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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522595/human-salivary-peptide-histatin-1-stimulates-epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-and-barrier-function
#1
Irene A van Dijk, Maria Laura Ferrando, Anne-Eva van der Wijk, Ron A Hoebe, Kamran Nazmi, Wouter J de Jonge, Przemek M Krawczyk, Jan G M Bolscher, Enno C I Veerman, Jan Stap
Histatins are multifunctional histidine-rich peptides secreted by the salivary glands and exclusively present in the saliva of higher primates, where they play a fundamental role in the protection of the oral cavity. Our previously published results demonstrated that histatin-1 (Hst1) promotes cell-substrate adhesion in various cell types and hinted that it could also be involved in cell-cell adhesion, a process of fundamental importance to epithelial and endothelial barriers. Here we explore the effects of Hst1 on cellular barrier function...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515165/zinc-supplementation-via-gpr39-upregulates-pkc%C3%AE-to-protect-intestinal-barrier-integrity-in-caco-2-cells-challenged-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#2
Yu-Xin Shao, Zhao Lei, Patricia G Wolf, Yan Gao, Yu-Ming Guo, Bing-Kun Zhang
Background: Zinc has been shown to improve intestinal barrier function against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection, but the mechanisms involved in this process remain undefined.Objective: We aimed to explore the roles of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)39 and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) in the regulation by zinc of intestinal barrier function.Methods: A Transwell Caco-2 monolayer was pretreated with 0, 50, or 100 μM Zn and then incubated with S. typhimurium for 0-6 h. Afterward, cells silenced by the small interfering RNA for GPR39 or PKCζ were pretreated with 100 μM Zn and incubated with S...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513595/hiv-2-infection-is-associated-with-preserved-galt-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity-despite-ongoing-mucosal-viral-replication
#3
S M Fernandes, A R Pires, P Matoso, C Ferreira, H Nunes-Cabaço, L Correia, E Valadas, J Poças, P Pacheco, H Veiga-Fernandes, R B Foxall, A E Sousa
The mechanisms that enable preservation of gut mucosal integrity during persistent viral replication and inherent inflammation remain unclear. Here, we investigated, for the first time, gut homeostasis in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease. We found viral replication in both sigmoid and ileum of asymptomatic HIV-2+ patients (range: 240-851 circulating CD4+T-cells per μl) despite their undetectable viremia, accompanied by interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cell expansion, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512445/the-therapeutic-value-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cell-transplantation-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#4
Rui Zhang, Jing Yang, Jingjing Yuan, Bo Song, Yan Wang, Yuming Xu
AIMS: To study the effect of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) treatment on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats and elucidate possible mechanisms. METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) EPC group: ICH + EPC, (2) phosphate-buffered saline group: ICH + PBS, and (3) sham group. EPCs were transplanted intravenously 6 h after ICH. Modified neurological severity score was used to evaluate neurological function. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity was evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507312/design-and-evaluation-of-ephrina1-mutants-with-cerebral-protective-effect
#5
Yuanjun Zhu, Yuanqing Gao, Danping Zheng, Mengyang Shui, Kuai Yu, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuan Lin, Li Su, Wenxing Yang, Yinye Wang
The activation of EphA2 receptor by its natural ligand EphrinA1 causes blood brain barrier dysfunction, and inactivation of EphA2 reduces BBB damage in ischemic stroke. Thus, EphA2 targeted antagonists may serve as neuroprotective agents. We engineered four mutants of EphrinA1, EM1, EM2, EM3 and EM4, respectively. The computational analysis showed that these four mutants were capable of interacting with EphA2. Their potential neuroprotective effects were examined in mouse focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506763/neonatal-hyperoxia-disrupts-the-intestinal-barrier-and-impairs-intestinal-function-in-rats
#6
Hsiu-Chu Chou, Chung-Ming Chen
Animal studies have demonstrated that neonatal hyperoxia injures the distal small intestine and disrupts the intestinal barrier. This study evaluated the effects of brief hyperoxia exposure on intestinal function in newborn rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to room air or normobaric hyperoxia (85% O2) for 1week. The rats were euthanized on Postnatal Day 7, and their terminal ilea and sera were collected for histological analyses and intestinal permeability measurements, respectively. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined...
May 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503421/differential-expression-of-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-lung-resistance-protein-and-multidrug-resistance-protein-1-in-retinas-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#7
Meng-Shuang Li, Meng Xin, Chuan-Long Guo, Gui-Ming Lin, Jun Li, Xiang-Gen Wu
AIM: To investigate the altering expression profiles of efflux transporters such as breast cancer-resistance protein (BCRP), lung resistance protein (LRP), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) at the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB) during the development of early diabetic retinopathy (DR) and/or aging in mice. METHODS: Relative mRNA and protein expression profiles of these three efflux transporters in the retina during the development of early DR and/or aging in mice were examined...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495656/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-augments-blood-brain-barrier-and-tight-junction-protein-expression-in-brain-endothelial-cells
#8
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
Tight junctions (TJ) between brain endothelial cells are essential for formation and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although loss of BBB integrity is associated with several neuropathological disorders, treatments that augment or stabilise the BBB are scarce. Here we show that physiological concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) stimulate the expression of the TJ proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-3 in the brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd.3 and promote TJ formation between neighbouring cells, demonstrated by augmented transendothelial resistance across cell monolayers...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485323/rhubarb-monomers-protect-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-in-sepsis-via-junction-proteins
#9
Lyu Wang, Yun-Liang Cui, Zhe Zhang, Zhao-Fen Lin, De-Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins. METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230-250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484272/effect-of-bacillus-subtilis-on-aeromonas-hydrophila-induced-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-damage-and-inflammation-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#10
Weiguang Kong, Can Huang, Ying Tang, Ding Zhang, Zhixin Wu, Xiaoxuan Chen
Our study explored the effect of oral intubation of Bacillus subtilis on Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal mucosal barrier function damage and inflammation in grass carp. The mid-intestine mucosal tissue was collected for ATPase activity measurement. Intestinal mucosa was also ultrastructurally examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM), and its permeability was determined using Evans blue (EB) and D-lactic acid. The mid-intestine pro-inflammation cytokine, MyD88 and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression levels were measured using real-time quantitative PCR...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474748/connexin36-localization-to-pinealocytes-in-the-pineal-gland-of-mouse-and-rat
#11
S G Wang, D D Tsao, K G Vanderpool, T Yasumura, J E Rash, J I Nagy
Several cell types in the pineal gland are known to establish intercellular gap junctions, but the connexin constituents of those junctions have not been fully characterized. Specifically, the expression of connexin36 (Cx36) protein and mRNA has been examined in the pineal, but the identity of cells that produce Cx36 and that form Cx36-containing gap junctions has not been determined. We used immunofluorescence and freeze fracture replica immunogold labelling (FRIL) of Cx36 to investigate the cellular and subcellular localization of Cx36 in the pineal gland of adult mouse and rat...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458505/knock-in-of-cx46-partially-rescues-fiber-defects-in-lenses-lacking-cx50
#12
Eddie Wang, Andrew Geng, Richard Seo, Ankur Maniar, Xiaohua Gong
PURPOSE: Connexins 46 (Cx46) and 50 (Cx50) support lens development and homeostasis. Knockout (KO) of Cx50, but not Cx46, causes defects in lens fiber organization, F-actin enrichment, gap junction (GJ) size, ball-and-socket (BS) maturation, and GJ-associated protein distributions. To further determine the unique roles of Cx50 and Cx46, we investigated whether these defects persisted in Cx46 knock-in (Ki) lenses. Ki mice had Cx46 knocked-in to their Cx50 loci, where it was expressed under endogenous Cx50 promoters...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442545/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonists-attenuate-biofilm-formation-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Brahmchetna Bedi, Nicholas M Maurice, Vincent T Ciavatta, K Sabrina Lynn, Zhihong Yuan, Samuel A Molina, Myungsoo Joo, William R Tyor, Joanna B Goldberg, Michael Koval, C Michael Hart, Ruxana T Sadikot
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant contributor to recalcitrant multidrug-resistant infections, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. The pathogenic profile of P. aeruginosa is related to its ability to secrete a variety of virulence factors and to promote biofilm formation. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism wherein P. aeruginosa secretes small diffusible molecules, specifically acyl homo serine lactones, such as N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL), that promote biofilm formation and virulence via interbacterial communication...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440402/erk5-regulates-tobacco-smoke%C3%A2-induced-urocystic-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-in-balb-c-mice
#14
Jie Min, Hao Geng, Zhiqi Liu, Zhaofeng Liang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Dongdong Xie, Yi Wang, Tao Zhang, Dexin Yu, Caiyun Zhong
Tobacco smoke (TS) is an important risk factor of bladder cancer. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the initiation and development of cancer. The role of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) 5 in regulating TS‑induced EMT remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory role of ERK5 in TS‑triggered EMT in the bladder of mice. BALB/c mice were used for an in vivo TS exposure model. Mice were treated for 6 h a day for 12 weeks. The results demonstrated that mice exposed to TS had decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of the epithelial markers E‑cadherin and zonula occludens‑1, whereas expression levels of the mesenchymal markers Vimentin and N‑cadherin were increased...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438571/effect-of-intestinal-epithelial-autophagy-on-bacterial-translocation-in-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#15
Weiwei Wen, Hongmei Zheng, Yingjian Jiang, Luqiao Huang, Dehui Li, Jian Zhang, Dianliang Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of autophagy activation on bacterial translocation (BT) and tight junction (TJ) proteins in the intestinal mucosa of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Thirty-one SAP patients were divided into two groups, BT(+) and BT(-), according to the presence of BT in the blood, as detected by 16S rDNA sequencing. Eight healthy individuals were included in the control group. Serum endotoxin levels were measured by ELISA...
April 21, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428961/glucose-insulin-potassium-alleviates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-injuries-involving-decreased-expression-of-uncoupling-protein-2-and-nlr-family-pyrin-domain-containing-3-inflammasome-in-polymicrobial-sepsis
#16
Jun-Liang Zhang, Yi-Ting Chen, Guang-Dao Chen, Tao Wang, Ju-Xin Zhang, Qi-Yi Zeng
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) may be critical for intestinal barrier function which may play a key role in the development of sepsis, and insulin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, sham surgery group, CLP plus glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) group, and CLP plus glucose and potassium (GK) group. Ileum tissues were collected at 24 h after surgery. Histological and cytokine analyses, intestinal permeability tests, and western blots of intestinal epithelial tight junction component proteins and UCP2 were performed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428082/calcitonin-receptor-increases-invasion-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-recruiting-zonula-occludens-1-and-promoting-pka-mediated-tj-disassembly
#17
Ahmed Aljameeli, Arvind Thakkar, Girish Shah
Almost all primary prostate cancers (PCs) and PC cell lines express calcitonin (CT) and/or its receptor (CTR), and their co-expression positively correlates with their invasiveness. Activation of the CT-CTR axis in non-invasive LNCaP cells induces an invasive phenotype. In contrast, silencing of CT/CTR expression in highly metastatic PC-3M cells markedly reduces their tumorigenicity and abolishes their ability to form distant metastases in nude mice. Our recent studies suggest that CTR interacts with zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) through PDZ interaction to destabilize tight junctions and increase invasion of PC cells...
April 17, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425012/a-study-of-the-damage-of-the-intestinal-mucosa-barrier-structure-and-function-of-ctenopharyngodon-idella-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#18
Wei-Guang Kong, Si-Si Li, Xiao-Xuan Chen, Yu-Qing Huang, Ying Tang, Zhi-Xin Wu
The aim of this study is to explore the effect of Aeromonas hydrophila on the intestinal mucosal barrier structure and intestinal permeability in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Histopathological examinations showed that A. hydrophila induced severe intestinal lesions, including inflammatory cell infiltration and intestinal villus fusion and swelling. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and MyD88 was significantly increased after infection with A. hydrophila...
April 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421532/matrix-metalloproteinase-8-inhibition-prevents-disruption-of-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-and-attenuates-inflammation-in-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Hemant Kumar, Min-Jae Jo, Hyemin Choi, Manjunatha S Muttigi, Seil Shon, Byung-Joo Kim, Soo-Hong Lee, In-Bo Han
After spinal cord injury (SCI), tight junction (TJ) protein degradation increases permeability and disrupts the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). The BSCB is primarily formed of endothelial cell, which forms a specialized tight seal due to the presence of TJs. BSCB disruption after SCI allows neutrophil infiltration. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 is believed to be mainly expressed by neutrophils and is quickly released upon neutrophil activation. Here, we determined whether MMP-8 is involved in the TJ protein degradation in endothelial cells and also determined its role in the neuroinflammation after SCI...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405145/acanthopanax-senticosus-polysaccharides-induced-intestinal-tight-junction-injury-alleviation-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mlck-pathway-in-a-mouse-endotoxemia-model
#20
Jie Han, Ji-Hong Li, Guang Bai, Guo-Shun Shen, Jing Chen, Jia-Nan Liu, Shuo Wang, Xian-Jun Liu
AIM: To examine the effects of Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) on intestinal tight junction (TJ) disruption and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activation in endotoxemia. METHODS: BALB/C mice (6-8-weeks-old) received continuous intragastric gavage of ASPS for 7 d before injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or received ASPS once after LPS injection. Blood and intestinal mucosal samples were collected 6 h after LPS challenge...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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