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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313767/honesty-in-shared-decision-making-when-last-ditch-efforts-fail
#1
Alexander A Kon, Mary Devereaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311592/carotenoid-metabolism-strengthens-the-link-between-feather-coloration-and-individual-quality
#2
Ryan J Weaver, Eduardo S A Santos, Anna M Tucker, Alan E Wilson, Geoffrey E Hill
Thirty years of research has made carotenoid coloration a textbook example of an honest signal of individual quality, but tests of this idea are surprisingly inconsistent. Here, to investigate sources of this heterogeneity, we perform meta-analyses of published studies on the relationship between carotenoid-based feather coloration and measures of individual quality. To create color displays, animals use either carotenoids unchanged from dietary components or carotenoids that they biochemically convert before deposition...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311319/preferences-for-moral-vs-immoral-traits-in-others-are-conditional
#3
David E Melnikoff, April H Bailey
The preference for morality in others is regarded as a dominant factor in person perception. Moral traits are thought to foster liking, and immoral traits are thought to foster disliking, irrespective of the context in which they are embedded. We report the results of four studies that oppose this view. Using both explicit and implicit measures, we found that the preference for morality vs. immorality in others is conditional on the evaluator's current goals. Specifically, when immorality was conducive to participants' current goals, the preference for moral vs...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304873/need-for-information-honesty-and-respect-patient-perspectives-on-health-care-professionals-communication-about-cancer-and-fertility
#4
Jane M Ussher, Chloe Parton, Janette Perz
BACKGROUND: Individuals affected by cancer report a need for information about fertility from health care professionals (HCPs), in order to inform decision making and alleviate anxiety. However, there is evidence that many health professionals do not engage in such discussions. METHOD: A mixed method design was used to examine the construction and subjective experience of communication with health professionals about fertility in the context of cancer, from the perspective of patients...
January 5, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289510/developing-effective-mentor-mentee-relationships-in-radiology
#5
Rachel E Perry, Jay R Parikh
Radiologists seek mentors to facilitate career advancement and to help overcome professional and personal challenges. Characteristics of effective mentors include altruism, honesty, active listening skills, a collaborative approach, and accessibility. Characteristics of effective mentees include being respectful of mentors' input and time, being an active listener, and being open to feedback. Radiology departments should consider establishing structured processes for identifying and preparing mentors. Strategies to support mentor-mentee relationships include effective pairing of mentors with mentees, maintenance of confidentiality, clear definition of expectations, voluntary participation, and allowing mentees to change mentors without judgment or repercussions...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281957/when-honesty-and-cheating-pay-off-the-evolution-of-honest-and-dishonest-equilibria-in-a-conventional-signalling-game
#6
Szabolcs Számadó
BACKGROUND: The reliability of signals is a key issue in the study of animal communication. Both empirical work and theoretical models show that communication need not be entirely honest, and thus signals can be deceitful. Aggressive communication appears to be a prime candidate for such deceitful communication, because bluffing has been described in several species. Bluffing in these situations are supposed to be maintained by frequency dependent selection where the fitness of a given type depends on the frequencies of the other types in the population...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279947/the-dynamics-of-trust-in-the-shanghai-water-supply-regime
#7
Nahui Zhen, Jon Barnett, Michael Webber
Trust in natural resource managers and planners is recognized as a crucial component of the public's perception of environmental risks, including the risk of consuming water in cities. Although China is famous for its dubious water quality, public perception of the performance of water suppliers in China has scarcely been considered. Yet this is important, not least because improvements in urban water quality are most likely if the public perceives that there is a risk, which is a function of their levels of trust...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274660/mirror-mirror-on-the-wall-increasing-young-children-s-honesty-through-inducing-self-awareness
#8
Jasmine Bender, Alison M O'Connor, Angela D Evans
Previous studies have shown that in older children, promising to tell the truth increases truth-telling rates; however, in preschool-aged children, this has not been found to be effective. The current study compared promising with a novel technique of increasing children's self-awareness (by asking children to look at themselves in a mirror). It was predicted that inducing self-awareness would encourage children's honesty given that self-awareness increases adherence to social and moral norms. Children aged 3 or 4 years (N = 135) completed a modified temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked to not peek at a toy in the absence of an experimenter...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274270/honesty-and-integrity-in-authorship-attribution
#9
Megan-Jane Johnstone
The publication of peer reviewed journal articles, book chapters, and books have become an important hallmark of the professional, academic, social and scientific credibility of the nursing profession.
May 2017: Australian Nursing & Midwifery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233277/overview-of-a-co-curricular-professional-development-program-in-a-college-of-pharmacy
#10
Janice Hoffman, Eunice Chung, Karl Hess, Anandi V Law, Brandon Samson, James D Scott
The goal of a professional program at a school or college of pharmacy is to produce competent and professional pharmacy practitioners. In 2009, The American College of Clinical Pharmacy published a white paper to assist in the teaching of professionalism in schools/colleges of pharmacy to include traits such as responsibility, commitment to excellence, respect for others, honesty and integrity, and care with compassion. In February 2015, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education released their updated accreditation standards (Standards 2016) which introduced the concept of co-curricular activities (Standard 12...
May 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230900/expression-of-a-carotenoid-modifying-gene-and-evolution-of-red-colouration-in-weaverbirds-ploceidae
#11
Hanlu Twyman, Maria Prager, Nicholas I Mundy, Staffan Andersson
Red carotenoid colours in birds are widely assumed to be sexually selected quality indicators, but this rests on a very incomplete understanding of genetic mechanisms and honesty-mediating costs. Recent progress was made by the implication of the gene CYP2J19 as an avian carotenoid ketolase, catalysing the synthesis of red C4-ketocarotenoids from yellow dietary precursors, and potentially a major mechanism behind red coloration in birds. Here we investigate the role of CYP2J19 in the spectacular colour diversification of African weaverbirds (Ploceidae), represented by five genera and 16 species; eight red, seven yellow, and one without carotenoid coloration...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228962/decision-making-on-therapeutic-futility-in-mexican-adolescents-with-cancer-a-qualitative-study
#12
Carlo Egysto Cicero-Oneto, Edith Valdez-Martinez, Miguel Bedolla
BACKGROUND: The world literature shows that empirical research regarding the process of decision-making when cancer in adolescents is no longer curable has been conducted in High-income, English speaking countries. The objective of the current study was to explore in-depth and to explain the decision-making process from the perspective of Mexican oncologists, parents, and affected adolescents and to identify the ethical principles that guide such decision-making. METHODS: Purposive, qualitative design based on individual, fact-to-face, semi-structured, in-depth interviews...
December 11, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226604/an-international-qualitative-study-of-functioning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-the-world-health-organization-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-framework
#13
Soheil Mahdi, Marisa Viljoen, Tamara Yee, Melissa Selb, Nidhi Singhal, Omar Almodayfer, Mats Granlund, Petrus J de Vries, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Sven Bölte
This is the third in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study aimed to describe functioning in ASD (as operationalized by the ICF) derived from the perspectives of diagnosed individuals, family members, and professionals. A qualitative study using focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 stakeholder groups (N = 90) from Canada, India, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and Sweden...
December 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223070/trusting-others-shared-reality-in-testimonial-learning
#14
REVIEW
Annelise Pesch, Sarah Suárez, Melissa A Koenig
Much of early learning depends on others, and the transmission of testimony presents children with a range of opportunities to learn about and from other people. Much work has focused on children's ability to select or prefer particular sources of information based on various epistemic (e.g. accuracy, reliability, perceptual access, expertise) and moral (e.g. benevolence, group membership, honesty) characteristics. Understanding the mechanisms by which such selective preferences emerge has been couched primarily in frameworks that treat testimony as a source of inductive evidence, and that treat children's trust as an evidence-based inference...
November 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218057/lessons-from-the-human-genome-project-modesty-honesty-and-realism
#15
Frank Emmert-Streib, Matthias Dehmer, Olli Yli-Harja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205147/medico-legal-aspects-on-neuromonitoring-in-thyroid-surgery-informed-consent-on-malpractice-claims
#16
R Demontis, M R Pittau, A Maturo, P Petruzzo, G Calò
AIM: The purpose of this paper is to provide a forensic profile framework of neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery, regarding the information given to the patient and its classification as part of professional liability in the event of recurrent injury. METHOD: Evaluation and reflections on the required behaviour of the surgeon on providing details on the operation before the informed consent is given and to outline the possible legal implications regarding professional liability as a result of recurrent injury...
May 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195112/promoting-honesty-in-young-children-through-observational-learning
#17
Fengling Ma, Gail D Heyman, Chunyan Jing, Ying Fu, Brian J Compton, Fen Xu, Kang Lee
The observational learning approach, developed more than a half century ago, suggests that it is possible to promote desirable social behaviors through peer observation. However, this idea has yet to be put to a rigorous empirical test. The current research sought to fill this gap by examining whether honesty can be promoted in children by allowing them to observe a peer's display of honest behavior. The dependent measure was whether 5-year-old children who had cheated by peeking in a guessing game would confess to it...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193935/-academic-communication-and-honesty
#18
Horacio Rivera
No abstract.
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187959/frankly-we-do-give-a-damn-the-relationship-between-profanity-and-honesty
#19
Gilad Feldman, Huiwen Lian, Michal Kosinski, David Stillwell
There are two conflicting perspectives regarding the relationship between profanity and dishonesty. These two forms of norm-violating behavior share common causes and are often considered to be positively related. On the other hand, however, profanity is often used to express one's genuine feelings and could therefore be negatively related to dishonesty. In three studies, we explored the relationship between profanity and honesty. We examined profanity and honesty first with profanity behavior and lying on a scale in the lab (Study 1; N = 276), then with a linguistic analysis of real-life social interactions on Facebook (Study 2; N = 73,789), and finally with profanity and integrity indexes for the aggregate level of U...
September 2017: Social Psychological and Personality Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157511/subtypes-of-homicide-offenders-based-on-psychopathic-traits
#20
Marija Pajevic, Borjanka Batinic, Nikola Stevanovic
The aim of the present study was to explore the subtypes of offenders based on psychopathic traits in a sample of 127 adult homicide offenders (n=40.3% convicted of murder, n=32.6% convicted of aggravated murder, n=27.1% convicted of attempted murder). A two-step cluster analysis of the four factors of psychopathy yielded three clusters, which were then compared on the general dimensions of personality defined by the HEXACO model, intelligence, sadism and psychopathology variables conceptualized by the MMPI-202...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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