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Khanoranga Achakzai, Sofia Khalid, Muhammad Adrees, Aasma Bibi, Shafaqat Ali, Rab Nawaz, Muhammad Rizwan
In any contaminated environment, the sensitive plant species can serve as bio-indicator of air pollution while tolerant plant species can act as a sink for air pollutants. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) is an important tool to screen out plants based on their tolerance or sensitivity level to different air pollutants. The present study was aimed to identify the sensitive and tolerant plant species in the vicinity of brick kilns in the Rawalpindi city. To determine the susceptibility level of the selected plant species, four biochemical parameters, ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, relative water content and pH of leaf extract, were assessed and APTI was calculated...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Kubpaphas Thummabancha, Nuttaphon Onparn, Prapansak Srisapoome
In this study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings were used as a model to examine acute and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP). Expression levels of metallothionein (MT) transcripts in fish exposed to 0, 1 or 100 mg AgNP/kg fish were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The results showed MT expression levels were significantly decreased 0.3-0.7-fold in the liver and spleen of fish exposed to 1 or 100 mg AgNP/kg after 6-48 h. In contrast, during this period, MT mRNA expression levels were increased 2-3-fold in the head kidney of the fish exposed to either level of AgNP...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Xiangping Tan, Yanju Liu, Kaihong Yan, Ziquan Wang, Guannan Lu, Yike He, Wenxiang He
Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) is an important indicator of heavy metal toxicity in contaminated soils. Different instances of DHA were determined using various substrates and which could affect the description of heavy metal toxicity. Currently, too few investigations have been done on selecting appropriate substrates. This study employed indoor simulation to determine soil DHA and its response to external cadmium (Cd) using two substrates (TTC and INT). Hormesis for DHA obtained using the TTC method (DHA-TTC) in low Cd concentration was observed which was quickly inhibited in high Cd concentration...
February 2017: Chemosphere
Tayyaba Sultana, Amir Siddique, Salma Sultana, Shahid Mahboob, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Z Ahmed
Water pollution is gradually increasing in natural waters through anthropogenic activities. This study aimed to use fish scales as a bio-indicator of pollution, along with water quality parameters, and the assessment and detection of selected heavy metals in water samples collected from the River Chenab, including the Chakbandi drain that gathers domestic sewage waste and industrial effluents from Faisalabad and deposits it into this freshwater body. All water quality parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), salinity, conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols and sulphates) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Cr) were found to be considerably higher than permissible limits as defined by the WHO, and therefore capable of causing ill health effects in aquatic organisms...
November 5, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Keliang Shi, Xiaolin Hou, Jixin Qiao, Xuejie Sun, Per Roos, Wangsuo Wu
An extremely high accumulation and retention of technetium in marine plants, especially brown seaweed, makes it a unique bioindicator of technetium. In the present work, a novel approach was developed for the speciation analysis of technetium in seaweed, wherein a series of biochemical separations was exploited to isolate different species of technetium. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for the measurement of (99)Tc after thorough radiochemical preconcentration and purification...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Caterina Faggio, Maria Pagano, Roberto Alampi, Irene Vazzana, Maria Rosa Felice
The presence of a xenobiotic in the environment can often represent a risk for living organisms. Quaternium-15, a preservative, is one of the most used substances and is added to several cosmetics and other industrial products. For this reason,kwowing the bio-indicator of the marine environment, the toxicological effects potentially elicited by this preservative on the marine invertebrate Mytilus galloprovincialis were studied. The results of this work confirm that quaternium-15, used at 0.1 and 1mg/l concentrations, while metabolized in M...
November 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Ines Khedhri, Ahmed Afli, Lotfi Aleya
The authors investigated the impact of the extension of the El Kantra Channel on the composition and structure of macrobenthic assemblages in Boughrara Lagoon (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia along with the use of 4 biotic indices (AMBI, BENTIX, M-AMBI and TUBI). Thirteen stations were sampled seasonally in 2012-2013. Forty-one species were found in 2012-2013 not recorded in 2009-2010, including 20 species of polychaetes belonging to the trophic groups of deposit-feeders and carnivores which are expected to increase in areas disturbed by organic pollution...
January 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Arnab Kumar De, Narottam Dey, Malay Kumar Adak
In the present experiment a pteridophytic species Azolla and an angiospermic species Vernonia were evaluated on the basis of cellular reactivity for herbicidal action through ongoing concentrations. Initially, both the species recorded a significant activity of IAA-oxidase as mark of IAA metabolism with herbicidal sensitivity. Still, Vernonia species were more affected on 2,4-D mediated auxin catabolism. The loss of auxin concentrations on the tissues by 2,4-D reaction was also reflected on growth parameters including relative growth rate and chlorophyll biosynthesis...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Noortje Dijkstra, Juho Junttila, Kari Skirbekk, JoLynn Carroll, Katrine Husum, Morten Hald
We investigated benthic foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated sediments in a subarctic harbor of Northern Norway to assess their utility as indicators of anthropogenic impacts. Sediments in the harbor are repositories for POPs and heavy metals supplied through discharges from industry and shipping activities. Sediment contaminant concentrations are at moderate to poor ecological quality status (EcoQS) levels. The EcoQS based on benthic foraminiferal diversity reflects a similar trend to the EcoQS based on contaminant concentrations...
January 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Maurizio Quinto, Oto Miedico, Giuseppina Spadaccino, Giuseppe Paglia, Michele Mangiacotti, Donghao Li, Diego Centonze, A Eugenio Chiaravalle
Concentration values of 24 elements (Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ge, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn) were determined in 72 honey samples produced in Italy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Considering the recommended established heavy metal daily intakes for humans, in this perspective, an equilibrated and ordinary honey consumption should not be considered matter of concerns for human health, even if particular attention should be addressed if honey is consumed by children, due to different maximum daily heavy metal intakes...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kyeong-Nam Yu, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Sanghwa Kim, Orkhouselenge Dawaadamdin, Ah-Young Lee, Sung-Ho Hong, Seung-Hee Chang, Seong-Jin Choi, Soon-Mi Shim, Kyuhong Lee, Myung-Haing Cho
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with a broad range of diseases including lung cancer. Many researchers have suggested that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) may be more toxic compared to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) because CSC contains the lipid-soluble faction of smoke while CSE contains the hydrophilic or gas phase. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of CSC on the disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi homeostasis in normal lung epithelial cells...
September 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Alpy Sharma, Sanjay Kr Uniyal
Monitoring of environment is a key contemporary issue that has necessitated search for bio-indicators. The very fact that epiphytes do not have a direct contact with soil and absorb nutrients from the environment puts them among the best indicators of environmental conditions. We, therefore, selected Pyrrosia flocculosa (D. Don) Ching-an epiphytic fern that commonly occurs in the Himalaya for this study. The study focused on analyzing heavy metal concentrations in the fronds of P. flocculosa growing along a disturbance gradient...
October 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zhou Dongxing, Ning Yucui, Liu Jiabin, Deng Jie, Rong Guohua, Siqin Bilige, Liu Yijun
Earthworms are widely used in all kinds of pollutants as sensitive bio-indicator organisms because of their immediately oxidative stress response under the stress of heavy metal. However, there are a large number of indexes associated with the oxidative stress response. Finding out the key monitoring indexes in the stress process becomes a practical demand of the pollution monitoring and warning process. We studied two groups, the short-term test and the long-term test. The former one is for 10 days, taking out an earthworm every day...
August 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Raquel Campos-Herrera, José Antonio Rodríguez Martín, Miguel Escuer, María Teresa García-González, Larry W Duncan, Carmen Gutiérrez
Mining activities pollute the environment with by-products that cause unpredictable impacts in surrounding areas. Cartagena-La Unión mine (Southeastern-Spain) was active for >2500years. Despite its closure in 1991, high concentrations of metals and waste residues remain in this area. A previous study using nematodes suggested that high lead content diminished soil biodiversity. However, the effects of mine pollution on specific ecosystem services remain unknown. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) play a major role in the biocontrol of insect pests...
August 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Poonam Rana, Subash Khushu, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
: : Improved therapeutic assessment of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), would immensely benefit its therapeutic management. Neurometabolite patterns at injury site, measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) after MSCs transplantation, may serve as a bio-indicator of the recovery mechanism. This study used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-MRS to evaluate the therapeutic prospects of implanted MSCs at injury site in experimental mice longitudinally up to 21 days...
August 8, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Xin Zhang, Wei Tang, Gang Chen, Fanghui Ren, Haiwei Liang, Yiwu Dang, Minhua Rong
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that microRNA-132 plays a vital part in and is actively associated with several cancers, with its tumor-suppressive role in hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed. The current study employed multiple bioinformatics techniques to establish gene signatures for hepatocellular carcinoma, microRNA-132 predicted target genes and the corresponding overlaps. METHODS: Various assays were performed to explore the role and cellular functions of miR-132 in HCC and a successive panel of tasks was completed, including NLP analysis, miR-132 target genes prediction, comprehensive analyses (gene ontology analysis, pathway analysis, network analysis and connectivity analysis), and analytical integration...
2016: PloS One
Wenxin Wang, Chanzhen Shi, Yan Yan, Yunfei Yang, Bin Zhou
A bioluminescent bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum T3 (PPT3), was used as a bio-indicator for the atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to determine the eco-toxicity of PM2.5. The PM2.5 contains toxic chemicals, which reduce light output. The PM2.5 samples were collected in the period from March 2014 to January 2015 in Nanjing and analyzed for the chemical composition versus their eco-toxicity. The eco-toxicological responses of each toxicant were detected in PM2.5 samples with PPT3. The dose-response curves obtained were verified using the Weibull fitting function...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yu I Baeva, N A Chernykh
In the article there is given a hygienic assessment ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination of soils of the city of Serpukhov of the Moscow region. For the first time there was investigated the PCB's ability to migrate in the system "soil-earthworms", and were calculated bioaccumulation factors at the different level of soil contamination. There was performed a comparative evaluation of the accumulation of given contaminants by higher terrestrial plants and representatives of soil paedobionts (Lumbricidae worms), and revealed clear differences in these processes...
2016: Gigiena i Sanitariia
Charlene S Dezzutti, Nicola Richardson-Harman, Lisa C Rohan, Mark A Marzinke, Craig J Hoesley, Lori Panther, Sherri Johnson, Jeremy P Nuttall, Annalene Nel, Beatrice A Chen
BACKGROUND: The ex vivo challenge assay is a bio-indicator of drug efficacy and was utilized in this randomized, placebo controlled trial as one of the exploratory endpoints. Fresh and cryopreserved tissues were evaluated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships. METHODS: HIV-negative women used vaginal rings containing 25 mg dapivirine (DPV)/100 mg maraviroc (MVC) (n = 12), DPV only (n = 12), MVC only (n = 12), or placebo (n = 12) for 28 days...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ana Castanheiro, Roeland Samson, Karolien De Wael
Urban green works as a recorder of atmospheric PM. This paper reports on the utility of combining magnetic- and particle-based techniques to investigate PM leaf deposition as a bio-indicator of metal pollution. Ivy (Hedera helix) leaves were collected from five different land use classes, i.e. forest, rural, roadside, industrial, train. Leaf magnetic measurements were done in terms of saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (leaf SIRM), while ca. 40,000 leaf-deposited particles were analyzed through SEM/EDX to estimate the elemental composition...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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