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Sanaa Al Najjar, Tamer Al Shaer
BACKGROUND: To meet the emerging needs of the increasing numbers of patients with non-communicable diseases and to provide optimum care with optimum contact time and minimum waiting time, as stated in UNRWA guidelines, the mobile phone text messaging system was implemented in UNRWA centres to remind patients of upcoming appointments and to thereby improve the quality of care for vulnerable patients and regulate the work load in the clinics for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the causes for lack of adherence to the appointment system at UNRWA centres...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hanh Ngo, Roberto Forero, David Mountain, Daniel Fatovich, Wing Nicola Man, Peter Sprivulis, Mohammed Mohsin, Sam Toloo, Antonio Celenza, Gerard Fitzgerald, Sally McCarthy, Ken Hillman
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Western Australian (WA) Government introduced the Four-Hour Rule (FHR) program. The policy stated that most patients presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) were to be seen and either admitted, transferred, or discharged within 4 hours. This study utilised de-identified data from five participating hospitals, before and after FHR implementation, to assess the impact of the FHR on several areas of ED functioning. METHODS: A state (WA) population-based intervention study design, using longitudinal data obtained from administrative health databases via record linkage methodology, and interrupted time series analysis technique...
2018: PloS One
Sateesh B Arja, Sireesha B Arja, Raghavendrarao M Venkata, Abraham Nayakanti, Praveen Kottathveetil, Yogesh Acharya
INTRODUCTION: This study is aimed at explaining the change process followed for the implementation of the new curriculum at Avalon University School of Medicine and its evaluation. BACKGROUND: Self-evaluation at Avalon University School of Medicine identified the need for a change in the curriculum. The main reasons for the change are isolated disciplines and overcrowded curriculum leading to less self-study time for students. The new curriculum is aimed to have an integrated curriculum and to avoid redundancies...
March 13, 2018: Medical Teacher
Elva Jiménez-Hernández, Arturo Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos Núñez-Enriquez, Jorge Alfonso Martín-Trejo, Laura Eugenia Espinoza-Hernández, Janet Flores-Lujano, José Arellano-Galindo, Aurora Medina-Sanson, Rogelio Paredes-Aguilera, Laura Elizabeth Merino-Pasaye, Martha Margarita Velázquez-Aviña, José Refugio Torres-Nava, Rosa Martha Espinosa-Elizondo, Raquel Amador-Sánchez, Juan José Dosta-Herrera, Javier Anastacio Mondragón-García, Heriberto Valdés-Guzmán, Laura Mejía-Pérez, Gilberto Espinoza-Anrubio, María Minerva Paz-Bribiesca, Perla Salcedo-Lozada, Rodolfo Ángel Landa-García, Rosario Ramírez-Colorado, Luis Hernández-Mora, María Luisa Pérez-Saldivar, Marlene Santamaría-Ascencio, Anselmo López-Loyola, Arturo Hermilo Godoy-Esquivel, Luis Ramiro García-López, Alison Ireri Anguiano-Ávalos, Karina Mora-Rico, Alejandro Castañeda-Echevarría, Roberto Rodríguez-Jiménez, José Alberto Cibrian-Cruz, Karina Anastacia Solís-Labastida, Rocío Cárdenas-Cardos, Armando Martínez-Avalos, Luz Victoria Flores-Villegas, José Gabriel Peñaloza-González, Ana Itamar González-Ávila, Martha Beatriz Altamirano-García, Norma López-Santiago, Martin Sánchez-Ruiz, Roberto Rivera-Luna, Luis Rodolfo Rodríguez-Villalobos, Francisco Hernández-Pérez, Jaime Ángel Olvera-Durán, Luis Rey García-Cortés, Minerva Mata-Rocha, Omar Alejandro Sepúlveda-Robles, Cesar Raúl González-Bonilla, Vilma Carolina Bekker-Méndez, Silvia Jiménez-Morales, Haydee Rosas-Vargas, Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré
In Mexico, due to the high rates of diabetes, overweight, and obesity, there has also been noted an increased newborn weight, which may be contributing to the elevated incidence rate of childhood acute leukemia (AL). We conducted a case-control study in public hospitals of Mexico City aimed to know whether a greater weight at birth is associated with a higher risk of developing leukemia. We included incident cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnosed between 2010 and 2015...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Marcel Émond, Valérie Boucher, Pierre-Hugues Carmichael, Philippe Voyer, Mathieu Pelletier, Émilie Gouin, Raoul Daoust, Simon Berthelot, Marie-Eve Lamontagne, Michèle Morin, Stéphane Lemire, Thien Tuong Minh Vu, Alexandra Nadeau, Marcel Rheault, Lucille Juneau, Natalie Le Sage, Jacques Lee
OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the incidence of delirium and describe its impacts on hospital length of stay (LOS) among non-delirious community-dwelling older adults with an 8-hour exposure to the emergency department (ED) environment. DESIGN: This is a prospective observational multicentre cohort study (March-July 2015). Patients were assessed two times per day during their entire ED stay and up to 24 hours on hospital ward. SETTING: The study took place in four Canadian EDs...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Dipak K Mitra, Luke C Mullany, Meagan Harrison, Ishtiaq Mannan, Rashed Shah, Nazma Begum, Mamun Ibne Moin, Shams El Arifeen, Abdullah H Baqui
BACKGROUND: Infections cause about one fifth of the estimated 2.7 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide. Population-based data on burden and risk factors of neonatal infections are lacking in developing countries, which are required for the appropriate design of effective preventive and therapeutic interventions in resource-poor settings. METHODS: We used data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial conducted to evaluate the impact of two umbilical cord cleansing regimens with chlorhexidine solution on neonatal mortality and morbidity in a rural area of Sylhet District in Bangladesh...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Donatella Fiorucci, Ali Hreibi, Walid Chaibi
In future fusion reactors, heating system efficiency is of the utmost importance. Photo-neutralization substantially increases the neutral beam injector (NBI) efficiency with respect to the foreseen system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) based on a gaseous target. In this paper, we propose a telescope-based configuration to be used in the NBI photo-neutralizer cavity of the demonstration power plant (DEMO) project. This configuration greatly reduces the total length of the cavity, which likely solves overcrowding issues in a fusion reactor environment...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Mohanraj Karunanithi, Qing Zhang
Australian population aged over 65 years is 14% (3.3 million) and this expected to increase to 21% by 2053 (8.3 million), of which 1.9% to 4.2% is attributed to Australians over 85 years. With increase in ageing, there is high prevalence in long-term health conditions and more likely multiple visits to the doctors or the hospitals, particularly when one's functional condition declines. This adds burden to the already stretched health system such as the overcrowding of emergency departments in hospitals. This is partly due to many ageing patients with high care needs occupying significant number of hospital beds because they are waiting for entry to the limited placements in residential care...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Njoroge Kamau, Haron Njiru
Kenya has undergone rapid urbanization as people migrate to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This has given rise to informal settlements characterized by overcrowding, poor infrastructure, and inadequate social amenities. A cross-sectional study on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) status was carried out in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi. A random sample of 380 households was used. The average household size was five people, and 26% of the household heads had completed secondary or higher level of education...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Herlianna Naning, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed Al-Darraji, Scott Alex Mcdonald, Noor Azina Ismail, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of tuberculosis (TB) treatment strategies interventions in an overcrowded and poorly ventilated prison with both high (5 months) and low (3 years) turnover of inmates against improved environmental conditions. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate the effects of treatment of latent TB infection and active TB, or the combination of both treatment strategies. Without any intervention, the TB prevalence is estimated to increase to 8.8% for a prison with low turnover of inmates but modestly stabilize at 5...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Li-Chin Chen, Chun-Chih Lin, Chin-Yen Han, Chun-Lan Hsieh, Chiung-Jung Jo Wu, Hwey-Fang Liang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Asian Nursing Research
Celia Bórquez, Ismelda Lobato, Paola Gazmuri, Romina Hurtado, Valerie Llanqui, Mauricio Vivanco, Teresa Reyes, Hilda Villanueva, Katherine Salgado, M Angélica Martínez, Juan Vega
BACKGROUND: The risk groups for sexual transmitted diseases (STDs) are sex workers, drug addicts, young people in early sexual initiation, and population in prison. AIM: To determine the prevalence of HIV, Treponema pallidum and hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in male inmates at the Preventive Detention Center (CDP) of Arica. METHODS: The study was conducted in 140 inmates, with informed consent. Epidemiological survey and blood sampling was conducted...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot, Fessahaye Alemseged Tesfamichael
Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly. However, strategies targeting bus drivers as key agents unlike targeting all passengers might be less costly for window opening. Method: Data were collected from November 18/2014 to December 21/2014 in inter-region bus stations of Addis Ababa using cross sectional study design...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Melissa Chan, Garth Meckler, Quynh Doan
Background: General emergency department crowding negatively impacts patient care, and increases patient morbidity. Objectives: This study seeks to determine if markers of paediatric emergency department (PED) flow are independently associated with negative outcomes and increased health care utilization. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of PED visits from 2008 to 2012. Data were pulled from an electronic administrative database...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Jennifer A Brussow, Karin Roberts, Matthew Scaruto, Sheryl Sommer, Christine Mills
As nursing education struggles to address a rapidly changing health care system, overcrowded curricula, and an increased focus on clinical reasoning skills, many programs have adopted or transitioned to concept-based curricula (CBCs), which are structured around key concepts and exemplars. Despite CBC's promised benefits, the process of developing a CBC framework may pose a challenge to programs. To address this barrier, a national study was conducted to develop a representative list of concepts and exemplars...
February 22, 2018: Nurse Educator
Warren Stewart
The number of aging and chronically ill prisoners continues to rise within the United Kingdom prison demography; consequentially, many institutions face health and social care crises of immense proportions. The needs of this group are both complex and costly, and in the United Kingdom, this is set to a backdrop of overcrowding, increasing violence, and public spending cuts in line with government austerity targets. In this context, the development of prisoner peer caregiving is proposed as an approach to mitigating the effects of aging, disability, and illness...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Mandreker Bahall
BACKGROUND: Throughput might be partially responsible for sub-optimum organisational and medical outcomes. The present study examined throughput and the challenges to ensuring optimum throughput in hospitals, and determined the effectiveness of a throughput intervention in reducing overcrowding in a public healthcare institution in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: First, a literature review of throughput and its processes in relation to improving hospital care was conducted...
February 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jaime González, Juan-Carlos Ferrer, Alejandro Cataldo, Luis Rojas
Hospital emergency departments are often overcrowded, resulting in long wait times and a public perception of poor attention. Delays in transferring patients needing further treatment increases emergency department congestion, has negative impacts on their health and may increase their mortality rates. A model built around a Markov decision process is proposed to improve the efficiency of patient flows between the emergency department and other hospital units. With each day divided into time periods, the formulation estimates bed demand for the next period as the basis for determining a proactive rather than reactive transfer decision policy...
February 17, 2018: Health Care Management Science
Ana S Peinetti, Helena Ceretti, Martín Mizrahi, Graciela A González, Silvana A Ramírez, Félix G Requejo, Javier M Montserrat, Fernando Battaglini
Polyvalent gold nanoparticle oligonucleotide conjugates are subject of intense research. Even though 2nm diameter AuNPs have been previously modified with DNA, little is known about their structure and electrochemical behavior. In this work, we examine the influence of different surface modification strategies on the interplay between the meso-organization and the molecular recognition properties of a 27-mer DNA strand. This DNA strand is functionalized with different sulfur-containing moieties and immobilized on 2nm gold nanoparticles confined on a nanoporous alumina, working the whole system as an electrode array...
February 9, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Daniela Gonçalves-Bradley, Jaspreet K Khangura, Gerd Flodgren, Rafael Perera, Brian H Rowe, Sasha Shepperd
BACKGROUND: In many countries emergency departments (EDs) are facing an increase in demand for services, long waits, and severe crowding. One response to mitigate overcrowding has been to provide primary care services alongside or within hospital EDs for patients with non-urgent problems. However, it is unknown how this impacts the quality of patient care and the utilisation of hospital resources, or if it is cost-effective. This is the first update of the original Cochrane Review published in 2012...
February 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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