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aquatic ecosystems

Samuel Obimakinde, Olalekan Fatoki, Beatrice Opeolu, Olatunde Olatunji
Environmental studies have shown that pharmaceuticals can contaminate aqueous matrices, such as groundwater, surface water, sediment as well as aquatic flora and fauna. Effluents from sewage and wastewater treatment plants, pharmaceutical industries and hospitals have been implicated in such contamination. Recent studies have however revealed significant concentrations of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from animal facilities in proximal aquatic habitats. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between exposure to some drugs of veterinary importance and increased adverse effects in aquatic biota largely due to induction of endocrine disruption, antibiotic resistance, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S Schiavo, N Duroudier, E Bilbao, M Mikolaczyk, J Schäfer, M P Cajaraville, S Manzo
In the last years, applications for silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) continue to increase together with the concerns about their potential input and hazards in aquatic ecosystems, where microalgae are key organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative sensitivity of three marine microalgae species with differences in cell wall composition/structure exposed to Poly N-vinyl-2-pirrolidone/Polyethyleneimine (PVP/PEI) coated 5nm Ag NPs and uncoated 47nm Ag NP. As limited attention has been paid to the role of coating agents in NP toxicity, the effect of PVP/PEI alone was also evaluated...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Susana Barros, Rosa Montes, José Benito Quintana, Rosario Rodil, Jorge M A Oliveira, Miguel M Santos, Teresa Neuparth
Triclocarban (TCC), a common antimicrobial agent widely used in many household and personal care products, has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Due to its high lipophilicity and persistence in the aquatic ecosystems, TCC is of emerging environmental concern. Despite the frequently reported detection of TCC in the environment and significant uncertainties about its long term effects on aquatic ecosystems, few studies have addressed the chronic effects of TCC in aquatic organisms at ecologically relevant concentrations...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Karinne Saucedo-Vence, Armando Elizalde-Velázquez, Octavio Dublán-García, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Hariz Islas-Flores, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Sandra García-Medina, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
Sucralose (SUC) is an artificial sweetener that is now widely used in North American and Europe; it has been detected in a wide variety of aquatic environments. It is considered safe for human consumption but its effects in the ecosystem have not yet been studied in depth, since limited ecotoxicological data are available in the peer-reviewed literature. This study aimed to evaluate potential SUC-induced toxicological hazard in the blood, brain, gill, liver and muscle of Cyprinus carpio using oxidative stress biomarkers...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Zheng, Zhengtao Liu, Zhenguang Yan, Yahui Zhang, Xianliang Yi, Juan Zhang, Xin Zheng, Junli Zhou, Yan Zhu
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been reported toxic to aquatic organisms, and it frequently occurs at relatively high concentrations in most Chinese waters due to the re-emergence of schistosomiasis since 2003. Several studies about Water Quality Criteria (WQC) for PCP had been performed to protect the aquatic ecosystem, but in most of these studies the toxicity data were not properly analyzed (e.g. screening and processing methods). Moreover, little study was carried out on the ecological risk assessment (ERA) based on environmental factors...
October 13, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Gabrielle Rabelo Quadra, Helena Oliveira de Souza, Rafaela Dos Santos Costa, Marcos Antonio Dos Santos Fernandez
Pharmaceutical residues are not completely removed in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) becoming contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Thereby, it is important to investigate their concentrations in the environment and the possible consequences of their occurrence, including for human health. Here, we briefly reviewed the paths of pharmaceuticals to reach the environment, their behavior and fate in the environment, and the possible consequences of their occurrence. Moreover, we synthetized all the studies about the detection of pharmaceuticals in Brazilian water bodies and the available ecotoxicological knowledge on their effects...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lekhendra Tripathee, Shichang Kang, Chhatra Mani Sharma, Dipesh Rupakheti, Rukumesh Paudyal, Jie Huang, Mika Sillanpää
This study investigates the contamination levels and risk assessments of 14 elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in three sub-basins of Himalayan rivers. Water samples were collected and the hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and water quality index (WQI) were calculated. Total average concentrations of the metals were 135.03, 80.10 and 98.34 µg/L in Gandaki, Indrawati and Dudh Koshi rivers, respectively. The results of HQ and HI were less than unity, suggesting a low risk of metals in the region...
October 12, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ramsy Agha, Manja Saebelfeld, Christin Manthey, Thomas Rohrlack, Justyna Wolinska
Parasites are rarely included in food web studies, although they can strongly alter trophic interactions. In aquatic ecosystems, poorly grazed cyanobacteria often dominate phytoplankton communities, leading to the decoupling of primary and secondary production. Here, we addressed the interface between predator-prey and host-parasite interactions by conducting a life-table experiment, in which four Daphnia galeata genotypes were maintained on quantitatively comparable diets consisting of healthy cyanobacteria or cyanobacteria infected by a fungal (chytrid) parasite...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dámaris Núñez-Gómez, Alcione Aparecida de Almeida Alves, Flavio Rubens Lapolli, María A Lobo-Recio
Mine-impacted water (MIW) is one of the most serious mining problems and has a high negative impact on water resources and aquatic life. The main characteristics of MIW are a low pH (between 2 and 4) and high concentrations of SO4(2-) and metal ions (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Al, Cr, Mn, Mg, etc.), many of which are toxic to ecosystems and human life. Shrimp shell was selected as a MIW treatment agent because it is a low-cost metal-sorbent biopolymer with a high chitin content and contains calcium carbonate, an acid-neutralizing agent...
October 9, 2016: Chemosphere
Holly A Rogers, Travis S Schmidt, Brittanie L Dabney, Michelle L Hladik, Barbara J Mahler, Peter C Van Metre
Direct and indirect ecological effects of the widely used insecticide bifenthrin on stream ecosystems are largely unknown. To investigate such effects, a manipulative experiment was conducted in stream mesocosms that were colonized by aquatic insect communities and exposed to bifenthrin-contaminated sediment; implications for natural streams were interpreted through comparison of mesocosm results to a survey of 100 Midwestern streams, USA. In the mesocosm experiment, direct effects of bifenthrin exposure included reduced larval macroinvertebrate abundance, richness, and biomass at concentrations (EC50's ranged from 197...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Rony Huys, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, María de Lourdes Serrano-Sánchez, Elena Centeno-García, Francisco J Vega
Copepods are aquatic microcrustaceans and represent the most abundant metazoans on Earth, outnumbering insects and nematode worms. Their position of numerical world predominance can be attributed to three principal radiation events, i.e. their major habitat shift into the marine plankton, the colonization of freshwater and semiterrestrial environments, and the evolution of parasitism. Their variety of life strategies has generated an incredible morphological plasticity and disparity in body form and shape that are arguably unrivalled among the Crustacea...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Suzana Maria Loures de Oliveira Marcionilio, Karine Borges Machado, Fernanda Melo Carneiro, Manuel Eduardo Ferreira, Priscilla Carvalho, Ludgero Cardoso Galli Vieira, Vera Lúcia de Moraes Huszar, João Carlos Nabout
Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) has been widely used in the assessment and monitoring of aquatic environments. Local and regional factors can influence Chl-a concentrations; moreover, the connection between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is a major paradigm within aquatic ecology. Here, we investigate the spatial distribution of Chl-a concentrations in a tropical savannah floodplain in Central Brazil using a broad spatial data set (a 900-km north-south transect; 30 lakes). We determine the relative importance of local environmental variables (limnological and morphometric) and regional (land use) and spatial distances (spatial eigenvector) on Chl-a concentrations using partial linear regression...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Spyridon Ntougias, Żaneta Polkowska, Sofia Nikolaki, Eva Dionyssopoulou, Panagiota Stathopoulou, Vangelis Doudoumis, Marek Ruman, Katarzyna Kozak, Jacek Namieśnik, George Tsiamis
Two thirds of Svalbard archipelago islands in the High Arctic are permanently covered with glacial ice and snow. Polar bacterial communities in the southern part of Svalbard were characterized using an amplicon sequencing approach. A total of 52,928 pyrosequencing reads were analyzed in order to reveal bacterial community structures in stream and lake surface water samples from the Fuglebekken and Revvatnet basins of southern Svalbard. Depending on the samples examined, bacterial communities at a higher taxonomic level mainly consisted either of Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, and Microgenomates (OP11) or Planctomycetes, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes members, whereas a population of Microgenomates was prominent in 2 samples...
September 30, 2016: Microbes and Environments
Aysha Masood Khan, Nor Kartini Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
Rare earths (RE), chemically uniform group of elements due to similar physicochemical behavior, are termed as lanthanides. Natural occurrence depends on the geological circumstances and has been of long interest for geologist as tools for further scientific research into the region of ores, rocks, and oceanic water. The review paper mainly focuses to provide scientific literature about rare earth elements (REEs) with potential environmental and health effects in understanding the research. This is the initial review of RE speciation and bioavailability with current initiative toward development needs and research perceptive...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Andrea Käppler, Dieter Fischer, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Gerald Schernewski, Matthias Labrenz, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Brigitte Voit
The contamination of aquatic ecosystems with microplastics has recently been reported through many studies, and negative impacts on the aquatic biota have been described. For the chemical identification of microplastics, mainly Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy are used. But up to now, a critical comparison and validation of both spectroscopic methods with respect to microplastics analysis is missing. To close this knowledge gap, we investigated environmental samples by both Raman and FTIR spectroscopy...
October 8, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Grace E Schwartz, Lauren K Redfern, Kaoru Ikuma, Claudia K Gunsch, Laura S Ruhl, Avner Vengosh, Heileen Hsu-Kim
Mercury (Hg) associated with coal ash is an environmental concern, particularly if the release of coal ash to the environment is associated with the conversion of inorganic Hg to methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative form of Hg that is produced by anaerobic microorganisms. In this study, sediment slurry microcosm experiments were performed to understand how spilled coal ash might influence MeHg production in anaerobic sediments of an aquatic ecosystem. Two coal ash types were used: (1) a weathered coal ash; and (2) a freshly collected, unweathered fly ash that was relatively enriched in sulfate and Hg compared to the weathered ash...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Nuchnapa Prathumchai, Chongchin Polprasert, Andrew J Englande
Although phosphorus (P) is an essential element needed for all lives, excess P can be harmful to the environment. The objective of this study aims to determine P flows in the fisheries sector of Thailand consisting of both sea and freshwater activities of captures and cultures. Currently, the annual fisheries catch averages 3.44 ± 0.50 Mt. Most comes from marine capture 1.95 ± 0.46 Mt, followed by coastal aquaculture 0.78 ± 0.09 Mt, freshwater aquaculture 0.49 ± 0.05 Mt, and inland capture 0...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Freya E Rowland, Madelyn B Rawlings, Raymond D Semlitsch
Primary production can be controlled through bottom-up (e.g., resources) or top-down (e.g., predators) constraints. Two key bottom-up resources in small aquatic systems are light and nutrients, and forest canopy cover heavily influences these factors, whereas amphibian and invertebrate colonizers exert top-down pressure as grazers and predators. We designed our experiment to specifically manipulate two different top-down and bottom-up factors. We manipulated resources by altering light (low/high) and nutrient (low/high) availability; omnivores with the presence/absence of southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus); and predators with the presence/absence of spotted salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum) in a full-factorial experiment conducted over 14 weeks...
October 7, 2016: Oecologia
Ellen Cole, Reuben P Keller, Kelly Garbach
Aquatic invasive species (AIS) pose major conservation challenges in freshwater ecosystems. In response, conservation organizations invest considerable resources in outreach to encourage AIS prevention behaviors among recreational boaters. Despite this, remarkably little is known about whether these efforts catalyze significant changes in boaters' perceptions, or whether they cause changes in behaviors that reduce AIS risk. We interviewed managers at the 14 Illinois organizations active in AIS outreach to determine regional priorities for, and investment in, AIS outreach...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Yongbo Liu, Wanxiang Jiang, Yuyong Liang, Caiyun Zhao, Junsheng Li
BACKGROUND: The non-target effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in aquatic ecosystems is crucial to improve the present assessment of Bt-transgenic plants, particularly where crops are cultivated near aquatic ecosystems. We conducted decomposition experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice litter with and without insecticide application on meiobenthos communities in a field ditch. RESULTS: Community composition of meiobenthos colonized on leaf litter was not significantly different between Bt and non-Bt rice...
September 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
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