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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136627/toll-like-receptor-4-reduces-occludin-and-zonula-occludens-1-to-increase-retinal-permeability-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Li Liu, Youde Jiang, Jena J Steinle
We reported that β-adrenergic receptors regulate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the retina of diabetic mice and in retinal endothelial cells (REC) and Müller cells. We hypothesized that TLR4 regulates retinal permeability both in vitro and in vivo in the retinal vasculature. We used REC cultured in normal and high-glucose conditions and TLR4 siRNA treatments for cell culture studies of permeability and protein analyses of tumor necrosis factor α, occludin, and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1). We used endothelial cell (EC)-specific Cre-Lox TLR4 knockout mice to study retinal permeability and neuronal and vascular changes following exposure to ocular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) used as a retinal stressor...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124041/alteration-of-gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-cytokine-chemokine-profiles-in-5-fluorouracil-induced-intestinal-mucositis
#2
Hong-Li Li, Lan Lu, Xiao-Shuang Wang, Li-Yue Qin, Ping Wang, Shui-Ping Qiu, Hui Wu, Fei Huang, Bei-Bei Zhang, Hai-Lian Shi, Xiao-Jun Wu
Disturbed homeostasis of gut microbiota has been suggested to be closely associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) induced mucositis. However, current knowledge of the overall profiles of 5-Fu-disturbed gut microbiota is limited, and so far there is no direct convincing evidence proving the causality between 5-Fu-disturbed microbiota and colonic mucositis. In mice, in agreement with previous reports, 5-Fu resulted in severe colonic mucositis indicated by weight loss, diarrhea, bloody stool, shortened colon, and infiltration of inflammatory cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119618/effects-of-chestnut-tannins-on-intestinal-morphology-barrier-function-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-microflora-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-heat-stressed-broilers
#3
H W Liu, K Li, J S Zhao, W Deng
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on intestinal morphology, barrier function, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, microflora and antioxidant capacity in heat-stressed broilers. Four hundred 28-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned into four groups, with 10 replicates per group and 10 broilers per replicate. The broilers in the normal (NOR) group were kept at 22 ± 1°C and fed the basal diet, and each of the other three groups were treated with cyclic heat (33 ± 1°C from 0800 to 1800 and 22 ± 1°C from 1800 to 0800) and fed the basal diet with 0 (HT), 1 (CT1) or 2 (CT2) g of CT/kg of diet...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115705/co-culturing-porcine-normal-urothelial-cells-urinary-bladder-fibroblasts-and-smooth-muscle-cells-for-tissue-engineering-research
#4
Daša Zupančič, Katjuša Mrak Poljšak, Mateja Erdani Kreft
New strategies for culturing and co-culturing of the main types of urinary bladder cells are essential for successful establishment of biomimetic in vitro models, which could be applied for research into, and management of, diverse urological disorders. Porcine normal urothelial cells are available in nearly unlimited amounts and have many properties equivalent to human urothelial cells. In the present study, we established normal differentiated porcine urothelial cells in co-cultures with porcine urinary bladder normal fibroblasts and/or smooth muscle cells...
November 8, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102636/derangement-of-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayer-by-dietary-cholesterol-oxidation-products
#5
Monica Deiana, Simone Calfapietra, Alessandra Incani, Angela Atzeri, Daniela Rossin, Roberto Loi, Barbara Sottero, Noemi Iaia, Giuseppe Poli, Fiorella Biasi
The emerging role of the diet in the incidence of intestinal inflammatory diseases has stimulated research on the influence of eating habits with pro-inflammatory properties in inducing epithelial barrier disturbance. Cholesterol oxidation products, namely oxysterols, have been shown to promote and sustain oxidative/inflammatory reactions in human digestive tract. This work investigated in an in vitro model the potential ability of a combination of dietary oxysterols representative of a hyper-cholesterol diet to induce the loss of intestinal epithelial layer integrity...
November 2, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091813/dietary-red-raspberries-attenuate-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#6
Shima Bibi, Yifei Kang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
Persistent intestinal inflammation severely impairs intestinal integrity resulting in inflammatory bowel disease. Red raspberries (RB) are a rich source of bioactive compounds; their beneficial effect on the colitis protection was evaluated in the current study using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis mouse model. Six-week-old mice were fed a standard rodent research diet supplemented with RB (0 or 5% w/w, n=20 each group) for 6 weeks. At the 4th week of dietary treatment, approximately half of mice in each dietary group (n=12 each group) were subjected to 2...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061881/e-cadherin-cleavage-by-mt2-mmp-regulates-apical-junctional-signaling-and-epithelial-homeostasis-in-the-intestine
#7
Jesús Gómez-Escudero, Vanessa Moreno, Mara Martín-Alonso, M Victoria Hernández de Riquer, Tamar Feinberg, Ángel Colmenar, Enrique Calvo, Emilio Camafeita, Fernando Martínez, Menno J Oudhoff, Stephen J Weiss, Alicia G Arroyo
Cadherin-based intercellular adhesions are essential players in epithelial homeostasis, but their dynamic regulation during tissue morphogenesis and remodeling remain largely undefined. Herein, we characterize an unexpected role for the membrane-anchored metalloproteinase MT2-MMP in regulating epithelial cell quiescence. Following co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, the MT2-MMP cytosolic tail was found to interact with the zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) at the apical junctions of polarized epithelial cells...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040215/role-of-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-regulating-lung-fluid-balance-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-infection-related-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#8
Hao Wang, Tao Wang, Zhicheng Yuan, Yufang Cao, Yongfang Zhou, Junyun He, Yongchun Shen, Ni Zeng, Luqi Dai, Fuqiang Wen, Lei Chen
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is implicated in inflammatory responses in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but its role in pulmonary edema formation remains unclear, especially in infection-related ARDS mainly caused by pneumonia or sepsis. In this study, we investigated the role of RAGE in alveolar fluid regulation by using RAGE gene knockout (RAGE) mice in a murine ALI model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and by comparing soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels in serum and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) between ARDS patients and control subjects...
October 16, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037381/dietary-supplementation-of-enzymatically-treated-artemisia-annua-could-alleviate-the-intestinal-inflammatory-response-in-heat-stressed-broilers
#9
Zhihua Song, Kang Cheng, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua (EA) on the intestinal inflammatory response of heat-stressed broilers. A total of 144 male Arbor Acres broilers aged 21 days were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 replicates per group and 8 broilers in each replicate. The 3 treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which broiler chickens were raised at 22 ± 1°C and fed basal diets, the heat stress (HS) and HS-EA groups, in which broiler chickens were raised at 34 ± 1°C for 8h (0900-1700h) and 22 ± 1°C for 16h, and fed basal diets supplemented with 0 or 1g/kg EA, respectively...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#10
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034528/patients-with-a-new-variant-of-endemic-pemphigus-foliaceus-have-autoantibodies-against-arrector-pili-muscle-colocalizing-with-myzap-p0071-desmoplakins-1-and-2-and-arvcf
#11
A M Abreu-Velez, C A Valencia-Yepes, Y A Upegui-Zapata, E Upegui-Quiceno, N R Mesa-Herrera, J E Velazquez-Velez, M S Howard
BACKGROUND: We identified a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America, which we term El Bagre-EPF, and observed reactivity to arrector pili muscle (APM), thus we tested for autoimmunity to APM. METHODS: We took skin biopsies from 30 patients with El Bagre-EPF and 30 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, sex and occupation, who were all from the endemic area, and tested these using direct immunofluorescence (DIF), confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting (IB)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017935/physiological-implications-of-dheas-induced-non-classical-steroid-hormone-signaling
#12
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Mazen Shihan, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
In the spermatogenic cell line GC-2, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), activates the Src/Ras/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB(ATF-1) signaling cascade. Since DHEAS is present in the gonads, and since spermatogenesis and maturation of spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa requires activation of Erk1/2, the triggering of these signaling events by DHEAS might have physiological relevance. In the Sertoli cell line TM4, DHEAS-induces activation of Erk1/2, CREB, and ATF-1, stimulates expression of claudin-3 and claudin-5 and augments transepithelial resistance, indicating the formation of tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992023/garlic-diallyl-disulfide-and-diallyl-trisulfide-mitigates-effects-of-pro-oxidant-induced-cellular-stress-and-has-immune-modulatory-function-in-lps-stimulated-porcine-epithelial-cells
#13
N Horn, G Miller, K M Ajuwon, O Adeola
The objective of the current study was to determine if garlic-derived diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) could mitigate oxidative and endotoxin stress, using an intestinal porcine epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model. The experiment was arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial of DADS + DATS (0 or 18 µM), pro-oxidant stressor (hydrogen peroxide at 0 or 100 µM), and endotoxin stressor (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] at 0 or 10 µg/mL) with 8 replicates per treatment. Cells were incubated with DADS + DATS for 18 h, LPS for 6 h, then with hydrogen peroxide for 3 h...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991675/sodium-butyrate-exerts-protective-effect-against-parkinson-s-disease-in-mice-via-stimulation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#14
Jiaming Liu, Fangyan Wang, Suzhi Liu, Jimei Du, Xuezhen Hu, Jiaojiao Xiong, Renchi Fang, Wenqian Chen, Jing Sun
Sodium butyrate (NaB) has exhibited protective activity in neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect and potential mechanisms of NaB in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). A mouse was intraperitoneally treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days to induce PD model and NaB (200mg/kg) was intragastrically treated for 3weeks. The behavioral tests were then conducted. Dopaminergic degeneration was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the SN...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988777/delta-toxin-from-clostridium-perfringens-perturbs-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-in-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#15
Soshi Seike, Masaya Takehara, Teruhisa Takagishi, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-barrel-pore-forming toxin (β-PFT) and a presumptive virulence factor of type B and C strains, which are causative organisms of fatal intestinal diseases in animals. We showed previously that delta-toxin causes cytotoxicity via necrosis in sensitive cells. Here, we examined the effect of delta-toxin on intestinal membrane integrity. Delta-toxin led to a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increased the permeability of fluorescence isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells without changing the tight junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1...
October 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978412/layilin-is-critical-for-mediating-hyaluronan-35kda-induced-intestinal-epithelial-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Yeojung Kim, Gail A West, Greeshma Ray, Sean P Kessler, Aaron C Petrey, Claudio Fiocchi, Christine McDonald, Michelle S Longworth, Laura E Nagy, Carol A de la Motte
Tight junction proteins are critical in maintaining homeostatic intestinal permeability. Multiple intestinal inflammatory diseases are correlated with reduced expression of tight junction proteins. We have recently reported that oral treatment of mice with Hyaluronan 35kDa (HA35) increases colonic expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Here, we investigate whether HA35 treatment enhances ZO-1 expression by direct interaction with intestinal epithelium in vitro and have identified the HA receptor responsible for HA35-mediated ZO-1 induction in colonic epithelium in vitro and in vivo...
October 1, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973338/histologic-characterization-of-retina-neuroglia-modifications-in-diabetic-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#17
Ivan Fernandez-Bueno, Robert Jones, Laura Soriano-Romaní, Antonio López-García, Orla Galvin, Sharon Cheetham, Yolanda Diebold
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize retinal degenerative morphologic modifications in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes, by histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Methods: Male lean (?/+; n = 10) and ZDF (fa/fa; n = 20) rats were used. At 24 weeks of age, body weights and blood glucose levels were determined. Eyes were removed and processed for paraffin wax embedding. Sections through the optic disc were stained for hematoxylin and eosin or immunostained for TUNEL, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), isolectin B4, recoverin, retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein, rhodopsin, vimentin, and zonula occludens protein 1...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966667/changes-to-the-bladder-epithelial-barrier-are-associated-with-ketamine-induced-cystitis
#18
Qixin Duan, Tianpeng Wu, Xiaochun Yi, Lingqi Liu, Jiantao Yan, Zhongjie Lu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of the bladder epithelial barrier in the pathogenesis of ketamine-induced cystitis (KIC). A total of 60 female mice were randomly allocated into control and ketamine groups, which received daily intraperitoneal injections of saline and ketamine, respectively. Micturition behavior was recorded in 2-h intervals at the end of 4, 8 and 12 weeks, and bladders were harvested for subsequent analyses. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on the bladders and histopathological changes were analyzed using light microscopy...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943399/testosterone-bicalutamide-antagonism-at-the-predicted-extracellular-androgen-binding-site-of-zip9
#19
Ahmed Bulldan, Viveka Nand Malviya, Neha Upmanyu, Lutz Konrad, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
ZIP9 is a Zn(2+) transporter, testosterone receptor, and mediator of signaling events through G-proteins. Despite these pivotal properties, however, its physiological and pathophysiological significance has not yet been comprehensively addressed. Using a cell line that lacks the classical androgen receptor we show that ZIP9-mediated phosphorylation of Erk1/2, CREB, or ATF-1 and expression of claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 by testosterone can be completely antagonized by bicalutamide (Casodex), an anti-androgen of significant clinical impact...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939530/towards-the-modulation-of-oxidative-damage-apoptosis-and-tight-junction-protein-in-response-to-dietary-leucine-deficiency-a-likely-cause-of-ros-induced-gill-structural-integrity-impairment
#20
Wei-Dan Jiang, Yu-Ping Deng, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Pei Wu, Yong-An Zhang, Lin Feng
The current study explored the protective effect of leucine on antioxidant status, apoptosis and tight junction damage in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.). The trial was conducted by feeding grass carp with six graded level of leucine (7.1, 8.9, 11.0, 13.3, 15.2 and 17.1 g kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. The fish were fed to apparent satiation 4 times per day. The results indicated that compared with the leucine deficiency group, 8.9-11.3 g leucine kg(-1) diet supplementations decreased protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS contents, which may be partially attributed to the improvement of antioxidant status in the gill by increasing hydroxyl radical capacity and anti-superoxide radicals, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), that referring to the up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression...
September 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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