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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886077/magnetofection-enhances-lentiviral-mediated-transduction-of-airway-epithelial-cells-through-extracellular-and-cellular-barriers
#1
Stefano Castellani, Clara Orlando, Annalucia Carbone, Sante Di Gioia, Massimo Conese
Gene transfer to airway epithelial cells is hampered by extracellular (mainly mucus) and cellular (tight junctions) barriers. Magnetofection has been used to increase retention time of lentiviral vectors (LV) on the cellular surface. In this study, magnetofection was investigated in airway epithelial cell models mimicking extracellular and cellular barriers. Bronchiolar epithelial cells (H441 line) were evaluated for LV-mediated transduction after polarization onto filters and dexamethasone (dex) treatment, which induced hemicyst formation, with or without magnetofection...
November 23, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881199/intestinal-permeability-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-measured-by-lactulose-rhamnose-and-mannitol-sugars-in-chickens
#2
S Gilani, G S Howarth, S M Kitessa, C D Tran, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health. Limited in vivo IP research has been conducted in chickens. The objectives of the current study were to develop a model of increased IP utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS Escherichia coli O55:B5) and to evaluate IP changes using the lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose (LMR) sugar permeability test. In addition, fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d), d-lactate, zonula occludens (ZO-1) and diamine oxidase (DAO) permeability tests were employed...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880979/low-dose-lipopolysaccharide-causes-biliary-injury-by-blood-biliary-barrier-impairment-in-a-rat-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-model
#3
J Reiling, K R Bridle, M Gijbels, F G Schaap, L Jaskowski, N Santrampurwala, L J Britton, C M Campbell, S W M Olde Damink, D H G Crawford, C H C Dejong, J Fawcett
INTRODUCTION: This study explored whether bacterial endotoxins, in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), could have an injurious effect on the biliary tract in conjunction with ischemia. METHOD: Sixty-four rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham operation (sham), 1mg/kg LPS i.p. (LPS), hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR), and IR combined with LPS (IR+LPS). Following 1 or 6 hours of reperfusion, serum liver tests, bile duct histology, immunofluorescence microscopy (zonula occludens-1), bile composition (bile salts, phospholipids, lactate dehydrogenase), hepatic gene expression (bile salt transporters and inflammatory mediators) as well as serum and biliary cytokine concentrations were quantified and compared between the study groups...
November 23, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879681/kuwanon-g-preserves-lps-induced-disruption-of-gut-epithelial-barrier-in-vitro
#4
Hengli Guo, Youhua Xu, Wei Huang, Hua Zhou, Zhaoguang Zheng, Yonghua Zhao, Bao He, Tingting Zhu, Shanshan Tang, Quan Zhu
Defects in the gut epithelial barrier have now been recognized to be responsible for diabetic endotoxemia. In everyday life, Mulberry leaf tea is widely used in Asian nations due to its proposed benefits to health and control of diabetes. Evidence indicates the potential role of Kuwanon G (KWG), a component from Morus alba L., on blocking the gut epithelial barrier. In lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-damaged Caco-2 cells, it was found that KWG increased the viability of cells in a concentration-dependent manner. KWG administration significantly elevated the anti-oxidant abilities via increasing ratio of superoxidase dismutase (SOD)/malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cells...
November 22, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875293/attenuation-of-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-and-hyperpermeability-by-calpain-inhibition
#5
Himakarnika Alluri, Marcene Grimsley, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Kevin Paul Varghese, Shenyuan L Zhang, Chander Peddaboina, Bobby Robinson, Madhava R Beeram, Jason H Huang, Binu Tharakan
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and the associated microvascular hyperpermeability followed by brain edema is a hallmark feature of several brain pathologies including traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) that is upregulated following traumatic injuries also promotes BBB dysfunction and hyperpermeability but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly known. The objective of this study was to determine the role of calpains in mediating BBB dysfunction and hyperpermeability and to test the effect of calpain inhibition on the BBB following traumatic insults to the brain...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846191/noncoding-transcribed-ultraconserved-region-t-ucr-uc-261-participates-in-intestinal-mucosa-barrier-damage-in-crohn-s-disease
#6
Xiao Xian Qian, Jiang Chen Peng, An Tao Xu, Di Zhao, Yu Qi Qiao, Tian Rong Wang, Jun Shen, Zhi Hua Ran
BACKGROUND: To date, 481 ultraconserved regions (UCRs) have been discovered in human genome. We aimed to investigate the transcribed UCR (T-UCR) characteristics in Crohn's disease (CD ) and determine whether T-UCR uc.261 participated in intestinal mucosa barrier damage. METHODS: T-UCRs were screened in active CD mucosa using the Arraystar Human T-UCR Microarray and validated with quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, together with tight junction proteins (TJPs) including junctional adhesion molecule-A, occludin, claudin-1, and zonula occluden-1...
December 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845198/hyaluronan-35kda-treatment-protects-mice-from-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-and-induces-epithelial-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-vivo
#7
Yeojung Kim, Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Craig R Homer, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Maintaining a healthy intestinal barrier, the primary physical barrier between intestinal microbiota and the underlying lamina propria, is critical for optimal health. Epithelial integrity is essential for the prevention of the entrance of luminal contents, such as bacteria and their products, through the large intestinal barrier. In this study, we investigated the protective functions of biosynthetic, specific sized, hyaluronan around 35kDa (HA35) on intestinal epithelium in healthy mice, as well as mice infected Citrobacter rodentium, an established model that mimics infection with a serious human pathogen, enteropathogenic E...
November 11, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833554/n-butylphthalide-alleviates-blood-brain-barrier-impairment-in-rats-exposed-to-carbon-monoxide
#8
Mingjun Bi, Mingwei Zhang, Dadong Guo, Weikang Bi, Bin Liu, Yong Zou, Qin Li
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the most important health concerns and may result in neuropathologic changes and neurologic sequelae. However, few studies have addressed the correlation between CO poisoning and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. In this study, we investigated the effects of N-butylphthalide (NBP) on the expressions of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-5 and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) proteins in a CO poisoning rat model. The results indicated that the brain water content was obviously increased, and the tight junctions between endothelial cells were disrupted, resulting in significant cerebral edema and BBB dysfunction in a rat model of CO poisoning...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824650/vsl-3-probiotic-stimulates-t-cell-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-mediated-recovery-of-ifn-%C3%AE-induced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-defects
#9
Moorthy Krishnan, Harrison M Penrose, Nilay N Shah, Ronald R Marchelletta, Declan F McCole
BACKGROUND: VSL#3 is a probiotic compound that has been used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) is the protein product of the inflammatory bowel disease candidate gene, PTPN2, and we have previously shown that it protects epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether VSL#3 improves intestinal epithelial barrier function against the effects of the inflammatory bowel disease-associated proinflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) through activation of TCPTP...
December 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824273/anti-inflammaging-effects-of-lactobacillus-brevis-ow38-in-aged-mice
#10
J-J Jeong, K A Kim, Y-J Hwang, M J Han, D-H Kim
In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were collected from kimchi and were screened to isolate strains that inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production by Escherichia coli and p16 expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis OW38 (1×10(9) cfu/mouse) to aged mice (male, 18 months old) for 8 weeks reduced the LPS level in colon fluid and blood. In addition, OW38 treatment also reduced the ratio of Firmicutes or Proteobacteria to Bacteroidetes, which was significantly higher in aged mice than in young mice...
November 8, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823626/plant-derived-triterpene-celastrol-ameliorates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-disruption-of-endothelial-barrier-assembly-via-inducing-tight-junction-proteins
#11
Dan Luo, Jia Zhao, Jianhui Rong
BACKGROUND: The integrity and functions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are regulated by the expression and organization of tight junction proteins. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to explore whether plant-derived triterpenoid celastrol could regulate tight junction integrity in murine brain endothelial bEnd3 cells. METHODS: We disrupted the tight junctions between endothelial bEnd3 cells by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). We investigated the effects of celastrol on the permeability of endothelial monolayers by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758031/characterization-of-in-vitro-effects-of-microcystin-lr-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#12
Yuan Zhou, Xiaoping Xu, Beibei Yu, Guang Yu
The intestinal epithelium is a single-cell layer that provides an important barrier against natural toxins. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyclic heptapeptide, is one of the best known toxins able to alter the functions of intestine. This study evaluated the toxic effects and the possible mechanisms of MC-LR on barrier function of the intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were exposed to 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 μM MC-LR. Cell viability significantly decreased, while the ratio of apoptotic cells increased after exposure to 12...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751877/histamine-type-1-receptor-activation-by-low-dose-of-histamine-undermines-human-glomerular-slit-diaphragm-integrity
#13
Eleonora Veglia, Alessandro Pini, Aldo Moggio, Cristina Grange, Federica Premoselli, Gianluca Miglio, Katerina Tiligada, Roberto Fantozzi, Paul L Chazot, Arianna Carolina Rosa
Histamine has been reported to decrease the ultrafiltration coefficient, which inversely correlates with glomerular permselectivity, however the mechanism(s) underling this effect have never been investigated. This study aimed to assess whether histamine could exert a direct detrimental effect on podocyte permeability and the possible involvement of two key proteins for the glomerular slit diaphragm (SD) integrity, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and P-cadherin. The effect of histamine (100 pM-1000nM) on coloured podocytes junctional integrity was evaluated functionally by a transwell assay of monolayer permeability and morphologically by electron microscopy...
October 14, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749498/correlations-of-in-vitro-assays-for-assessing-cytotoxicity-and-biocompatibility-of-contact-lens-multipurpose-solutions
#14
Ling C Huang, Mercedes Salvador-Silva, Ronika S Leang
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate correlations among in vitro assays used for assessing cytotoxicity of contact lens multipurpose solution (MPS) and propose the use of multiple assays as a part of preclinical evaluation for MPS biocompatibility assessment. METHODS: The effect of four different MPSs on cell cytotoxicity, metabolic activity, and membrane integrity was performed by evaluating toxicity, expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1, and transepithelial electrical resistance in human corneal epithelial cells and Chinese hamster fibroblasts cells...
October 3, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747941/benzoic-acid-beneficially-affects-growth-performance-of-weaned-pigs-which-was-associated-with-changes-in-gut-bacterial-populations-morphology-indices-and-growth-factor-gene-expression
#15
J L Chen, P Zheng, C Zhang, B Yu, J He, J Yu, J Q Luo, X B Mao, Z Q Huang, D W Chen
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of benzoic acid (BA) on growth performance, intestinal development and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. Ninety weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: a basal diet (CON), the basal diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1) and 5000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). At the end of days 14 and 42, six pigs per treatment were randomly selected to collect plasma and intestinal samples. Results showed that BA supplementation not only improved final body weight, daily growth and feed conversion ratio from days 15 to 42 and days 1 to 42, but also decreased the activity of plasma diamine oxidase (day 42) and the pH values of jejunal contents (day 14) (p < 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733124/hypertonic-saline-alleviates-experimentally-induced-cerebral-oedema-through-suppression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-its-receptor-vegfr2-expression-in-astrocytes
#16
Linqiang Huang, Wei Cao, Yiyu Deng, Gaofeng Zhu, Yongli Han, Hongke Zeng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood-brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are important blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability regulatory factors. Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 are also the key components of BBB. Hypertonic saline is widely used to alleviate cerebral oedema. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying hypertonic saline that ameliorates cerebral oedema effectively...
October 13, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726456/effect-of-human-rhinovirus-infection-on-airway-epithelium-tight-junction-protein-disassembly-and-transepithelial-permeability
#17
Kevin Looi, Niamh M Troy, Luke W Garratt, Thomas Iosifidis, Anthony Bosco, Alysia G Buckley, Kak-Ming Ling, Kelly M Martinovich, Elizabeth Kicic-Starcevich, Nicole C Shaw, Erika N Sutanto, Graeme R Zosky, Paul J Rigby, Alexander N Larcombe, Darryl A Knight, Anthony Kicic, Stephen M Stick
RATIONALE: No studies have assessed the effects of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection on epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and resultant barrier function. AIM OF THE STUDY: To correlate viral infection with TJ disassembly, epithelial barrier integrity, and function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human airway epithelial cells were infected with HRV minor serotype 1B (HRV-1B) at various 50% tissue culture infectivity doses (TCID50) over 72 hours. HRV replication was assessed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) while cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by proliferation and apoptotic assays, respectively...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718308/digestive-fate-of-dietary-carrageenan-evidence-of-interference-with-digestive-proteolysis-and-disruption-of-gut-epithelial-function
#18
Lulu Fahoum, Alice Moscovici, Shlomit David, Ron Shaoul, Geila Rozen, Esther G Meyron-Holtz, Uri Lesmes
SCOPE: The objective of this study was to interrogate two mechanisms by which commercial Carrageenans (E407) (CGN) may adversely affect human health: [i] Through modification of gastric proteolysis and [ii] Through affecting gut epithelial structure and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three commercial CGN samples with distinct zeta-potentials (stable at the pH range of 3-7 and varied with physiological levels of CaCl2 ) were mixed with milk, soy or egg protein isolates, then subjected to a semi-dynamic in vitro digestion model and analyzed by SDS-PAGE...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706016/abnormal-sensory-protein-expression-and-urothelial-dysfunction-in-ketamine-related-cystitis-in-humans
#19
Yao Chou Tsai, Lori Birder, Hann-Chorng Kuo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of sensory protein expression and urothelial dysfunction in ketamine-related cystitis (KC) in humans. METHODS: Biopsies of bladder mucosa were performed in 29 KC patients during cystoscopy. Then specimens were analyzed for tryptase, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) with immunofluorescence staining and quantification. In addition, 10 healthy control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens...
September 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665022/overproduction-of-nitric-oxide-intensifies-brain-infarction-and-cerebrovascular-damage-through-reduction-of-claudin-5-and-zo-1-expression-in-striatum-of-ischemic-brain
#20
Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi
Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction has been demonstrated from different NO-synthase overexpression or hyperactivity after brain ischemia. Here, we examined the effects of inhibition of NO overproduction on brain infarction, cerebrovascular damage and expression of claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in striatum of ischemic brain. The experiment was performed in three groups of rats; sham, control ischemia and ischemic treatment. Brain ischemia was induced by 60min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24h of reperfusion...
November 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
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