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aquatic ecosystems

Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Luisa Orsini
Long-term studies enable the identification of eco-evolutionary processes that occur over extended time periods. In addition, they provide key empirical data that may be used in predictive modelling to forecast evolutionary responses of natural ecosystems to future environmental changes. However, excluding a few exceptional cases, long-term studies are scarce because of logistic difficulties associated with accessing temporal samples. Temporal dynamics are frequently studied in the laboratory or in controlled mesocosm experiments with exceptional studies that reconstruct the evolution of natural populations in the wild...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Imen Gdara, Ines Zrafi, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Ahmed Ghrabi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. The occurrence, source and ecological risk assessment of 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial and agricultural effluents affecting the Wadi El Bey watershed were investigated by means of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (GC/MS). Total PAHs (∑ 26 PAH) ranged from 1.21 to 91.7 µg/L. The 4- and 5-ring compounds were the principal PAHs detected in most of 5 sites examined...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Loreta Cornacchia, Johan van de Koppel, Daphne van der Wal, Geraldene Wharton, Sara Puijalon, Tjeerd J Bouma
Spatial heterogeneity plays a crucial role in the coexistence of species. Despite recognition of the importance of self-organization in creating environmental heterogeneity in otherwise uniform landscapes, the effects of such self-organized pattern formation in promoting coexistence through facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of pattern formation on species interactions and community spatial structure in ecosystems with limited underlying environmental heterogeneity, using self-organized patchiness of the aquatic macrophyte Callitriche platycarpa in streams as a model system...
February 13, 2018: Ecology
Alexander Young, Valentin Kochenkov, Jenifer K McIntyre, John D Stark, Allison B Coffin
After a storm, water often runs off of impervious urban surfaces directly into aquatic ecosystems. This stormwater runoff is a cocktail of toxicants that have serious effects on the ecological integrity of aquatic habitats. Zebrafish that develop in stormwater runoff suffer from cardiovascular toxicity and impaired growth, but the effects of stormwater on fish sensory systems are not understood. Our study investigated the effect of stormwater on hair cells of the lateral line in larval zebrafish and coho salmon...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hamed Arfania, Abbas Samadi, Farrokh Asadzadeh, Ebrahim Sepehr, Deb Jaisi
Impact of anthropogenic loading of phosphorous (P) to an aquatic ecosystem can be qualitatively assessed by measuring the buildup and distribution of P in sediments and by differentiating bioavailable and recalcitrant P pools. Distribution of P pools in sediments is affected by the physico-chemical properties including specific elements, particle size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and carbonate content. We applied X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods to characterize sediments from western rivers in the Urmia Lake basin in Iran with a particular focus on properties that are relevant to P speciation...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tássia F D Castro, Isadora M Paiva, Aline F S Carvalho, Isadora L Assis, Marcel J Palmieri, Larissa F Andrade-Vieira, Silvana Marcussi, Luis D Solis-Murgas
Spent pot liner (SPL) is a solid waste generated during the primary smelting of aluminum, and its toxicity is attributed to the presence of fluoride, cyanide, and aluminum salts, which can be leached into aquatic ecosystems. Since the effects of this waste on aquatic life forms have not yet been investigated, the objective of our study was to evaluate the toxicity of simulated leachates of SPL on zebrafish (Danio rerio). Animals were exposed to 0 (control), 0.32, 0.64, or 0.95 g L-1 of SPL for 24, 72, and 96 h, and genotoxicity was accessed through micronucleus and comet assays...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gianbattista Bussi, Paul G Whitehead, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, José L J Ledesma, Steve J Ormerod, Raoul-Marie Couture
Interactions between climate change and land use change might have substantial effects on aquatic ecosystems, but are still poorly understood. Using the Welsh River Wye as a case study, we linked models of water quality (Integrated Catchment - INCA) and climate (GFDL - Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and IPSL - Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) under greenhouse gas scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) to drive a bespoke ecosystem model that simulated the responses of aquatic organisms. The potential effects of economic and social development were also investigated using scenarios from the EU MARS project (Managing Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Resources under Multiple Stress)...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Giuseppe Morabito, Maria Grazia Mazzocchi, Nico Salmaso, Adriana Zingone, Caterina Bergami, Giovanna Flaim, Stefano Accoroni, Alberto Basset, Mauro Bastianini, Genuario Belmonte, Fabrizio Bernardi Aubry, Isabella Bertani, Mariano Bresciani, Fabio Buzzi, Marina Cabrini, Elisa Camatti, Carmela Caroppo, Bruno Cataletto, Michela Castellano, Paola Del Negro, Alessandra de Olazabal, Iole Di Capua, Antonia Concetta Elia, Daniela Fornasaro, Marina Giallain, Federica Grilli, Barbara Leoni, Marina Lipizer, Lorenzo Longobardi, Alessandro Ludovisi, Antonella Lugliè, Marina Manca, Francesca Margiotta, Maria Antonietta Mariani, Mauro Marini, Mara Marzocchi, Ulrike Obertegger, Alessandro Oggioni, Bachisio Mario Padedda, Marco Pansera, Roberta Piscia, Paolo Povero, Silvia Pulina, Tiziana Romagnoli, Ilaria Rosati, Giampaolo Rossetti, Fernando Rubino, Diana Sarno, Cecilia Teodora Satta, Nicola Sechi, Elena Stanca, Valentina Tirelli, Cecilia Totti, Alessandra Pugnetti
A first synoptic and trans-domain overview of plankton dynamics was conducted across the aquatic sites belonging to the Italian Long-Term Ecological Research Network (LTER-Italy). Based on published studies, checked and complemented with unpublished information, we investigated phytoplankton and zooplankton annual dynamics and long-term changes across domains: from the large subalpine lakes to mountain lakes and artificial lakes, from lagoons to marine coastal ecosystems. This study permitted identifying common and unique environmental drivers and ecological functional processes controlling seasonal and long-term temporal course...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anna Bączyk, Maciej Wagner, Tomasz Okruszko, Mateusz Grygoruk
Intensification of agriculture and ongoing urban sprawl exacerbate pressures on rivers. Small rivers in agricultural landscapes are especially exposed to excessive technical actions implemented in order to allow for harvesting river water for irrigation, draining agricultural water and receiving sewage. Regular dredging and macrophyte removal strongly interfere with the global need for preserving river biodiversity that allows agricultural lowland rivers to remain refuges for a variety of species, and-accordingly-to keep water bodies resilient for the benefit of society...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qiang Wang, Martina Roß-Nickoll, Di Wu, Wei Deng, Zhijian Wang, Xingzhong Yuan, Yaoguang Zhang
Urban areas and their development depress water physicochemical properties, river habitats and aquatic biotic integrity worldwide. Benthic macroinvertebrates at 61 sites representing three types of river reach locations (upstream rural areas, intermediate and downstream of urban areas) on the Liangtan River, a rapidly urbanized river with untreated sewage discharge in southwest China, were examined to compare their community composition and diversity. Their relationships with environmental variables were also explored...
January 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Perla Tedesco, Andrea Gustinelli, Monica Caffara, Pierpaolo Patarnello, Antonio Terlizzi, Maria L Fioravanti
Raphidascarididae are among the most abundant and widespread parasitic nematodes in the marine environment. Knowledge about the life-cycle of most raphidascaridid species is still poorly known and information about their distribution and host range is lacking in many geographical areas, as well as the taxonomy of several species. A study of larval and adult stages of Hysterothylacium fabri (Rudolphi, 1819) Deardorff & Overstreet, 1980 (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) infecting the striped goatfish Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mullidae) and the Mediterranean stargazer Uranoscopus scaber Linnaeus, 1759 (Uranoscopidae) from Ionian Sea (central Mediterranean) has been carried out by combining light and scanning electron microscopy observations and molecular analyses through PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS rDNA gene...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Katy R Nicastro, Roberto Lo Savio, Christopher D McQuaid, Pedro Madeira, Ugo Valbusa, Fábia Azevedo, Maria Casero, Carla Lourenço, Gerardo I Zardi
Excessive use of plastics in daily life and the inappropriate disposal of plastic products are severely affecting wildlife species in both coastal and aquatic environments. Birds are top-predators, exposed to all threats affecting their environments, making them ideal sentinel organisms for monitoring ecosystems change. We set a baseline assessment of the prevalence of marine plastic litter affecting multi-species populations of aquatic birds in southern Portugal. By examining 160 stomach contents from 8 species of aquatic birds, we show that 22...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Hans W Paerl
Toxic planktonic cyanobacterial blooms are a pressing environmental and human health problem. Blooms are expanding globally and threatening sustainability of our aquatic resources. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and hydrological modifications, including water diversions and reservoir construction, are major drivers of bloom expansion. Climatic change, i.e., warming, more extreme rainfall events, and droughts, act synergistically with human drivers to exacerbate the problem. Bloom mitigation steps, which are the focus of this review, must consider these dynamic interactive factors in order to be successful in the short- and long-term...
February 8, 2018: Toxins
Javier Pérez, Aingeru Martínez, Enrique Descals, Jesús Pozo
Aquatic hyphomycetes represent a large component of the microbial assemblage that decomposes submerged leaf-litter in fluvial ecosystems. The structure and activity of these fungal decomposers depend on environmental factors. Fungal communities may adapt to local habitat conditions; however, little is known about how fungal communities respond to abrupt changes in factors such as nutrient availability and temperature. To respond to this question, we carried out a cross-transplantation experiment, which assessed the decomposer activity and structure of this microbial community on decaying leaves transplanted from a cold and oligotrophic stream (S1) to a warmer and nitrogen-richer one (S2) and vice versa...
February 7, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Caitlin R Proctor, Michael D Besmer, Timon Langenegger, Karin Beck, Jean-Claude Walser, Martin Ackermann, Helmut Bürgmann, Frederik Hammes
Here we used flow cytometry (FCM) and filtration paired with amplicon sequencing to determine the abundance and composition of small low nucleic acid (LNA)-content bacteria in a variety of freshwater ecosystems. We found that FCM clusters associated with LNA-content bacteria were ubiquitous across several ecosystems, varying from 50 to 90% of aquatic bacteria. Using filter-size separation, we separated small LNA-content bacteria (passing 0.4 µm filter) from large bacteria (captured on 0.4 µm filter) and characterized communities with 16S amplicon sequencing...
February 7, 2018: ISME Journal
Ahmad Negintaji, Alireza Safahieh, Hossein Zolgharnein, Soheila Matroodi
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical that is widely used in plastics manufacturing. BPA enters in the aquatic environment mainly through urban and industrial sewage effluents, thereby posing a potential threat to organisms living in these ecosystems. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of BPA on VTG production with direct (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis) and indirect (alkali-labile phosphate (ALP), total plasma calcium and protein) methods in immature male yellowfin seabream ( Acanthopagrus latus) as a marine fish model...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Elizabeth Burke Watson, Katelyn Szura, Elisabeth Powell, Nicole Maher, Cathleen Wigand
In aquatic ecosystems, biological indicators are used in concert with nutrient concentration data to identify habitat impairments related to cultural eutrophication. This approach has been less commonly implemented in coastal areas due to the dominance of physical conditions in structuring biological assemblage data. Here, we describe the use of the stable isotopic composition of (Say), the eastern mudsnail, as an indicator of cultural eutrophication for 40 locations in coastal estuaries in New York. We found N enrichment in mudsnail tissue where watersheds had high population densities, land use patterns were more urbanized, and when sampling sites were adjacent to wastewater treatment plant discharges...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Derek R Faust, Sandeep Kumar, David W Archer, John R Hendrickson, Scott L Kronberg, Mark A Liebig
Integrated crop-livestock systems hold potential to achieve environmentally sustainable production of crop and livestock products. Although previous studies suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems improve soil health, impacts of integrated crop-livestock systems on water quality and aquatic ecosystems are largely unknown. This review (i) summarizes studies examining surface water quality and soil leachate for management practices commonly used in integrated crop-livestock systems (e.g., no-till, cover crops, livestock grazing) with emphasis on the Northern Great Plains ecoregion of North America, (ii) quantifies management system effects on nutrient and total suspended solids concentrations and loads, and (iii) identifies information gaps regarding water quality associated with integrated crop-livestock systems and research needs in this area...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Julia Kleinteich, Sven Seidensticker, Nikolaj Marggrander, Christiane Zarfl
Microplastic particles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are currently discussed as an emerging persistent organic pollutant and as acting as a vector for hydrophobic chemicals. Microplastic particles may ultimately deposit and accumulate in soil as well as marine and freshwater sediments where they can be harmful to organisms. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of natural freshwater sediment bacterial communities (by genetic fingerprint) to exposure to microplastics (polyethylene, 2 and 20 mg/g sediment) and microplastics loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phenanthrene and anthracene), using a laboratory-based approach...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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