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Carmen H Logie, Candice L Lys, Nicole Schott, Lisa Dias, Makenzie R Zouboules, Kayley Mackay
Scant research has addressed health and well-being among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons in the Arctic. The Northwest Territories (NWT) has among Canada's highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). LGBTQ persons in NWT are at the nexus of LGBTQ and Arctic health disparities. Yet little is known of their sexual health needs. This qualitative study explored the sexual health needs of LGBTQ persons in the NWT. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 51 participants, including 16 LGBTQ youth aged 15-24, 21 LGBTQ adults aged 25 and above, and 14 key informants who worked with LGBTQ persons...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Amber Gayle Thalmayer
Self-report scores on personality inventories predict important life outcomes, including health and longevity, marital outcomes, career success, and mental health problems, but the ways they predict mental health treatment have not been widely explored. Psychotherapy is sought for diverse problems, but about half of those who begin therapy drop out, and only about half who complete therapy experience lasting improvements. Several authors have argued that understanding how personality traits relate to treatment could lead to better targeted, more successful services...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Qian Cao, Xiaomin Niu
People derive value from self-justifications by allowing themselves to lie for self-interest while feeling honest. This study explores, with the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), whether ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) could modulate genuine (dis)honesty by inhibiting self-justification for dishonesty. A total of 149 participants complete a die-in-a-cup task, in which they were asked to roll a six-sided die placed in an opaque cup twice but to report the first roll only. The experimental results show that anodal tDCS over right VLPFC increased 35...
March 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
E Brekke, L Lien, S Biong
Recovery in co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders often involves relationships with professional helpers, yet little is known about how these are experienced by service users. The aim of this study was to explore and describe behaviour and attributes of professional helpers that support recovery, as experienced by persons with co-occurring disorders. Within a collaborative approach, in-depth individual interviews with eight persons with lived experience of co-occurring disorders were analysed using systematic text condensation...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Lori Zitelli, Catherine V Palmer
Evidence-based suggestions for developing an effective clinician-client relationship built upon trust and honesty will be shared, as well as a review of relevant scope of practice issues for audiologists. Audiologists need to be prepared if a patient threatens self-harm. Many patients do not spontaneously report their suicidal thoughts and intentions to their care providers, so we need to be alert to warning signs. Information about the strongest predictors of suicide, how to ask about suicidal intentions, and how to assess the risk of suicide will be presented...
February 2018: Seminars in Hearing
Micha Weiss
This paper discusses aspects of ethical presence in psychoanalysis, and the possible use of apology in the therapeutic process. The author roughly delineates two periods in the history of psychoanalysis regarding the ethical dimension-the early classical period which is influenced by Freud's ethics of honesty, which gradually evolves towards the more recent intersubjectively-influenced period, necessitating the assimilation of an ethics of relationships. It is suggested that explicit theorizing of the ethical dimension into psychoanalysis offers added value to its effectiveness, and a framework is presented for combining relational, intersubjectively informed ethical dialogue, with contributions of classical technique, enriching the therapeutic potential of psychoanalytic work...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Christina M Erwin, Claire T McEvoy, Sarah E Moore, Lindsay Prior, Julia Lawton, Frank Kee, Margaret E Cupples, Ian S Young, Katherine Appleton, Michelle C McKinley, Jayne V Woodside
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and randomised controlled trial evidence demonstrates that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, methods used to support dietary change have been intensive and expensive. Peer support has been suggested as a possible cost-effective method to encourage adherence to a MD in at risk populations, although development of such a programme has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to use mixed-methods to determine the preferred peer support approach to encourage adherence to a MD...
February 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
Quentin Schull, Jean-Patrice Robin, F Stephen Dobson, Hédi Saadaoui, Vincent A Viblanc, Pierre Bize
Sexual selection and social selection are two important theories proposed for explaining the evolution of colorful ornamental traits in animals. Understanding signal honesty requires studying how environmental and physiological factors during development influence the showy nature of sexual and social ornaments. We experimentally manipulated physiological stress and immunity status during the molt in adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and studied the consequences of our treatments on colourful ornaments (yellow-orange and UV beak spots and yellow-orange auricular feather patches) known to be used in sexual and social contexts in this species...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Mariela Pavalache-Ilie, Ana-Maria Cazan
There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental attitudes and concerns. While much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals with pro-environmental attitudes, our study explores the relations between personality traits and pro-environmental behaviours. The study found that Honesty, Agreeableness, Openness, Proactive personality and Pro-environmental attitude predict environmental behaviour. The main implication of the study is the fact that responsible environmental behaviour could be enhanced through programmes focused on the increase of the environmental awareness and the development of a more pro-ecological view...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Wendy E de Leng, Karen M Stegers-Jager, Marise Ph Born, Axel P N Themmen
CONTEXT: Despite their widespread use in medical school selection, there remains a lack of clarity on exactly what situational judgement tests (SJTs) measure. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop an SJT that measures integrity by combining critical incident interviews (inductive approach) with an innovative deductive approach. The deductive approach guided the development of the SJT according to two established theoretical models, of which one was positively related to integrity (honesty-humility [HH]) and one was negatively related to integrity (cognitive distortions [CD])...
January 19, 2018: Medical Education
Amira Noori Baker, Angela Marie Bayer, Lenka Kolevic, Lizzete Najarro, Rolando Mario Viani, Jaime Gerardo Deville
BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations for disclosure of HIV status to children living with HIV (CLHIV), fewer than half of CLHIV at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (INSN) in Lima, Peru, have had disclosure. How and when the disclosure process for CLHIV should take place in Peru has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study at INSN to explore perceptions and experiences of 6 health care providers (HCPs), 14 disclosed and nondisclosed CLHIV (8-17 years), and their 14 caregivers regarding knowledge of illness, disclosure of HIV status, and appropriate disclosure approaches...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Alexander A Kon, Mary Devereaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Ryan J Weaver, Eduardo S A Santos, Anna M Tucker, Alan E Wilson, Geoffrey E Hill
Thirty years of research has made carotenoid coloration a textbook example of an honest signal of individual quality, but tests of this idea are surprisingly inconsistent. Here, to investigate sources of this heterogeneity, we perform meta-analyses of published studies on the relationship between carotenoid-based feather coloration and measures of individual quality. To create color displays, animals use either carotenoids unchanged from dietary components or carotenoids that they biochemically convert before deposition...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
David E Melnikoff, April H Bailey
The preference for morality in others is regarded as a dominant factor in person perception. Moral traits are thought to foster liking, and immoral traits are thought to foster disliking, irrespective of the context in which they are embedded. We report the results of four studies that oppose this view. Using both explicit and implicit measures, we found that the preference for morality vs. immorality in others is conditional on the evaluator's current goals. Specifically, when immorality was conducive to participants' current goals, the preference for moral vs...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jane M Ussher, Chloe Parton, Janette Perz
BACKGROUND: Individuals affected by cancer report a need for information about fertility from health care professionals (HCPs), in order to inform decision making and alleviate anxiety. However, there is evidence that many health professionals do not engage in such discussions. METHOD: A mixed method design was used to examine the construction and subjective experience of communication with health professionals about fertility in the context of cancer, from the perspective of patients...
January 5, 2018: Reproductive Health
Rachel E Perry, Jay R Parikh
Radiologists seek mentors to facilitate career advancement and to help overcome professional and personal challenges. Characteristics of effective mentors include altruism, honesty, active listening skills, a collaborative approach, and accessibility. Characteristics of effective mentees include being respectful of mentors' input and time, being an active listener, and being open to feedback. Radiology departments should consider establishing structured processes for identifying and preparing mentors. Strategies to support mentor-mentee relationships include effective pairing of mentors with mentees, maintenance of confidentiality, clear definition of expectations, voluntary participation, and allowing mentees to change mentors without judgment or repercussions...
February 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Szabolcs Számadó
BACKGROUND: The reliability of signals is a key issue in the study of animal communication. Both empirical work and theoretical models show that communication need not be entirely honest, and thus signals can be deceitful. Aggressive communication appears to be a prime candidate for such deceitful communication, because bluffing has been described in several species. Bluffing in these situations are supposed to be maintained by frequency dependent selection where the fitness of a given type depends on the frequencies of the other types in the population...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Nahui Zhen, Jon Barnett, Michael Webber
Trust in natural resource managers and planners is recognized as a crucial component of the public's perception of environmental risks, including the risk of consuming water in cities. Although China is famous for its dubious water quality, public perception of the performance of water suppliers in China has scarcely been considered. Yet this is important, not least because improvements in urban water quality are most likely if the public perceives that there is a risk, which is a function of their levels of trust...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Management
Jasmine Bender, Alison M O'Connor, Angela D Evans
Previous studies have shown that in older children, promising to tell the truth increases truth-telling rates; however, in preschool-aged children, this has not been found to be effective. The current study compared promising with a novel technique of increasing children's self-awareness (by asking children to look at themselves in a mirror). It was predicted that inducing self-awareness would encourage children's honesty given that self-awareness increases adherence to social and moral norms. Children aged 3 or 4 years (N = 135) completed a modified temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked to not peek at a toy in the absence of an experimenter...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Megan-Jane Johnstone
The publication of peer reviewed journal articles, book chapters, and books have become an important hallmark of the professional, academic, social and scientific credibility of the nursing profession.
May 2017: Australian Nursing & Midwifery Journal
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