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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#2
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625872/decreased-enteritis-resistance-ability-by-dietary-low-or-excess-levels-of-lipids-through-impairing-the-intestinal-physical-and-immune-barriers-function-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#3
Lin Feng, Pei-Jun Ni, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xu Tang, He-Qun Shi, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The current study explores the hypothesis that low or excess levels of lipids decrease the enteritis resistance ability through impairing the intestinal physical and immune barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp with an average initial weight of 261.41 ± 0.53 g were fed diets containing six graded levels of lipids at 5.9, 21.4, 36.0, 50.2, 66.6 and 80.1 g/kg for 8 weeks. After that, a challenge trial was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila over 2 weeks...
June 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610850/dietary-myo-inositol-deficiency-decreased-the-growth-performances-and-impaired-intestinal-physical-barrier-function-partly-relating-to-nrf2-jnk-e2f4-and-mlck-signaling-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#4
Shuang-An Li, Wei-Dan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary myo-inositol on the growth and intestinal physical barrier functions of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (221.83 ± 0.84 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of myo-inositol (27.0, 137.9, 286.8, 438.6, 587.7 and 737.3 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal myo-inositol levels, myo-inositol deficiency (27...
June 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608180/montelukast-improves-the-changes-of-cytoskeletal-and-adaptor-proteins-of-human-podocytes-by-interleukin-13
#5
Tae-Sun Ha, Ja Ae Nam, Su-Bin Seong, Moin A Saleem, Se Jin Park, Jae Il Shin
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has recently been reported to be a potential cytokine in the pathogenesis of minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). However, the mechanistic insights associated with podocyte dysfunction mediated by IL-13-induced changes in various slit diaphragm (SD) and cytoskeletal molecules have not yet been shown in cultured human podocytes in vitro. MATERIALS: Human conditionally immortalized podocytes were used. TREATMENT: Podocytes were incubated with various concentrations of IL-13 during the indicated time periods (6, 12, and 24 h) and montelukast was administered with the dose of 0...
June 12, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587416/berberine-alleviates-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-by-improving-intestinal-barrier-function-and-reducing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Li-Chao Zhang, Yue Wang, Ling-Chang Tong, Sheng Sun, Wei-Ye Liu, Su Zhang, Rong-Mei Wang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Ling Li
Berberine has demonstrated efficacy in alleviating experimental colitis in vivo and in vitro. However, the anti-colitis mechanisms of berberine that enable it to promote intestinal barrier function in vivo remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of berberine on intestinal epithelial barrier function, expression of tight junction proteins and the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress factors in the intestinal mucosa of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Berberine (100 mg/kg) was administered for five days to mice with established colitis, induced by administration of DSS (3% w/v) for six days...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576405/protective-effects-of-donepezil-against-endothelial-permeability
#7
Xuelu Tang, Xiuhua Di, Yilin Liu
The endothelium lines the interior surface of blood vessels, and under pathophysiologic conditions, its integrity can be compromised due to a disturbance in the expression of tight junctions. Donepezil is a licensed drug used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence has reported that donepezil has an anti-inflammatory activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of donepezil in vascular diseases. In this study, we found that pretreatment with donepezil significantly ameliorated endothelial permeability induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) by restoring the expression of the tight junction proteins vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
May 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561933/cx36-cx43-and-cx45-in-mouse-and-rat-cerebellar-cortex-species-specific-expression-compensation-in-cx36-null-mice-and-co-localization-in-neurons-vs-glia
#8
J I Nagy, J E Rash
Electrical synapses formed by connexin36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions between interneurons in the cerebellar cortex have been well characterized, including those formed between basket cells and between Golgi cells, and there is gene reporter-based evidence for the expression of connexin45 (Cx45) in the cerebellar molecular layer. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to further investigate expression patterns of Cx36 and Cx45 in this layer, and to examine localization relationships of these connexins with each other and with glial connexin43 (Cx43)...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554775/zonula-occludens-2-regulates-rho-proteins-activity-and-the-development-of-epithelial-cytoarchitecture-and-barrier-function
#9
Arturo Raya-Sandino, Alejandro Castillo-Kauil, Alaide Domínguez-Calderón, Lourdes Alarcón, David Flores-Benitez, Francisco Cuellar-Perez, Bruno López-Bayghen, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, José Vázquez-Prado, Lorenza González-Mariscal
Silencing Zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2), a tight junctions (TJ) scaffold protein, in epithelial cells (MDCK ZO-2 KD) triggers: 1) Decreased cell to substratum attachment, accompanied by reduced expression of claudin-7 and integrin β1, and increased vinculin recruitment to focal adhesions and stress fibers formation; 2) Lowered cell-cell aggregation and appearance of wider intercellular spaces; 3) Increased RhoA/ROCK activity, mediated by GEF-HI recruitment to cell borders by cingulin; 4) Increased Cdc42 activity, mitotic spindle disorientation and the appearance of cysts with multiple lumens; 5) Increased Rac and cofilin activity, multiple lamellipodia formation and random cell migration but increased wound closure; 6) Diminished cingulin phosphorylation and disappearance of planar network of microtubules at the TJ region; and 7) Increased transepithelial electrical resistance at steady state, coupled to an increased expression of ZO-1 and claudin-4 and a decreased expression of claudin-2 and paracingulin...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553432/hiv-1-transactivator-protein-induces-zo-1-and-neprilysin-dysfunction-in-brain-endothelial-cells-via-the-ras-signaling-pathway
#10
Wenlin Jiang, Wen Huang, Yanlan Chen, Min Zou, Dingyue Peng, Debing Chen
Amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition is increased in human immunodeficiency virus-1- (HIV-1-) infected brain, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Ras signaling in HIV-1 transactivator protein- (Tat-) induced Aβ accumulation in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (HBEC-5i). Cell viability assay showed that 1 μg/mL Tat and 20 μmol/L of the Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) had no significant effect on HBEC-5i cell viability after 24 h exposure...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553294/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study-on-the-efficacy-of-terpinen-4-ol-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-mice-experimental-colitis
#11
Zecai Zhang, Peng Shen, Xiaojie Lu, Yanxin Li, Jiuxi Liu, Bo Liu, Yunhe Fu, Yongguo Cao, Naisheng Zhang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Terpinen-4-ol (TER) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and clarify the possible mechanisms. In vivo, an acute colitis model was used to confirm the anti-inflammatory activity and the possible mechanisms of TER in C57BL/6 and NLRP3(-/-) mice. In vitro, we performed further study, using RAW264.7 cells and Caco-2 cells, to confirm the molecular mechanisms of TER on inflammatory response. In C57BL/6 mice, TER alleviated DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI), colon length shortening, colonic pathological damage, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553165/gsk-3%C3%AE-as-a-target-for-protection-against-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Wei Wang, Mingchang Li, Yuefei Wang, Zhongyu Wang, Wei Zhang, Fangxia Guan, Qianxue Chen, Jian Wang
Stroke remains the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. This fact highlights the need to search for potential drug targets that can reduce stroke-related brain damage. We showed recently that a glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor attenuates tissue plasminogen activator-induced hemorrhagic transformation after permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Here, we examined whether GSK-3β inhibition mitigates early ischemia-reperfusion stroke injury and investigated its potential mechanism of action...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522595/human-salivary-peptide-histatin-1-stimulates-epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-and-barrier-function
#13
Irene A van Dijk, Maria Laura Ferrando, Anne-Eva van der Wijk, Ron A Hoebe, Kamran Nazmi, Wouter J de Jonge, Przemek M Krawczyk, Jan G M Bolscher, Enno C I Veerman, Jan Stap
Histatins are multifunctional histidine-rich peptides secreted by the salivary glands and exclusively present in the saliva of higher primates, where they play a fundamental role in the protection of the oral cavity. Our previously published results demonstrated that histatin-1 (Hst1) promotes cell-substrate adhesion in various cell types and hinted that it could also be involved in cell-cell adhesion, a process of fundamental importance to epithelial and endothelial barriers. Here we explore the effects of Hst1 on cellular barrier function...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515165/zinc-supplementation-via-gpr39-upregulates-pkc%C3%AE-to-protect-intestinal-barrier-integrity-in-caco-2-cells-challenged-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#14
Yu-Xin Shao, Zhao Lei, Patricia G Wolf, Yan Gao, Yu-Ming Guo, Bing-Kun Zhang
Background: Zinc has been shown to improve intestinal barrier function against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection, but the mechanisms involved in this process remain undefined.Objective: We aimed to explore the roles of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)39 and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) in the regulation by zinc of intestinal barrier function.Methods: A Transwell Caco-2 monolayer was pretreated with 0, 50, or 100 μM Zn and then incubated with S. typhimurium for 0-6 h. Afterward, cells silenced by the small interfering RNA for GPR39 or PKCζ were pretreated with 100 μM Zn and incubated with S...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513595/hiv-2-infection-is-associated-with-preserved-galt-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity-despite-ongoing-mucosal-viral-replication
#15
S M Fernandes, A R Pires, P Matoso, C Ferreira, H Nunes-Cabaço, L Correia, E Valadas, J Poças, P Pacheco, H Veiga-Fernandes, R B Foxall, A E Sousa
The mechanisms that enable preservation of gut mucosal integrity during persistent viral replication and inherent inflammation remain unclear. Here, we investigated, for the first time, gut homeostasis in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease. We found viral replication in both sigmoid and ileum of asymptomatic HIV-2+ patients (range: 240-851 circulating CD4+T-cells per μl) despite their undetectable viremia, accompanied by interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cell expansion, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512445/the-therapeutic-value-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cell-transplantation-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#16
Rui Zhang, Jing Yang, Jingjing Yuan, Bo Song, Yan Wang, Yuming Xu
AIMS: To study the effect of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) treatment on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats and elucidate possible mechanisms. METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) EPC group: ICH + EPC, (2) phosphate-buffered saline group: ICH + PBS, and (3) sham group. EPCs were transplanted intravenously 6 h after ICH. Modified neurological severity score was used to evaluate neurological function. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity was evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507312/design-and-evaluation-of-ephrina1-mutants-with-cerebral-protective-effect
#17
Yuanjun Zhu, Yuanqing Gao, Danping Zheng, Mengyang Shui, Kuai Yu, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuan Lin, Li Su, Wenxing Yang, Yinye Wang
The activation of EphA2 receptor by its natural ligand EphrinA1 causes blood brain barrier dysfunction, and inactivation of EphA2 reduces BBB damage in ischemic stroke. Thus, EphA2 targeted antagonists may serve as neuroprotective agents. We engineered four mutants of EphrinA1, EM1, EM2, EM3 and EM4, respectively. The computational analysis showed that these four mutants were capable of interacting with EphA2. Their potential neuroprotective effects were examined in mouse focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506763/neonatal-hyperoxia-disrupts-the-intestinal-barrier-and-impairs-intestinal-function-in-rats
#18
Hsiu-Chu Chou, Chung-Ming Chen
Animal studies have demonstrated that neonatal hyperoxia injures the distal small intestine and disrupts the intestinal barrier. This study evaluated the effects of brief hyperoxia exposure on intestinal function in newborn rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to room air or normobaric hyperoxia (85% O2) for 1week. The rats were euthanized on Postnatal Day 7, and their terminal ilea and sera were collected for histological analyses and intestinal permeability measurements, respectively. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined...
May 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503421/differential-expression-of-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-lung-resistance-protein-and-multidrug-resistance-protein-1-in-retinas-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#19
Meng-Shuang Li, Meng Xin, Chuan-Long Guo, Gui-Ming Lin, Jun Li, Xiang-Gen Wu
AIM: To investigate the altering expression profiles of efflux transporters such as breast cancer-resistance protein (BCRP), lung resistance protein (LRP), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) at the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB) during the development of early diabetic retinopathy (DR) and/or aging in mice. METHODS: Relative mRNA and protein expression profiles of these three efflux transporters in the retina during the development of early DR and/or aging in mice were examined...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495656/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-augments-blood-brain-barrier-and-tight-junction-protein-expression-in-brain-endothelial-cells
#20
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
Tight junctions (TJ) between brain endothelial cells are essential for formation and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although loss of BBB integrity is associated with several neuropathological disorders, treatments that augment or stabilise the BBB are scarce. Here we show that physiological concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) stimulate the expression of the TJ proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-3 in the brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd.3 and promote TJ formation between neighbouring cells, demonstrated by augmented transendothelial resistance across cell monolayers...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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