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Rachit Kashyap, Rohit Sharma, Sanjay Kr Uniyal
Loss of green cover, and increasing pollution is a prime global concern. The problem calls for screening of pollution-tolerant tree species that can be integrated into plantation drives. Recognizing this, the study analyzed bio-indicator responses and performance of commonly occurring plant species along a pollution gradient in western Himalaya. Based on distance from the road, three sites viz., highly polluted (HP), moderately polluted (MP), and least polluted (LP), were identified. From these sites, leaves of commonly occurring 26 tree species were collected and analyzed for dust accumulation, total chlorophyll, relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid, and pH using standard protocols...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zhen Rong, Rui Xiao, Shuang Xing, Guolin Xiong, Zuyin Yu, Limei Wang, Xiaofei Jia, Keli Wang, Yuwen Cong, Shengqi Wang
In accidental irradiation situations, rapid in-field evaluation of acute radiation syndrome is critical for effective triage and timely medical treatment of irradiated individuals. A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay was developed for the quantitative detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as an early bio-indicator of a radiation-induced inflammatory response in nonhuman primates. Raman reporter-embedded gold-core silver-shell nanoparticles with built-in hot spots were synthesized and conjugated with a CRP detection antibody to serve as SERS tags in the lateral flow assay...
April 12, 2018: Analyst
Christopher E Bagwell, Peter A Noble, Charles E Milliken, Dien Li, Daniel I Kaplan
Water quality is an important determinant for the structural integrity of alloy cladded fuels and assemblies during long-term wet storage. Detailed characterization of a water filled storage basin for spent nuclear reactor fuel was performed following the formation and proliferation of an amorphous white flocculent. White precipitant was sampled throughout the storage basin for chemical and spectroscopic characterization, and environmental DNA was extracted for 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Stefan Siebert, Hubert Hüging, Frank Ewert
Changing crop phenology is considered an important bio-indicator of climate change, with the recent warming trend causing an advancement in crop phenology. Little is known about the contributions of changes in sowing dates and cultivars to long-term trends in crop phenology, particularly for winter crops such as winter wheat. Here, we analyze a long-term (1952-2013) dataset of phenological observations across western Germany and observations from a two-year field experiment to directly compare the phenologies of winter wheat cultivars released between 1950 and 2006...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saskia Knillmann, Polina Orlinskiy, Oliver Kaske, Kaarina Foit, Matthias Liess
The agricultural use of pesticides leads to environmentally relevant pesticide concentrations that cause adverse effects on stream ecosystems. These effects on invertebrate community composition can be identified by the bio-indicator SPEARpesticides . However, refuge areas have been found to partly confound the indicator. On the basis of three monitoring campaigns of 41 sites in Central Germany, we identified 11 refuge taxa. The refuge taxa, mainly characterized by dispersal-based resilience, were observed only nearby uncontaminated stream sections and independent of the level of pesticide pressure...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Lijuan Yan, Petri Penttinen, Anu Mikkonen, Kristina Lindström
We investigated bacterial community dynamics in response to used motor oil contamination and perennial crop cultivation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing in a 4-year field study. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes were the major bacterial phyla, and Rhodococcus was the most abundant genus. Initially, oil contamination decreased the overall bacterial diversity. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were sensitive to oil contamination, exhibiting clear succession with time...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
G Capillo, S Silvestro, M Sanfilippo, E Fiorino, G Giangrosso, V Ferrantelli, I Vazzana, C Faggio
Faro Lake is a coastal meromictic lagoon with singular characteristics in the Mediterranean (Messina, Sicily - Italy). It is part of the Natural Oriented Reserve of Capo Peloro (38°15'57" N; 15° 37'50" E). In this area, traditional mollusc farming activity persists, producing "autochthonous" mussels. This study reports of the Mytilus galloprovincialis haemolymph chemical profile and water variables determination of one year-lasted survey (April 2016-March 2017). The determinations of electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, P inorganic) and heavy metals in both Faro lake water and haemolymph have been carried out...
March 9, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Letizia Di Bella, Michela Ingrassia, Virgilio Frezza, Francesco L Chiocci, Raffaella Pecci, Rossella Bedini, Eleonora Martorelli
The new record of a shallow-water submarine hydrothermal field (<150 m w.d.) in the western Mediterranean Sea (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) allows us to study CO2 fluid impact on benthic foraminifers. Benthic foraminifers calcification process is sensitive to ocean acidification and to local chemical and physical parameters of seawater and pore water. Thus, foraminifers can record specific environmental conditions related to hydrothermal fluids, but at present their response to such activity is poorly defined...
February 22, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Maria Schirone, Miriam Berti, Pierina Visciano, Francesco Chiumiento, Giacomo Migliorati, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi, Federica Di Giacinto, Nicola Ferri
Lipophilic marine biotoxins include okadaic acid, pectenotoxin, yessotoxin and azaspiracid groups. The consumption of contaminated molluscs can lead to acute food poisoning syndromes depending on the exposure level. Regulatory limits have been set by Regulation (European Community, 2004a) No 853/2004 and LC-MS/MS is used as the official analytical method according to Regulation (European Community, 2011) No 15/2011. In this study specimens of mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis ) were collected along the coasts of the central Adriatic Sea during the years 2015-2017 and analyzed by the European harmonized Standard Operating Procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Benjamin L Jones, Leanne C Cullen-Unsworth, Richard K F Unsworth
Excess nutrients shift the ecological balance of coastal ecosystems, and this eutrophication is an increasing problem across the globe. Nutrient levels may be routinely measured, but monitoring rarely attempts to determine the source of these nutrients, even though bio-indicators are available. Nitrogen stable isotope analysis in biota is one such bio-indicator, but across the British Isles, this is rarely used. In this study, we provide the first quantitative evidence of the anthropogenic drivers of reduced water quality surrounding seagrass meadows throughout the British Isles using the stable nitrogen isotope δ15 N...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
C G Alimba, A M Aladeyelu, I A Nwabisi, A A Bakare
Amphibians are increasingly being used as bio-indicator of contamination in ecosystems due to their sensitivity to xenobiotics in the environment. Cadmium and lead compounds, ubiquitous mutagens and carcinogens, are capable of eliciting genome instability in adult toads which may enhance amphibian decline. Micronucleus cytome (MN-cyt) assay, a comprehensive cytogenetic test for the assessment of genome instability induced by xenobiotics in organisms, was utilized in the differential cytogenotoxic evaluation of Cd and Pb in adult Amietophrynus regularis...
2018: EXCLI Journal
Idrissa Kaboré, O Moog, A Ouéda, J Sendzimir, R Ouédraogo, W Guenda, A H Melcher
Awareness of sustainable management of water and its biological resources is rising in West Africa, but application of effective tools for biomonitoring and detecting habitats at risk in aquatic ecosystems is limited. In this study, we provide key environmental descriptors to characterize reference sites by applying the following "a priori criteria" (physical and chemical, hydro-morphological, and land use parameters) by exploring their potential to determine suitable reference sites. Using data collected from 44 sites, we identified 37 criteria that reliably identify reference conditions in semi-arid rivers by reflecting the impacts of multiple pressures ranging from low to very high intensity of human uses and impairments...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yoshitaka Oishi
Atmospheric pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has become a serious problem, especially in Asia, as PAHs can severely affect ecologically important mountainous areas. Using pine needles and mosses as bio-indicators, this study examined PAH pollution in a mountainous study area and evaluated the influence of transboundary PAHs. PAHs in urban areas were also evaluated for comparison. The study sites were alpine areas and urban areas (inland or coastal cities) across central Japan, in the easternmost part of Asia where atmospheric pollutants are transported from mainland Asia...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yu Xu, Huayun Xiao, Hui Guan, Chaojun Long
Moss (as a reference material) and camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaf, branch bark and bark samples were systematically collected across an urban-rural gradient in Guiyang (SW China) to determine the efficacy of using these bio-indicators to evaluate nitrogen (N) pollution. The tissue N concentrations (0.13%-2.70%) and δ15 N values (-7.5‰ to +9.3‰) of all of these bio-indicators exhibited large spatial variations, as they recorded higher values in urban areas that quickly decreased with distance from the city center; moreover, both soil N concentrations and soil δ15 N values were found no significant differences within each 6 km from the urban to the rural area...
February 2018: Environmental Pollution
David Helman
Land surface phenology (LSP) provides bio-indication of ongoing climate change. It uses space-borne greenness proxies to monitor plant phenology at the landscape level from the regional to global scale. However, several unconsidered methodological and observational -related limitations may lead to misinterpretation of the satellite-derived signals. For instance, changes in species composition within a pixel could result in a change in the time series of the greenness proxy, due to the distinct phenology of the plant species involved...
October 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Esther U Kadiene, Capucine Bialais, Baghdad Ouddane, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Sami Souissi
This study determined the effect of cadmium (Cd) toxicity comparatively on two copepods, Eurytemora affinis (Poppe 1880) from a temperate region (Seine Estuary, France) and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Sewell 1919) from a subtropical region (Danshuei Estuary, Taiwan), according to their sex and reproductive stages. In addition, the effect of Cd to their life cycle traits was quantified. In the first experiment, both copepod sexes were exposed to 40, 80, 150, 220, and 360 µg/L of Cd and a control cultured in salinity 15, except that the temperature was 18 °C for E...
November 2017: Ecotoxicology
Michael Sievers, Robin Hale, Kirsten M Parris, Stephen E Swearer
Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. This risk will be heightened if such wetlands are ecological traps - preferred habitats that confer lower fitness than another available habitat...
February 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Doyun Shin, Yunho Lee, Jeonghyun Park, Hee Sun Moon, Sung Pil Hyun
Changes in microbial community induced by acid shock were studied in the context of potential release of acids to the environment due to chemical accidents. The responses of microbial communities in three different soils to the exposure to sulfuric or hydrofluoric acid and to the subsequent neutralization treatment were investigated as functions of acid concentration and exposure time by using 16S-rRNA gene based pyrosequencing and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Measurements of soil pH and dissolved ion concentrations revealed that the added acids were neutralized to different degrees, depending on the mineral composition and soil texture...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Asli Kacar, Burcu Omuzbuken
The presence of fecal bacteria in seawater is one of the most important bio-indicator parameters of fecal pollution. In this study, the Bay of İzmir (in the eastern Aegean Sea), which is a critical area because of its relationship with marine transportation and industrial and commercial activities, was evaluated for its microbiological and physicochemical parameters through a monitoring program. The data were obtained from seasonally assembled surface seawater samples from 2015 to 2017 at 23 sampling stations...
August 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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