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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698144/inhibiting-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-to-promote-epithelial-transition-of-human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Melina Setiawan, Xiao-Wei Tan, Tze-Wei Goh, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Jodhbir S Mehta
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigate the epithelial differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. METHODS AND RESULTS: STEMPRO human ADSCs at passage 2 were treated with CHIR99021 (GSK3 inhibitor), E-616452 (TGFβ1 receptor kinase inhibitor), A-83-01 (TGFβ type 1 receptor inhibitor), valproic acid (histone deacetylase inhibitor), tranylcypromine (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) and all-trans retinoic acid for 72 h...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690765/novel-therapeutic-effects-of-leonurine-on-ischemic-stroke-new-mechanisms-of-bbb-integrity
#2
Qiu-Yan Zhang, Zhi-Jun Wang, De-Miao Sun, Ying Wang, Peng Xu, Wei-Jun Wu, Xin-Hua Liu, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Leonurine (also named SCM-198), a compound extracted from Herba leonuri, was effective on the prevention of various cardiovascular and brain diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible therapeutic potential of SCM-198 against ischemia reperfusion injury and underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat model, we found that treatment with SCM-198 could decrease infarct volume and improve neurological deficit by protecting against blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687847/silk-fibroin-films-for-corneal-endothelial-regeneration-transplant-in-a-rabbit-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty
#3
Natalia Vázquez, Carlos A Rodríguez-Barrientos, Salvador D Aznar-Cervantes, Manuel Chacón, José L Cenis, Ana C Riestra, Ronald M Sánchez-Avila, Mairobi Persinal, Agustín Brea-Pastor, Luis Fernández-Vega Cueto, Álvaro Meana, Jesús Merayo-Lloves
Purpose: Develop a silk fibroin (SF)-based artificial endothelial graft for its use in a rabbit Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Methods: Human and rabbit artificial corneal endothelial grafts were developed through the culture of human and rabbit corneal endothelial cells (CECs) on SF films. Rabbit artificial SF endothelial grafts were transplanted in a DMEK surgery into a rabbit in vivo model. Results: SF artificial endothelial grafts showed the characteristic endothelial markers: zonula occludens (ZO-1) and Na+/K+ ATPase...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683467/rbm38-is-involved-in-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-stabilising-zonula-occludens-1-mrna-in-breast-cancer
#4
Jing Wu, Xu-Jie Zhou, Xi Sun, Tian-Song Xia, Xiao-Xia Li, Liang Shi, Lei Zhu, Wen-Bin Zhou, Ji-Fu Wei, Qiang Ding
BACKGROUND: The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway plays a vital role in driving cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), which is downregulated in response to TGF-β, is able to control endothelial cell-cell tension, cell migration, and barrier formation. However, the molecular mechanism of how TGF-β regulates ZO-1 expression remains unclear. METHODS: Breast cancer cells were treated with TGF-β to induce an EMT progress...
July 6, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678393/catechin-attenuates-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-impairments-of-blood-brain-barrier-damage-and-improve-longer-term-neurological-outcomes-in-rats
#5
Zhixian Jiang, Jinning Zhang, Yonghui Cai, Jiaxin Huang, Lingtong You
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting from external force on the head usually lead to long-term deficits in motor and cognitive functions. Catechin has shown neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia models. The present study therefore investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of catechin after TBI and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury and then treated with catechin. Brain damages, motor and cognitive functions, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and neuro-inflammation were examined...
July 5, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669655/imm-h004-a-new-coumarin-derivative-improved-focal-cerebral-ischemia-via-blood-brain-barrier-protection-in-rats
#6
Fei Niu, Xiu-Yun Song, Jin-Feng Hu, Wei Zuo, Ling-Lei Kong, Xiao-Feng Wang, Ning Han, Nai-Hong Chen
OBJECTIVE: IMM-H004 (7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-3-[4-methylpiperazin-1-yl]-2H-chromen-2-one) is a novel coumarin derivative that showed better effect in improving global cerebral ischemia in rats. However, the effects and mechanisms in focal cerebral ischemia were not clear. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) protection is a vital strategy for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This study is to investigate whether IMM-H004 improves brain ischemia injury via BBB protection. METHODS: Focal brain ischemia model was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hour and reperfusion (MCAO/R) for 24 hours in rats...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668272/in-vitro-construction-of-endometrial-like-epithelium-using-cd146-mesenchymal-cells-derived-from-human-endometrium
#7
Mehri Fayazi, Mojdeh Salehnia, Saeideh Ziaei
Endometrial CD146(+) cells were purified, using magnetic activated cell sorting, and then embedded and cultured in a collagen-matrigel scaffold on top of myometrial smooth muscle cells for 10 days. At the end of culture period, the differentiation and formation of the epithelial-like cells were confirmed by morphological and ultrastructural evaluations, and analysis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the specific expression of genes: osteopontin (SPP1), matrix metalloproteinase 2, zonula occludens 1, laminin alpha 2 and collagen type IV; and by western blotting of CD9 protein...
June 15, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650928/circulating-exosomes-isolated-from-septic-mice-induce-cardiovascular-hyperpermeability-through-promoting-podosome-cluster-formation
#8
Xingjiang Mu, Xiaohong Wang, Wei Huang, Rui-Tao Wang, Kobina Essandoh, Yutian Li, Amanda M Pugh, Jiangtong Peng, Shan Deng, Yigang Wang, Charles C Caldwell, Tianqing Peng, Kai-Jiang Yu, Guo-Chang Fan
Septic shock increases vascular permeability, leading to multiple organ failure including cardiac dysfunction, a major contributor to septic death. Podosome, an actin-based dynamic membrane structure, plays critical roles in extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. However, whether podosome contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. In this study, we found that the endothelial hyperpermeability, stimulated by PMA and thrombin, was accompanied by increased formation of podosome clusters at the cell periphery, indicating a positive correlation between podosome clusters and endothelial leakage...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#10
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625872/decreased-enteritis-resistance-ability-by-dietary-low-or-excess-levels-of%C3%A2-lipids-through-impairing-the-intestinal-physical-and-immune-barriers-function-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#11
Lin Feng, Pei-Jun Ni, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xu Tang, He-Qun Shi, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The current study explores the hypothesis that low or excess levels of lipids decrease the enteritis resistance ability through impairing the intestinal physical and immune barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp with an average initial weight of 261.41 ± 0.53 g were fed diets containing six graded levels of lipids at 5.9, 21.4, 36.0, 50.2, 66.6 and 80.1 g/kg for 8 weeks. After that, a challenge trial was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila over 2 weeks...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610850/dietary-myo-inositol-deficiency-decreased-the-growth-performances-and-impaired-intestinal-physical-barrier-function-partly-relating-to-nrf2-jnk-e2f4-and-mlck-signaling-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#12
Shuang-An Li, Wei-Dan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xu Tang, He-Qun Shi, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary myo-inositol on the growth and intestinal physical barrier functions of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (221.83 ± 0.84 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of myo-inositol (27.0, 137.9, 286.8, 438.6, 587.7 and 737.3 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal myo-inositol levels, myo-inositol deficiency (27...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608180/montelukast-improves-the-changes-of-cytoskeletal-and-adaptor-proteins-of-human-podocytes-by-interleukin-13
#13
Tae-Sun Ha, Ja Ae Nam, Su-Bin Seong, Moin A Saleem, Se Jin Park, Jae Il Shin
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has recently been reported to be a potential cytokine in the pathogenesis of minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). However, the mechanistic insights associated with podocyte dysfunction mediated by IL-13-induced changes in various slit diaphragm (SD) and cytoskeletal molecules have not yet been shown in cultured human podocytes in vitro. MATERIALS: Human conditionally immortalized podocytes were used. TREATMENT: Podocytes were incubated with various concentrations of IL-13 during the indicated time periods (6, 12, and 24 h) and montelukast was administered with the dose of 0...
June 12, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587416/berberine-alleviates-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-by-improving-intestinal-barrier-function-and-reducing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#14
Li-Chao Zhang, Yue Wang, Ling-Chang Tong, Sheng Sun, Wei-Ye Liu, Su Zhang, Rong-Mei Wang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Ling Li
Berberine has demonstrated efficacy in alleviating experimental colitis in vivo and in vitro. However, the anti-colitis mechanisms of berberine that enable it to promote intestinal barrier function in vivo remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of berberine on intestinal epithelial barrier function, expression of tight junction proteins and the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress factors in the intestinal mucosa of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Berberine (100 mg/kg) was administered for five days to mice with established colitis, induced by administration of DSS (3% w/v) for six days...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576405/protective-effects-of-donepezil-against-endothelial-permeability
#15
Xuelu Tang, Xiuhua Di, Yilin Liu
The endothelium lines the interior surface of blood vessels, and under pathophysiologic conditions, its integrity can be compromised due to a disturbance in the expression of tight junctions. Donepezil is a licensed drug used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence has reported that donepezil has an anti-inflammatory activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of donepezil in vascular diseases. In this study, we found that pretreatment with donepezil significantly ameliorated endothelial permeability induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) by restoring the expression of the tight junction proteins vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
May 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561933/cx36-cx43-and-cx45-in-mouse-and-rat-cerebellar-cortex-species-specific-expression-compensation-in-cx36-null-mice-and-co-localization-in-neurons-vs-glia
#16
J I Nagy, J E Rash
Electrical synapses formed by connexin36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions between interneurons in the cerebellar cortex have been well characterized, including those formed between basket cells and between Golgi cells, and there is gene reporter-based evidence for the expression of connexin45 (Cx45) in the cerebellar molecular layer. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to further investigate expression patterns of Cx36 and Cx45 in this layer and to examine localization relationships of these connexins with each other and with glial connexin43 (Cx43)...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554775/zonula-occludens-2-regulates-rho-proteins-activity-and-the-development-of-epithelial-cytoarchitecture-and-barrier-function
#17
Arturo Raya-Sandino, Alejandro Castillo-Kauil, Alaide Domínguez-Calderón, Lourdes Alarcón, David Flores-Benitez, Francisco Cuellar-Perez, Bruno López-Bayghen, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, José Vázquez-Prado, Lorenza González-Mariscal
Silencing Zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2), a tight junctions (TJ) scaffold protein, in epithelial cells (MDCK ZO-2 KD) triggers: 1) Decreased cell to substratum attachment, accompanied by reduced expression of claudin-7 and integrin β1, and increased vinculin recruitment to focal adhesions and stress fibers formation; 2) Lowered cell-cell aggregation and appearance of wider intercellular spaces; 3) Increased RhoA/ROCK activity, mediated by GEF-HI recruitment to cell borders by cingulin; 4) Increased Cdc42 activity, mitotic spindle disorientation and the appearance of cysts with multiple lumens; 5) Increased Rac and cofilin activity, multiple lamellipodia formation and random cell migration but increased wound closure; 6) Diminished cingulin phosphorylation and disappearance of planar network of microtubules at the TJ region; and 7) Increased transepithelial electrical resistance at steady state, coupled to an increased expression of ZO-1 and claudin-4 and a decreased expression of claudin-2 and paracingulin...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553432/hiv-1-transactivator-protein-induces-zo-1-and-neprilysin-dysfunction-in-brain-endothelial-cells-via-the-ras-signaling-pathway
#18
Wenlin Jiang, Wen Huang, Yanlan Chen, Min Zou, Dingyue Peng, Debing Chen
Amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition is increased in human immunodeficiency virus-1- (HIV-1-) infected brain, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Ras signaling in HIV-1 transactivator protein- (Tat-) induced Aβ accumulation in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (HBEC-5i). Cell viability assay showed that 1 μg/mL Tat and 20 μmol/L of the Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) had no significant effect on HBEC-5i cell viability after 24 h exposure...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553294/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study-on-the-efficacy-of-terpinen-4-ol-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-mice-experimental-colitis
#19
Zecai Zhang, Peng Shen, Xiaojie Lu, Yanxin Li, Jiuxi Liu, Bo Liu, Yunhe Fu, Yongguo Cao, Naisheng Zhang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Terpinen-4-ol (TER) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and clarify the possible mechanisms. In vivo, an acute colitis model was used to confirm the anti-inflammatory activity and the possible mechanisms of TER in C57BL/6 and NLRP3(-/-) mice. In vitro, we performed further study, using RAW264.7 cells and Caco-2 cells, to confirm the molecular mechanisms of TER on inflammatory response. In C57BL/6 mice, TER alleviated DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI), colon length shortening, colonic pathological damage, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553165/gsk-3%C3%AE-as-a-target-for-protection-against-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Wei Wang, Mingchang Li, Yuefei Wang, Zhongyu Wang, Wei Zhang, Fangxia Guan, Qianxue Chen, Jian Wang
Stroke remains the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. This fact highlights the need to search for potential drug targets that can reduce stroke-related brain damage. We showed recently that a glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor attenuates tissue plasminogen activator-induced hemorrhagic transformation after permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Here, we examined whether GSK-3β inhibition mitigates early ischemia-reperfusion stroke injury and investigated its potential mechanism of action...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
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