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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155825/poverty-and-health-among-cdc-plantation-labourers-in-cameroon-perceptions-challenges-and-coping-strategies
#1
Valerie Makoge, Lenneke Vaandrager, Harro Maat, Maria Koelen
Creating better access to good quality healthcare for the poor is a major challenge to development. In this study, we examined inter-linkages between poverty and disease, referred to as poverty-related diseases (PRDs), by investigating how Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) camp dwellers respond to diseases that adversely affect their health and wellbeing. Living in plantation camps is associated with poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation and the rapid spread of diseases. In a survey of 237 CDC camp dwellers in Cameroon, we used the health belief model to understand the drivers (perceived threats, benefits and cues for treatment seeking) of reported responses...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153170/a-100-year-review-stress-physiology-including-heat-stress
#2
R J Collier, B J Renquist, Y Xiao
Stress is an external event or condition that places a strain on a biological system. The animal response to a stress involves the expenditure of energy to remove or reduce the impact of the stress. This increases maintenance requirements of the animal and results in loss of production. The biological response to stress is divided into acute and chronic phases, with the acute phase lasting hours to a few days and the chronic phase lasting several days to weeks. The acute response is driven by homeostatic regulators of the nervous and endocrine systems and the chronic phase by homeorhetic regulators of the endocrine system...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151682/anterior-segment-morphology-in-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-using-ultrasound-biomicroscopy
#3
Tarannum Mansoori, Nagalla Balakrishna
Aim: To evaluate the configuration of the anterior chamber angle quantitatively and study the morphological changes in the eye with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) patients after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Materials and methods: A total of 185 eyes of 185 PACG patients post-LPI and 126 eyes of 126 normal subjects were included in this prospective study. All subjects underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation, A-scan biometry, and UBM...
September 2017: Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137906/can-different-physicians-providing-urgent-and-non-urgent-treatment-improve-patient-flow-in-emergency-department
#4
Flora Fei-Fei Yau, Tsung-Cheng Tsai, Yan-Ren Lin, Kuan-Han Wu, Yuan-Jhen Syue, Chao-Jui Li
BACKGROUND: Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding is a worldwide problem, and it might be caused by prolonged patient stay in the ED. This study tried to analyze if different practice models influence patient flow in the ED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, 1-year cohort study was conducted across two EDs in the largest healthcare system in Taiwan. A total of 37,580 adult non-trauma patients were involved in the study. The clinical practice between two ED practice models was compared...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136014/treatment-guidelines-and-early-loss-from-care-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Ingrid T Katz, Richard Kaplan, Garrett Fitzmaurice, Dominick Leone, David R Bangsberg, Linda-Gail Bekker, Catherine Orrell
BACKGROUND: South Africa has undergone multiple expansions in antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility from an initial CD4+ threshold of ≤200 cells/μl to providing ART for all people living with HIV (PLWH) as of September 2016. We evaluated the association of programmatic changes in ART eligibility with loss from care, both prior to ART initiation and within the first 16 weeks of starting treatment, during a period of programmatic expansion to ART treatment at CD4+ ≤ 350 cells/μl...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134397/increasing-rate-of-psychological-distress-in-urban-households-how-does-income-matter
#6
Ghuncha Firdaus
Numerous studies suggest 'social gradient' in health, but it is less clear whether every step up the socio-economic ladder improves health by the same degree. Based on 4326 households, the present study examines the relationship between household income and psychological distress while identifying specific risk factor in different income groups. Overall, 26.5% of sampled households were reported for being distressed. Work pressure (OR 2.0, p < 0.01) and reducing time for family/friends (OR 1.79, p < 0...
November 13, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116396/length-of-stay-for-childbirth-in-trentino-north-east-of-italy-the-impact-of-maternal-characteristics-and-organizational-features-of-the-maternity-unit-on-the-probability-of-early-discharge-of-healthy-term-infants
#7
Riccardo Pertile, Lucia Pavanello, Massimo Soffiati, Laura Manica, Silvano Piffer
Early discharge (ED) of healthy term infants has become a common practice due to current social and economic needs. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate trends in early discharge of healthy term neonates (≥ 37 gestational weeks) by delivery method (cesarean and vaginal) in maternity units in the Province of Trento. The secondary objective was to identify the socio-demographic characteristics (including the area of residence and distance from the designated hospital) and clinical characteristics of mothers whose infants were discharged early...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115072/emergency-department-visits-can-be-reduced-by-having-a-regular-doctor-for-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-secondary-analysis-of-2013-korea-health-panel-data
#8
Clara Lee, Nak Jin Sung, Hyeong Seok Lim, Jae Ho Lee
Chronic diseases pose a major challenge to population health worldwide. Diabetes is a major chronic disease that is managed overwhelmingly in primary care. There is an increasing recognition of the role that primary care physicians play to achieve high-quality care for patients with diabetes. By analyzing 2013 Korean Health Panel data, the authors aimed to determine the current status of having a regular doctor (RD) for adults (aged 18 years or older) with diabetes. In addition, the association of having a RD with the experience of emergency department (ED) visits was determined in this study...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114484/epidemiology-and-clinical-features-of-soil-transmitted-helminths
#9
Subhash Chandra Parija, Meenachi Chidambaram, Jharna Mandal
Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) consist of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). It affects nearly 1.7 billion people globally in which Ascaris contributes nearly 1.2 billion cases. The main mode for transmission of Ascaris and Trichuris is through contaminated food and water, whereas hookworm transmitted by skin penetration. STH were mainly seen in areas with poverty, overcrowding, and poor sanitation. The prevalence is more in rural areas compared to urban areas...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110718/cardiac-patients-perceptions-of-neighboring-patients-risk-influence-on-psychological-stress-in-the-ed-and-subsequent-posttraumatic-stress
#10
Beatrice Konrad, David Hiti, Bernard P Chang, Jessica Retuerto, Jacob Julian, Donald Edmondson
BACKGROUND: As many as 12% of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients screen positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms due to their cardiac event, and emergency department (ED) factors such as overcrowding have been associated with risk for PTSD. We tested the association of patients' perceptions of their proximity to a critically ill patient during ED evaluation for ACS with development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) in the month after hospital discharge. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in the REactions to Acute Care and Hospitalization (REACH) study during evaluation for ACS in an urban ED...
November 6, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098374/-per-aspera-ad-astra-implementation-of-electronic-patient-records-in-a-university-eye-hospital-experience-with-fidus-in-the-clinic-for-ophthalmology-at-the-saarland-university-medical-center-uks
#11
C Spira-Eppig, T Eppig, M Bischof, G Schießl, G Milioti, B Käsmann-Kellner, H Carstensen, B Schick, B Seitz
BACKGROUND: For more than 60 years patient records of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Saarland Medical Center in Homburg were documented on handwritten paper documents and filed in archives. Increasing requirements for medical documentation, exploding volumes of diagnostic data, overcrowded archives and unavailable files when needed, were the essential rationales for the implementation of an electronic patient archive (EPA). METHODS: The EPA has been specifically adapted to the requirements of the Department of Ophthalmology in order to guarantee a standardized unobstructed documentation and patient care across all sections of the department...
November 2, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091157/analysis-of-the-internal-bed-regulation-committees-from-hospitals-of-a-southern-brazilian-city
#12
Vinícius Sabedot Soares
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the composition of the Internal Regulation Committees created in hospitals of a capital city. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study assessing the structure, processes and results of each Committee. RESULTS: The main reasons for implementing the committees were legal issues and overcrowding in the emergency department. The most monitored indicators were the occupancy rate and the mean length of stay, and the most observed results were reductions in the latter...
July 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076280/registered-nurses-perceptions-of-safe-care-in-overcrowded-emergency-departments
#13
Julia Eriksson, Linda Gellerstedt, Pernilla Hillerås, Åsa Gransjön Craftman
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To explore registered nurses' perceptions of safe practice in care for patients with an extended length of stay in the emergency department. BACKGROUND: Extended length of stay and overcrowding in emergency departments are described internationally as one of the most comprehensive challenges of modern emergency care. An emergency department is not designed, equipped or staffed to provide care for prolonged periods of time. This context, combined with a high workload, poses a risk to patient safety, with additional medical errors and an increased number of adverse events...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054572/chaotic-genetic-algorithm-and-adaboost-ensemble-metamodeling-approach-for-optimum-resource-planning-in-emergency-departments
#14
Milad Yousefi, Moslem Yousefi, Ricardo Poley Martins Ferreira, Joong Hoon Kim, Flavio S Fogliatto
Long length of stay and overcrowding in emergency departments (EDs) are two common problems in the healthcare industry. To decrease the average length of stay (ALOS) and tackle overcrowding, numerous resources, including the number of doctors, nurses and receptionists need to be adjusted, while a number of constraints are to be considered at the same time. In this study, an efficient method based on agent-based simulation, machine learning and the genetic algorithm (GA) is presented to determine optimum resource allocation in emergency departments...
October 17, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053075/machine-learning-applied-to-neuroimaging-for-diagnosis-of-adult-classic-chiari-malformation-role-of-the-basion-as-a-key-morphometric-indicator
#15
Aintzane Urbizu, Bryn A Martin, Dulce Moncho, Alex Rovira, Maria A Poca, Juan Sahuquillo, Alfons Macaya, Malena I Español
OBJECTIVE The current diagnostic criterion for Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I), based on tonsillar herniation (TH), includes a diversity of patients with amygdalar descent that may be caused by a variety of factors. In contrast, patients presenting with an overcrowded posterior cranial fossa, a key characteristic of the disease, may remain misdiagnosed if they have little or no TH. The objective of the present study was to use machine-learning classification methods to identify morphometric measures that help discern patients with classic CM-I to improve diagnosis and treatment and provide insight into the etiology of the disease...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046172/readability-of-new-aviation-chart-symbology-in-day-and-nvg-reading-conditions
#16
Anthony S Wagstaff, Terje Larsen
BACKGROUND: The Swedish Air Force (SwAF) conducted a study in 2010 to harmonize portrayal of aeronautical info (AI) on SwAF charts with NATO standards. A mismatch was found concerning vertical obstructions (VO). Norway regarded Sweden's existing symbology as a way to solve the problem of overcrowded air charts and the two countries started to cooperate. The result of this development was a new set of symbology for obstacles. The aim of this study was to test the readability of the new obstacle and power line symbols compared to the old symbols...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038668/overcrowding-and-its-association-with-patient-outcomes-in-a-median-low-volume-emergency-department
#17
J Laureano Phillips, Bradford E Jackson, Elizabeth L Fagan, Steven E Arze, Brenton Major, Nestor R Zenarosa, Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: Crowding occurs commonly in high volume emergency departments (ED) and has been associated with negative patient care outcomes. We aim to assess ED crowding in a median-low volume setting and evaluate associations with patient care outcomes. METHODS: This was a prospective single-center study from November 14, 2016 until December 14, 2016. ED crowding was measured every 2 h by three different estimation tools: National Emergency Department Overcrowding Score (NEDOCS); Community Emergency Department Overcrowding Score (CEDOCS); and Severely-overcrowding Overcrowding and Not-overcrowding Estimation Tool (SONET) categorized under six different levels of crowding (not busy, busy, extremely busy, overcrowded, severely overcrowded, and dangerously overcrowded)...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032791/deconstructing-the-4-h-rule-for-access-to-emergency-care-and-putting-patients-first
#18
Ian Scott, Clair Sullivan, Andrew Staib, Anthony Bell
Evidence suggests improved outcomes for patients requiring emergency admission to hospital are associated with improved emergency department (ED) efficiency and lower transit times. Factors preventing timely transfers of emergency patients to in-patient beds across the ED-in-patient interface are major causes for ED crowding, for which several remedial strategies are possible, including parallel processing of probable admissions, direct-to-ward admissions and single-point medical registrars for receiving and processing all referrals directed at specific speciality units...
October 16, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029061/effects-of-access-to-radiology-in-out-of-hours-primary-care-in-the-netherlands-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Martijn Hendrik Rutten, Marleen Smits, Yvonne Anthonia Sebastiana Peters, Willem Jan Jozef Assendelft, Gert Pieter Westert, Paul Hendrikus Josephus Giesen
Background: In the Netherlands, out-of-hours primary care is provided in general-practitioner-cooperatives (GPCs). These are increasingly located on site with emergency departments (ED), forming Emergency-Care-Access-Points (ECAP). A more efficient and economical organization of out-of-hours primary emergency care could be realized by increased collaboration at an ECAP. In this study, we compared the effects of different models with respect to access to (hospital) radiology by the GPC...
September 28, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027126/etiology-and-risk-factors-determining-poor-outcome-of-severe-pneumonia-in-under-five-children
#20
Suresh Kumar Jakhar, Mukul Pandey, Dheeraj Shah, V G Ramachandran, Rumpa Saha, Natasha Gupta, Piyush Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiology of severe pneumonia (pneumonia with chest indrawing) in under-five children, and to study the risk factors for poor outcomes viz., 'treatment failure', 'need for change in antibiotics', 'prolonged hospital stay', 'need for mechanical ventilation' and 'mortality.' METHODS: Children (age 2 mo to 5 y) with pneumonia and chest drawing were enrolled prospectively from October 2012 through September 2013. Clinical history was recorded, and examination, anthropometry and investigations (including chest X-ray, blood culture and nasopharyngeal swab culture) were performed...
October 13, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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