study investigated the potential application of blue light on riboflavin, so as to come up with an effective way of degrading CV during its treatment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820125/fungal-genomes-and-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-kingdom
#2
Jason E Stajich
The kingdom Fungi comprises species that inhabit nearly all ecosystems. Fungi exist as both free-living and symbiotic unicellular and multicellular organisms with diverse morphologies. The genomes of fungi encode genes that enable them to thrive in diverse environments, invade plant and animal cells, and participate in nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The continuously expanding databases of fungal genome sequences have been generated by individual and large-scale efforts such as Génolevures, Broad Institute's Fungal Genome Initiative, and the 1000 Fungal Genomes Project (http://1000...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818592/the-impact-of-chemosensitisation-on-bioaccumulation-and-sediment-toxicity
#3
Denise Kurth, Stefan Lips, Riccardo Massei, Martin Krauss, Till Luckenbach, Tobias Schulze, Werner Brack
Cellular multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transport proteins enhance the efflux of numerous organic pollutants. However, MXR proteins may be blocked or saturated by xenobiotic compounds, acting as inhibitors - also called chemosensitisers. Although effective on a cellular level, the environmental relevance of chemosensitisers has not been conclusively demonstrated. Since sediments are an important source of bioaccumulating compounds in aquatic ecosystems, sediments and sediment-associated hydrophobic pollutants were investigated for their potential to increase exposure and toxicity in the presence of chemosensitisation...
August 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816440/high-quantities-of-microplastic-in-arctic-deep-sea-sediments-from-the-hausgarten-observatory
#4
Melanie Bergmann, Vanessa Wirzberger, Thomas Krumpen, Claudia Lorenz, Sebastian Primpke, Mine B Tekman, Gunnar Gerdts
Although mounting evidence suggests the ubiquity of microplastic in aquatic ecosystems worldwide, our knowledge of its distribution in remote environments such as Polar Regions and the deep sea is scarce. Here, we analyzed nine sediment samples taken at the HAUSGARTEN observatory in the Arctic at 2,340 - 5,570 m depth. Density separation by MicroPlastic Sediment Separator and treatment with Fenton's reagent enabled analysis via Attenuated Total Reflection FTIR and µFTIR spectroscopy. Our analyses indicate the wide spread of high numbers of microplastics (42 - 6,595 microplastics kg-1)...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815925/the-effects-of-hydropeaking-on-riverine-plants-a-review
#5
María D Bejarano, Roland Jansson, Christer Nilsson
Hydropeaking refers to frequent, rapid and short-term fluctuations in water flow and water levels downstream and upstream of hydropower stations. Such fluctuations are becoming increasingly common worldwide and are known to have far-reaching effects on riverine vegetation. Novel hydrology caused by hydropeaking has no natural correspondence in freshwater systems, and hence few species have adaptations to all its aspects. Here, we review the literature on hydropeaking effects on riverine plants and define the state of the information on this human alteration of riverine ecosystems...
August 17, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815367/microplastic-pollution-a-threat-to-marine-ecosystem-and-human-health-a-short-review
#6
Shivika Sharma, Subhankar Chatterjee
Human populations are using oceans as their household dustbins, and microplastic is one of the components which are not only polluting shorelines but also freshwater bodies globally. Microplastics are generally referred to particles with a size lower than 5 mm. These microplastics are tiny plastic granules and used as scrubbers in cosmetics, hand cleansers, air-blasting. These contaminants are omnipresent within almost all marine environments at present. The durability of plastics makes it highly resistant to degradation and through indiscriminate disposal they enter in the aquatic environment...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814656/odours-from-marine-plastic-debris-induce-food-search-behaviours-in-a-forage-fish
#7
Matthew S Savoca, Chris W Tyson, Michael McGill, Christina J Slager
Plastic pollution is an anthropogenic stressor in marine ecosystems globally. Many species of marine fish (more than 50) ingest plastic debris. Ingested plastic has a variety of lethal and sublethal impacts and can be a route for bioaccumulation of toxic compounds throughout the food web. Despite its pervasiveness and severity, our mechanistic understanding of this maladaptive foraging behaviour is incomplete. Recent evidence suggests that the chemical signature of plastic debris may explain why certain species are predisposed to mistaking plastic for food...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812734/human-behaviour-as-a-long-term-ecological-driver-of-non-human-evolution
#8
REVIEW
Alexis P Sullivan, Douglas W Bird, George H Perry
Due to our intensive subsistence and habitat-modification strategies-including broad-spectrum harvesting and predation, widespread landscape burning, settlement construction, and translocation of other species-humans have major roles as ecological actors who influence fundamental trophic interactions. Here we review how the long-term history of human-environment interaction has shaped the evolutionary biology of diverse non-human, non-domesticated species. Clear examples of anthropogenic effects on non-human morphological evolution have been documented in modern studies of substantial changes to body size or other major traits in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in response to selective human harvesting, urbanized habitats, and human-mediated translocation...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812727/exceptionally-preserved-cambrian-loriciferans-and-the-early-animal-invasion-of-the-meiobenthos
#9
Thomas H P Harvey, Nicholas J Butterfield
Microscopic animals that live among and between sediment grains (meiobenthic metazoans) are key constituents of modern aquatic ecosystems, but are effectively absent from the fossil record. We describe an assemblage of microscopic fossil loriciferans (Ecdysozoa, Loricifera) from the late Cambrian Deadwood Formation of western Canada. The fossils share a characteristic head structure and minute adult body size (~300 μm) with modern loriciferans, indicating the early evolution and subsequent conservation of an obligate, permanently meiobenthic lifestyle...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812616/legacy-effects-of-developmental-stages-determine-the-functional-role-of-predators
#10
Volker H W Rudolf, B G Van Allen
Predators are instrumental in structuring natural communities and ecosystem processes. The strong effects of predators are often attributed to their high trophic position in the food web. However, most predators have to grow and move up the food chain before reaching their final trophic position, and during this developmental process their traits, interactions and abundances change. Here, we show that this process of 'moving up' the food chain during development strongly determines the ecological role of a predator...
January 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812572/population-characteristics-of-a-large-whale-shark-aggregation-inferred-from-seawater-environmental-dna
#11
Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Ida Broman Nielsen, Steffen Sanvig Bach, Eline D Lorenzen, David Philip Robinson, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Mohammed Al Jaidah, Ludovic Orlando, Eske Willerslev, Peter Rask Møller, Philip Francis Thomsen
Population genetics is essential for understanding and managing marine ecosystems, but sampling remains challenging. We demonstrate that high-throughput sequencing of seawater environmental DNA can provide useful estimates of genetic diversity in a whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregation. We recover similar mitochondrial haplotype frequencies in seawater compared to tissue samples, reliably placing the studied aggregation in a global genetic context and expanding the applications of environmental DNA to encompass population genetics of aquatic organisms...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812567/high-taxonomic-variability-despite-stable-functional-structure-across-microbial-communities
#12
Stilianos Louca, Saulo M S Jacques, Aliny P F Pires, Juliana S Leal, Diane S Srivastava, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Vinicius F Farjalla, Michael Doebeli
Understanding the processes that are driving variation of natural microbial communities across space or time is a major challenge for ecologists. Environmental conditions strongly shape the metabolic function of microbial communities; however, other processes such as biotic interactions, random demographic drift or dispersal limitation may also influence community dynamics. The relative importance of these processes and their effects on community function remain largely unknown. To address this uncertainty, here we examined bacterial and archaeal communities in replicate 'miniature' aquatic ecosystems contained within the foliage of wild bromeliads...
December 5, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810708/bacteria-induced-morphogenesis-of-ulva-intestinalis-and-ulva-mutabilis-chlorophyta-a-contribution-to-the-lottery-theory
#13
Fatemeh Ghaderiardakani, Juliet C Coates, Thomas Wichard
The green marine macroalgae of the class Ulvophyceae (Ulvophytes) are common algae distributed worldwide particularly in intertidal areas, which play a key role in aquatic ecosystems. They are potentially valuable resources for food, animal feed and fuel but can also cause massive nuisance blooms. Members of Ulvaceae, like many other seaweeds, harbour a rich diversity of epiphytic bacteria with functions related to host growth and morphological development. In the absence of appropriate bacterially derived signals, germ cells of the genus Ulva develop into 'atypical' colonies consisting of undifferentiated cells with abnormal cell walls...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810203/chemical-activity-and-distribution-of-emerging-pollutants-insights-from-a-multi-compartment-analysis-of-a-freshwater-system
#14
Pedro A Inostroza, Riccardo Massei, Romy Wild, Martin Krauss, Werner Brack
Emerging pollutants are ubiquitous in the aquatic system and may pose risks to aquatic ecosystems. The quantification and prediction of environmental partitioning of these chemicals in aquatic systems between water, sediment and biota is an important step in the comprehensive assessment of their sources and final fates in the environment. In this multi-compartment field study, we applied equilibrium partitioning theory and chemical activity estimates to investigate the predictability of concentrations in Gammarus pulex as a model invertebrate from water and sediment in a typical small central European river...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809452/neurotoxin-synthesis-is-positively-regulated-by-the-sporulation-transcription-factor-spo0a-in-clostridium-botulinum-type-e
#15
Gerald Mascher, Anna Mertaoja, Hannu Korkeala, Miia Lindström
Clostridium botulinum produces the most potent natural toxin, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), probably to create anaerobiosis and nutrients by killing the host, and forms endospores that facilitate survival in harsh conditions and transmission. Peak BoNT production coincides with initiation of sporulation in C. botulinum cultures, which suggests common regulation. Here we show that Spo0A, the master regulator of sporulation, positively regulates BoNT production. Insertional inactivation of spo0A in C. botulinum type E strain Beluga resulted in significantly reduced BoNT production and in abolished or highly reduced sporulation in relation to wild-type controls...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806691/mercury-contamination-level-and-speciation-inventory-in-lakes-titicaca-uru-uru-bolivia-current-status-and-future-trends
#16
S Guédron, D Point, D Acha, S Bouchet, P A Baya, E Tessier, M Monperrus, C I Molina, A Groleau, L Chauvaud, J Thebault, E Amice, L Alanoca, C Duwig, G Uzu, X Lazarro, A Bertrand, S Bertrand, C Barbraud, K Delord, F M Gibon, C Ibanez, M Flores, P Fernandez Saavedra, M E Ezpinoza, C Heredia, F Rocha, C Zepita, D Amouroux
Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805294/microplastics-alter-composition-of-fungal-communities-in-aquatic-ecosystems
#17
Marie Therese Kettner, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Matthias Labrenz, Hans-Peter Grossart
Despite increasing concerns about microplastic (MP) pollution in aquatic ecosystems, there is insufficient knowledge on how MP affect fungal communities. In this study, we explored the diversity and community composition of fungi attached to polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) particles incubated in different aquatic systems in north-east Germany: the Baltic Sea, the River Warnow and a wastewater treatment plant. Based on next generation 18S rRNA gene sequencing, 347 different operational taxonomic units assigned to 81 fungal taxa were identified on PE and PS...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802889/ameliorative-effect-of-propolis-supplementation-in-alleviating-bisphenol-a-toxicity-growth-performance-biochemical-variables-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-l-fingerlings
#18
Heba S Hamed, Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the important pollutants in aquatic ecosystems and its detrimental effects on fish have a great concern. Propolis is a natural immune-stimulant that has various biological and pharmacological activities. Thus, its capability to alleviate the toxic effect of BPA on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) was assessed in a study based on a 2 × 2 factorial design with two levels of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and two waterborne BPA concentrations in triplicates. Fish (33.9 ± 0...
August 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800692/does-the-developmental-stage-and-composition-of-riparian-forest-stand-affect-ecosystem-functioning-in-streams
#19
Sahadevan Seena, Francisco Carvalho, Fernanda Cássio, Cláudia Pascoal
A common watershed restoration practice to improve water quality and stream ecosystem functions and services is replanting riparian corridors with plant species that may differ from those of natural communities. This restoration practice may have consequences on the aquatic ecosystem processes because organisms obtain energy from leaf litter inputs of the riparian zones. Leaf litter decomposition in streams is a vital ecosystem-level process, which depends on the activity of microorganisms and invertebrates...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798298/the-algicidal-mechanism-of-prodigiosin-from-hahella-sp-ka22-against-microcystis-aeruginosa
#20
Ke Yang, Qiuliang Chen, Danyang Zhang, Huajun Zhang, Xueqian Lei, Zhangran Chen, Yi Li, Yaling Hong, Xiaohong Ma, Wei Zheng, Yun Tian, Tianling Zheng, Hong Xu
In recent years, Microcystis aeruginosa blooms have occurred throughout the world, causing huge economic losses and destroying aquatic ecosystems. It is necessary to develop effective and ecofriendly methods to control M. aeruginosa blooms. Here, we report a high algicidal activity of prodigiosin (PG) against M. aeruginosa as well as the algicidal mechanism. PG showed high algicidal activity against M. aeruginosa, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 5.87 μg/mL in 72 h. A combination of methods, including propidium iodide and Annexin V-fluorescein staining assays and light and electron microscopy indicated the existence of two modes of cell death with features similar to those in eukaryotic programmed cell death: necrotic-like and apoptotic-like...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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