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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350877/effects-of-human-rhinovirus-on-epithelial-barrier-integrity-and-function-in-children-with-asthma
#1
Kevin Looi, Alysia G Buckley, Paul J Rigby, Luke W Garratt, Thomas Iosifidis, Graeme R Zosky, Alexander N Larcombe, Francis J Lannigan, Kak-Ming Ling, Kelly M Martinovich, Elizabeth Kicic-Starcevich, Nicole C Shaw, Erika N Sutanto, Darryl A Knight, Anthony Kicic, Stephen M Stick
BACKGROUND: Bronchial epithelial tight junctions (TJ) have been extensively assessed in healthy airway epithelium. However, no studies have yet assessed the effect of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection on the expression and resultant barrier function in epithelial tight junctions (TJ) in childhood asthma. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of HRV infection on airway epithelial TJ expression and barrier function in airway epithelial cells (AEC) of children with and without asthma...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348177/dasatinib-increases-endothelial-permeability-leading-to-pleural-effusion
#2
Carole Phan, Etienne-Marie Jutant, Ly Tu, Raphaël Thuillet, Andrei Seferian, David Montani, Alice Huertas, Jan van Bezu, Fabian Breijer, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, Marc Humbert, Jurjan Aman, Christophe Guignabert
Pleural effusion is a frequent side-effect of dasatinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesised that dasatinib alters endothelial integrity, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular endothelial permeability and pleural effusion.To test this, we established the first animal model of dasatinib-related pleural effusion, by treating rats with a daily regimen of high doses of dasatinib (10 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 8 weeks)...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345359/pdz-proteins-are-expressed-and-regulated-in-antigen-presenting-cells-and-are-targets-of-influenza-a-virus
#3
Dante Barreda, Marisa Sánchez-Galindo, Jessica López-Flores, Karen E Nava-Castro, Karen Bobadilla, Alfonso Salgado-Aguayo, Teresa Santos-Mendoza
In this work, we identified the expression, regulation, and viral targeting of Scribble and Dlg1 in antigen-presenting cells. Scribble and Dlg1 belong to the family of PDZ (postsynaptic density (PSD95), disc large (Dlg), and zonula occludens (ZO-1)) proteins involved in cell polarity. The relevance of PDZ proteins in cellular functions is reinforced by the fact that many viruses interfere with host PDZ-dependent interactions affecting cellular mechanisms thus favoring viral replication. The functions of Scribble and Dlg have been widely studied in polarized cells such as epithelial and neuron cells...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331460/inhibition-of-shigella-sonnei-induced-epithelial-barrier-disruption-by-surface-layer-associated-proteins-of-lactobacilli-from-chinese-fermented-food
#4
Yingchun Zhang, Xiaolu Shi, Siqi Hao, Qianhui Lu, Lanwei Zhang, Xue Han, Weihong Lu
Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L were examined to identify the functional basis for their protection within intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L remained active in a trypsin solution and retained a 45-kDa protein band, similar to that observed in controls. In contrast, under conditions of simulated gastric juice, the SLAP were partially degraded. Inhibitory effects of SLAP on adherence of Shigella sonnei to HT-29 cells were assessed with use of exclusion, competition, and replacement assays...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324356/inflammation-induced-er-stress-affects-absorptive-intestinal-epithelial-cells-function-and-integrity
#5
Sucheera Chotikatum, Hassan Y Naim, Nahed El-Najjar
Recent studies have linked impairment of intestinal epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease to the disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis (ER) in response to stress. Most studies are on goblet and Paneth cells, which are considered more susceptible to stress due to their role in the protection of intestinal epithelium against microbes and harmful substances. However, studies on the role of inflammation-induced ER stress in absorptive intestinal cells are scarce. In this study, we show, using Caco-2 cells as a model of intestinal epithelial barrier, that inducing ER stress using a cocktail mixture of pro-inflammatory mediators [TNFα (50ng/ml), MCP1 (50ng/ml), and IL-1β (25ng/ml)] as observed in IBD patients induces ER stress and leads to significant changes in key proteins of the apical (sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPPIV), and ezrin) and basolateral (E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and connexin-43) membranes...
January 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319048/analysis-of-differential-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-cultured-oral-epithelial-cells-altered-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis-porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide-and-extracellular-adenosine-triphosphate
#6
Wei Guo, Peng Wang, Zhong-Hao Liu, Ping Ye
Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical intercellular junctions of epithelial cells formed by occludin, claudins, junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), and zonula occludens (ZO). Tight junction proteins can sense the presence of bacteria and regulate the transcription of target genes that encode effectors and regulators of the immune response. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of TJ proteins in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis LPS), and extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the oral epithelial cell culture model...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316834/delayed-administration-of-bq788-an-etb-antagonist-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-promotes-recovery-of-blood-brain-barrier-function-and-reduction-of-cerebral-edema-in-mice
#7
Shotaro Michinaga, Akimasa Kimura, Shunichi Hatanaka, Shizuho Minami, Arisa Asano, Yuki Ikushima, Shingo Matsui, Yoshiya Toriyama, Manami Fujii, Yutaka Koyama
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is induced by immediate physical disruption of brain tissue, and causes death and disability. Studies on experimental TBI animal models show that disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) underlies brain edema and neuroinflammation during the delayed phase of TBI. In neurological disorders, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved in BBB dysfunction and brain edema. In this study, the effect of ET antagonists on BBB dysfunction and brain edema were examined in a mouse focal TBI model using lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295866/connexin-43-gap-junctions-contribute-to-brain-endothelial-barrier-hyperpermeability-in-familial-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-type-iii-by-modulating-tight-junction-structure
#8
Allison M Johnson, James P Roach, Anna Hu, Svetlana M Stamatovic, Michal R Zochowski, Richard F Keep, Anuska V Andjelkovic
Familial cerebral cavernous malformations type III (fCCM3) is a disease of the cerebrovascular system caused by loss-of-function mutations in ccm3 that result in dilated capillary beds that are susceptible to hemorrhage. Before hemorrhage, fCCM3 lesions are characterized by a hyperpermeable blood-brain barrier (BBB), the key pathologic feature of fCCM3. We demonstrate that connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction (GJ) protein that is incorporated into the BBB junction complex, is up-regulated in lesions of a murine model of fCCM3...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291404/ulinastatin-protects-brain-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-inhibiting-mmp-9-and-alleviating-loss-of-zo-1-and-occludin-proteins-in-mice
#9
Xiao-Fang Li, Xiang-Jian Zhang, Cong Zhang, Li-Na Wang, Yao-Ru Li, Ye Zhang, Ting-Ting He, Xing-Yuan Zhu, Li-Li Cui, Bu-Lang Gao
BACKGROUND: The effects of Ulinastatin (UTI) on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) are not clear. This study was to investigate the potential protective effects of UTI on the BBB and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male CD-1 mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and randomly assigned to four groups: Sham (sham-operated), tMCAO (tMCAO+0.9% saline), UTI-L (tMCAO+UTI 1500U/100g) and UTI-H (tMCAO+UTI 3000U/100g) group...
December 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290442/effects-of-heat-stress-and-dietary-zinc-source-on-performance-and-mammary-epithelial-integrity-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#10
X Weng, A P A Monteiro, J Guo, C Li, R M Orellana, T N Marins, J K Bernard, D J Tomlinson, J M DeFrain, S E Wohlgemuth, S Tao
Dietary Zn and heat stress alter gut integrity in monogastric animals. However, effects of Zn on mammary epithelial integrity in heat-stressed lactating dairy cows have not been studied. Multiparous lactating Holstein cows (n = 72) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to study the effects of environment and Zn source on performance and mammary epithelial integrity. Treatments included 2 environments [cooled (CL) or not cooled (NC)] and 2 Zn sources [75 mg/kg of supplemental Zn as Zn hydroxychloride (IOZ) or 35 mg/kg of Zn hydroxychloride + 40 mg/kg of Zn-Met complex (ZMC)]...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290146/multifunctional-role-of-35-kilodalton-hyaluronan-in-promoting-defense-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#11
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Kourtney P Nickerson, Aaron C Petrey, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against orally acquired pathogens. Dysregulation of this protective barrier is a primary driver of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) and also infant gastrointestinal infections. Previously, our lab reported that hyaluronan (HA) isolated from human milk induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin in vivo and protects against Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that commercially available 35 kDa size HA induces the expression of β-defensin, upregulates the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and attenuates murine Citrobacter rodentium infection in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280945/modulation-of-intestinal-epithelial-permeability-in-differentiated-caco-2-cells-exposed-to-aflatoxin-m1-and-ochratoxin-a-individually-or-collectively
#12
Yanan Gao, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang, Chaochao Luo, Shengguo Zhao, Nan Zheng
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however, their effects on intestinal epithelial cells have not been reported. In the present study, we show that AFM1 (0.12 and 12 μM) and OTA (0.2 and 20 μM) individually or collectively increased the paracellular flux of lucifer yellow and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 and 40 kDa) and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance values in differentiated Caco-2 cells after 48 h of exposure, indicating increased epithelial permeability...
December 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259232/cardiac-depression-in-pigs-after-multiple-trauma-characterization-of-posttraumatic-structural-and-functional-alterations
#13
M Kalbitz, S Schwarz, B Weber, B Bosch, J Pressmar, F M Hoenes, C K Braun, K Horst, T P Simon, R Pfeifer, P Störmann, H Hummler, F Gebhard, H C Pape, M Huber-Lang, F Hildebrand
The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between cardiac depression and morphological and immunological alterations in cardiac tissue after multiple trauma. However, the mechanistic basis of depressed cardiac function after trauma is still elusive. In a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, liver laceration, femur fracture and haemorrhage serial trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed and correlated with cellular cardiac injury as well as with the occurrence of extracellular histones in serum...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241625/vinculin-is-required-to-maintain-glomerular-barrier-integrity
#14
Franziska Lausecker, Xuefei Tian, Kazunori Inoue, Zhen Wang, Christopher E Pedigo, Hossam Hassan, Chang Liu, Margaret Zimmer, Stephanie Jinno, Abby L Huckle, Hellyeh Hamidi, Robert S Ross, Roy Zent, Christoph Ballestrem, Rachel Lennon, Shuta Ishibe
Cell-matrix interactions and podocyte intercellular junctions are key for maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. Vinculin, a cytoplasmic protein, couples actin filaments to integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and to cadherin-based intercellular junctions. Here, we examined the role of vinculin in podocytes by the generation of a podocyte-specific knockout mouse. Mice lacking podocyte vinculin had increased albuminuria and foot process effacement following injury in vivo. Analysis of primary podocytes isolated from the mutant mice revealed defects in cell protrusions, altered focal adhesion size and signaling, as well as impaired cell migration...
December 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238589/cannabidiol-restores-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-and-inhibits-the-apoptotic-process-induced-by-clostridium-difficile-toxin-a-in-caco-2-cells
#15
Stefano Gigli, Luisa Seguella, Marcella Pesce, Eugenia Bruzzese, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Rosario Cuomo, Luca Steardo, Giovanni Sarnelli, Giuseppe Esposito
Background: Clostridium difficile toxin A is responsible for colonic damage observed in infected patients. Drugs able to restore Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced toxicity have the potential to improve the recovery of infected patients. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, which has been demonstrated to protect enterocytes against chemical and/or inflammatory damage and to restore intestinal mucosa integrity. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) the anti-apoptotic effect and (b) the mechanisms by which cannabidiol protects mucosal integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A...
December 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236735/hypertension-in-rats-is-associated-with-an-increased-permeability-of-the-colon-to-tma-a-gut-bacteria-metabolite
#16
Kinga Jaworska, Tomasz Huc, Emilia Samborowska, Leszek Dobrowolski, Klaudia Bielinska, Maciej Gawlak, Marcin Ufnal
An increased blood trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has emerged as a marker of cardiovascular mortality, however, the mechanisms of the increase are not clear. We evaluated if hypertension was associated with changes in the colon permeability to trimethylamine (TMA), a TMAO precursor. We did experiments on male, 24-26-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and SHR treated with enalapril, an antihypertensive drug (SHR-E). To check the colon permeability and liver TMA clearance, blood was collected from the portal vein and hepatic veins confluence, at baseline and after the intracolonic administration of TMA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222028/sodium-butyrate-enhanced-physical-barrier-function-referring-to-nrf2-jnk-and-mlck-signaling-pathways-in-the-intestine-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#17
Pei Wu, Li Tian, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Fei Xie, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Juan Yang, Yong-An Zhang, He-Qun Shi, Lin Feng
This study evaluated the effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation on the intestinal physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed one powdery sodium butyrate (PSB) diet (1000.0 mg kg-1 diet) and five graded levels of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) diets: 0.0 (control), 500.0, 1000.0, 1500.0 and 2000.0 mg kg-1 diet for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila to explore the effect of SB supplementation on intestinal physical barrier function and the potential mechanisms in fish...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209140/role-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-9-mmp2-9-in-lead-induced-changes-in-an-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model
#18
Xinqin Liu, Peng Su, Shanshan Meng, Michael Aschner, Yupeng Cao, Wenjing Luo, Gang Zheng, Mingchao Liu
Lead (Pb) is a well-known neurotoxicant and a risk factor for neurologic disorders. The blood brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in the maintenance of optimal brain function. BBB is a target of Pb, and studies have shown that Pb induced barrier loss and decreased the expression of tight junction proteins, but the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important components of extracellular matrix proteasome and can affect the remodeling and degradation of tight junction (TJ)...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207016/microrna-21-promotes-the-progression-of-peritoneal-fibrosis-through-the-activation-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#19
Ya-Li Ma, Fang Chen, Su-Xia Yang, Bao-Ping Chen, Jun Shi
The present study aimed to explore the roles of microRNA-21 (miR‑21) and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway in the development of peritoneal fibrosis (PF). First, dialysis effluents from 30 patients with PF were collected, and after the establishment of a mouse model of PF, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's staining were used to observe peritoneal tissues, inflammatory cells and blood vessels. High glucose was used to stimulate human peritoneal mesothelial cell lines and these stimulated cells were then transfected with miR‑21 inhibitor...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201181/long-term-exposure-to-ethanol-downregulates-tight-junction-proteins-through-the-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-human-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Hao Yu, Changliang Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Hongbo Wang, Chunan Zhang, Jiabin You, Pengfei Wang, Chunmei Feng, Guohui Xu, Rui Zhao, Xu Wu, Guohua Zhang
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) are the primary component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Tight junction (TJ) proteins, including claudin, occludin and zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3, maintain the structural integrity of BMECs. Ethanol activates the assembly and disassembly of TJs, which is a process that is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC). In addition, ethanol treatment leads to the loss of structural integrity, which damages the permeability of the BBB and subsequently affects central nervous system homeostasis, thus allowing additional substances to enter the brain...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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