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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721618/biological-nanopesticides-a-greener-approach-towards-the-mosquito-vector-control
#1
Prabhakar Mishra, Brij Kishore Tyagi, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
Mosquitoes, being a vector for some potentially dreadful diseases, pose a considerable threat to people all around the world. The control over the growth and propagation of mosquitoes comprises conventional pesticides, insect growth regulators and other microbial control agents. However, the usage of these common chemicals and conventional pesticides eventually has a negative impact on human health as well as the environment, which therefore becomes a major concern. The lacuna allows nanotechnology to come into action and exploit nanopesticides...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721506/interaction-between-a-bacterivorous-ciliate-aspidisca-cicada-and-a-rotifer-lecane-inermis-doozers-and-fraggles-in-aquatic-flocs
#2
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Mateusz Sobczyk, Edyta Fiałkowska, Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós, Janusz Fyda, Krzysztof Wiąckowski
Activated sludge is a semi-natural habitat composed of macroaggregates made by flocculating bacteria and inhabited by numerous protozoans and metazoans, creating a complicated interactome. The activated sludge resembles the biological formation of naturally occurring floc habitats, such as "marine snow." So far, these two types of habitat have been analyzed separately, despite their similarities. We examined the effect of a bacterivorous ciliate, Aspidisca cicada, on the quality of the macroaggregate ecosystem by estimating (i) the floc characteristics, (ii) the proliferation of other bacterivores (rotifers), and (iii) the chemical processes...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721503/salinity-drives-the-virioplankton-abundance-but-not-production-in-tropical-coastal-lagoons
#3
Pedro C Junger, André M Amado, Rodolfo Paranhos, Anderson S Cabral, Saulo M S Jacques, Vinicius F Farjalla
Viruses are the most abundant components of microbial food webs and play important ecological and biogeochemical roles in aquatic ecosystems. Virioplankton is regulated by several environmental factors, such as salinity, turbidity, and humic substances. However, most of the studies aimed to investigate virioplankton regulation were conducted in temperate systems combining a limited range of environmental variables. In this study, virus abundance and production were determined and their relation to bacterial and limnological variables was assessed in 20 neighboring shallow tropical coastal lagoons that present wide environmental gradients of turbidity (2...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717594/effect-of-freshwater-mussels-on-the-vertical-distribution-of-anaerobic-ammonia-oxidizers-and-other-nitrogen-transforming-microorganisms-in-upper-mississippi-river-sediment
#4
Ellen M Black, Michael S Chimenti, Craig L Just
Targeted qPCR and non-targeted amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes within sediment layers identified the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) niche and characterized microbial community changes attributable to freshwater mussels. Anammox bacteria were normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk normality test, W-statistic =0.954, p = 0.773) between 1 and 15 cm depth and were increased by a factor of 2.2 (p < 0.001) at 3 cm below the water-sediment interface when mussels were present. Amplicon sequencing of sediment at depths relevant to mussel burrowing (3 and 5 cm) showed that mussel presence reduced observed species richness (p = 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715773/developmental-toxicity-of-fe3o4-nanoparticles-on-cysts-and-three-larval-stages-of-artemia-salina
#5
Song Zhu, Ming-Yang Xue, Fei Luo, Wei-Chao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Using Artemia salina cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae (instar I, II and III) as experimental models, the potential effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) on marine ecosystems were investigated. Hatchability, mortality and a number of ethological, morphological and biochemical parameters were selected as end-points to define the toxic responses. Data showed that the hatching rates of capsulated and decapsulated cysts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) following exposure to 600 mg/L for 24 and 36 h...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713358/aquarium-viromes-viromes-of-human-managed-aquatic-systems
#6
Yiseul Kim, William Van Bonn, Tiong G Aw, Joan B Rose
An aquarium ecosystem is home to many animal species providing conditions similar to native aquatic habitats but under highly controlled management. With a growing interest in understanding the interaction of microbiomes and resident animal health within aquarium environments, we undertook a metagenomic survey of viromes in seven aquarium systems with differing physicochemical and resident animal profiles. Our results show that a diverse array of viruses was represented in aquarium viromes, many of which were widespread in different aquarium systems (27 common viral families in all of the aquarium systems)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712133/aquatic-export-of-young-dissolved-and-gaseous-carbon-from-a-pristine-boreal-fen-implications-for-peat-carbon-stock-stability
#7
A Campeau, K Bishop, M F Billett, M H Garnett, H Laudon, J A Leach, M B Nilsson, M G Öquist, M B Wallin
The stability of northern peatland's carbon (C) store under changing climate is of major concern for the global C cycle. The aquatic export of C from boreal peatlands is recognized as both a critical pathway for the remobilization of peat C stocks as well as a major component of the net ecosystem C balance (NECB). Here, we present a full year characterization of radiocarbon content ((14) C) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) exported from a boreal peatland catchment coupled with (14) C characterization of the catchment's peat profile of the same C-species...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712087/toxicity-of-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin-insecticides-on-embryos-and-larvae-of-physalaemus-gracilis-anura-leptodactylidae
#8
Natani Macagnan, Camila F Rutkoski, Cassiane Kolcenti, Guilherme V Vanzetto, Luan P Macagnan, Paola F Sturza, Paulo A Hartmann, Marilia T Hartmann
It is important to establish the toxicity pesticides against non-target species, especially those pesticides used in commercial formulations. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture despite their toxicity to aquatic animals. In this study, we determine the toxicity of commercial formulation of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and deltamethrin, in two life stages of Physalaemus gracilis, a frog that breeds in agricultural ecosystems and has potential contact with pyrethroid pesticides...
July 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711843/ecological-and-environmental-transition-across-the-forested-to-open-bog-ecotone-in-a-west-siberian-peatland
#9
Joshua L Ratcliffe, Angela Creevy, Roxane Andersen, Evgeny Zarov, Paul P J Gaffney, Mark A Taggart, Yuri Mazei, Andrey N Tsyganov, James G Rowson, Elena D Lapshina, Richard J Payne
Climate change may cause increasing tree cover in boreal peatlands, and the impacts of this encroachment will be noted first at forested-to-open bog ecotones. We investigate key metrics of ecosystem function in five such ecotones at a peatland complex in Western Siberia. Stratigraphic analysis of three cores from one of these transects shows that the ecotone has been dynamic over time with evidence for recent expansion of forested peatland. We observed that the two alternative states for northern boreal peatlands (forested/open) clearly support distinct plant and microbial communities...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711566/developmental-toxicity-of-oxidized-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-artemia-salina-cysts-and-larvae-uptake-accumulation-excretion-and-toxic-responses
#10
Song Zhu, Fei Luo, Xiao Tu, Wei-Chao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Using Artemia salina (A. salina) cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae [instar I (0-24 h), II (24-48 h) and III (48-72 h)] as experimental models, developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) was evaluated. Results revealed that hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) following exposure to 600 mg/L for 36 h. Mortality rates were 33.8, 55.7 and 40.7% for instar I, II and III larvae in 600 mg/L. The EC50 values for swimming inhibition of instar I, II and III were 535, 385 and 472 mg/L, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711003/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-herbicides-impact-non-target-species-at-multiple-sublethal-endpoints
#11
Simone Hasenbein, Jade Peralta, Sharon P Lawler, Richard E Connon
There is concern over herbicide exposure effects on aquatic primary production and zooplankton as herbicides are found in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations potentially toxic to phytoplankton. We first aimed to determine the effect concentrations (growth inhibition) and mixture interactions of the herbicides diuron (0.5 to 50μg/L) and hexazinone (0.5 to 40μg/L) on the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Secondly, we evaluated chronic effects on Daphnia magna that were periodically fed on P. subcapitata that had been exposed to low, medium, and high concentrations...
July 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709108/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-v-alginolyticus-associated-meningo-encephalitis-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-from-the-adriatic-coast-of-italy
#12
Ludovica Di Renzo, Gabriella Di Francesco, Chiara Profico, Cristina E Di Francesco, Nicola Ferri, Daniela Averaimo, Giovanni Di Guardo
A case of Vibrio parahaemolyticus- and V. alginolyticus-associated meningo-encephalitis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy in 2016 is herein reported, along with a minireview on V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus infections in aquatic mammals. Macroscopically, two abscesses were found in the dolphin's forebrain, along with an extensive, bilateral, parasitic broncho-pneumonia. Histologically, a suppurative-to-pyogranulomatous meningo-encephalitis involved the brain but not the cerebellum...
July 1, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708460/tolerance-to-hypercarbia-is-repeatable-and-related-to-a-component-of-the-metabolic-phenotype-in-a-freshwater-fish
#13
Caleb T Hasler, Ian A Bouyoucos, Cory D Suski
Freshwater fish may be exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) because of several actions, including anesthesia and high levels of aquatic respiration and potentially as the result of using high-CO2 plumes as a barrier to the movements of invasive fishes. Metabolic phenotype can potentially drive how freshwater fish respond to high CO2. We therefore quantified how tolerance (measured using time to equilibrium loss [ELT]) was driven by metabolic phenotype in a cosmopolitan freshwater fish species, Micropterus salmoides...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708270/transcriptional-and-cellular-effects-of-benzotriazole-uv-stabilizers-uv-234-and-uv-328-in-the-freshwater-invertebrates-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-daphnia-magna
#14
Maeva Giraudo, Guillaume Cottin, Marta Esperanza, Pierre Gagnon, Amila O De Silva, Magali Houde
Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers (BZT-UVs) are compounds used in many applications and products to prevent photochemical degradation. Despite their widespread presence in aquatic ecosystems and persistence in the environment, there are very limited data on their effects and toxicity, and their modes of action remain largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the chronic effects of two BZT-UVs, 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (UV-234) and 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol (UV-328), on the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707658/-phototrophic-microorganisms-in-the-symbiotic-communities-of-baikal-sponges-diversity-of-psba-gene-encoding-d1-protein-of-photosystem-ii-sequences
#15
O V Kaluzhnaya, V B Itskovich
The psbA gene, which encodes a major photosystem II protein (protein II or D1), is a marker for the presence of phototrophic organisms in water communities. We have pioneered the use of this marker for studying the diversity of phototrophic microflora of freshwater invertebrates. The object of the study is the microbial associations accompanying the endemic Baikal sponge Baikalospongia intermedia and the surrounding aquatic microbial community. Analysis of the psbA gene sequences in the examined microbiomes demonstrates the presence of various phototrophic groups, such as Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, Heterokonta, Haptophyta, and Ochrophyta algae, as well as cyanophages...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707260/historical-effects-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-export-and-land-management-decisions-on-the-watershed-scale-forest-carbon-budget-of-a-coastal-british-columbia-douglas-fir-dominated-landscape
#16
B P Smiley, J A Trofymow
BACKGROUND: To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW) from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707254/effect-of-oil-palm-on-the-plecoptera-and-trichoptera-insecta-assemblages-in-streams-of-eastern-amazon
#17
Carina Kaory Sasahara de Paiva, Ana Paula Justino de Faria, Lenize Batista Calvão, Leandro Juen
The production of oil palm is expected to increase in the Amazon region. However, expansion of oil palm plantation leads to significant changes in the physical structure of aquatic ecosystems, mainly through the reduction of riparian vegetation that is essential for aquatic biodiversity. Here, we evaluated the effects of oil palm on the physical habitat structure of Amazonian stream environments and assemblages of Plecoptera and Trichoptera (PT), ​both found in these streams. We compared streams sampled in oil palm plantations (n = 13) with natural forest areas ("reference" streams, n = 8), located in the eastern Amazon, Brazil...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704705/a-new-parasitic-chytrid-staurastromyces-oculus-rhizophydiales-staurastromycetaceae-fam-nov-infecting-the-freshwater-desmid-staurastrum-sp
#18
Silke Van den Wyngaert, Kensuke Seto, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Maiko Kagami, Hans-Peter Grossart
Chytrids are a diverse group of ubiquitous true zoosporic fungi. The recent molecular discovery of a large diversity of undescribed chytrids has raised awareness on their important, but so far understudied ecological role in aquatic ecosystems. In the pelagic zone, of both freshwater and marine ecosystems, many chytrid species have been morphologically described as parasites on almost all major groups of phytoplankton. However, the majority of these parasitic chytrids has rarely been isolated and lack DNA sequence data, resulting in a large proportion of "dark taxa" in databases...
May 13, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702917/occurrence-and-risk-assessment-of-antidepressants-in-huangpu-river-of-shanghai-china
#19
Minghong Wu, Jiajia Xiang, Fenfen Chen, Cao Fu, Gang Xu
Antidepressants are gaining public attention because of increasing reports of their occurrence in environment and their potential impact on ecosystems and human health. Continuous input of pharmaceuticals into rivers, through psychiatric hospital or wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluent, may cause adverse effects on the aquatic ecosystems of the receiving water bodies. This work investigates the occurrence and sources of 8 antidepressants in main stream and tributaries of Huangpu River in Shanghai. The detected concentrations of the selected antidepressants ranged from low nanogram per liter to 42...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699967/accumulation-of-copper-by-the-aquatic-macrophyte-salvinia-biloba-raddi-salviniaceae
#20
F Freitas, S Lunardi, L B Souza, J S C von der Osten, R Arruda, R L T Andrade, L D Battirola
Aquatic macrophytes have properties and mechanisms which are useful for the removal of substances in solution, commonly used in phytoremediation processes in aquatic environments. This study evaluated the performance of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salvinia biloba Raddi (Salviniaceae) in different metal concentrations (1, 3 and 5 µg mL-1), as well as the control treatment, measured at intervals of 0, 7 and 14 days under laboratory conditions, with control as to pH and luminosity. After the experiment, the S...
July 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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