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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896601/how-are-editors-selected-recruited-and-approved
#1
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Aceil Al-Khatib
The editors of scholarly journals have a duty to uphold and promote the highest standards of ethical conduct of research. They also have a responsibility to maintain the integrity of the literature, and to promote transparency and honesty in reporting research findings. In the process of screening manuscripts they receive for possible publication, editors have the obligation to report infractions to the institutions of offending authors, and request an investigation. Since editors can reject a paper on ethical grounds, they can be considered to be the guardians of ethics who should express high ethical standards in conducting and publishing their own research...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895609/to-fake-or-not-to-fake-antecedents-to-interview-faking-warning-instructions-and-its-impact-on-applicant-reactions
#2
Stephanie J Law, Joshua Bourdage, Thomas A O'Neill
In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees' decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e., interview faking). Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behavior, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviors...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892247/family-satisfaction-with-patient-care-in-critical-care-units-in-pakistan-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#3
Younas Ahtisham, Parveen Subia, Victor Gideon
AIM: To assess family satisfaction with care provided to patients in critical care units in Islamabad. METHOD: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 medical and surgical critical care units at two private hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. The purposive sample consisted of 323 immediate family members and other relatives and friends (referred to as family members in this article) of 323 patients admitted to the critical care units for at least 24 hours...
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884300/teen-preferences-for-clinic-based-behavior-screens-who-where-when-and-how
#4
Carolyn Bradner Jasik, Mark Berna, Maria Martin, Elizabeth M Ozer
PURPOSE: Previous research examining computer-based adolescent risk behavior screening was done before widespread adoption of smartphones and merits updating. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey among 115 adolescents seeking primary care age 12-18 years. It is a diverse sample with 59% female, 51% white, 18% African-American, and 27% Latino. Respondents were asked level of comfort and honesty (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) when answering health behavior questions by paper, interview, or electronic device...
December 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858268/misreporting-of-product-adherence-in-the-mtn-003-voice-trial-for-hiv-prevention-in-africa-participants-explanations-for-dishonesty
#5
Elizabeth T Montgomery, B Mensch, P Musara, M Hartmann, K Woeber, J Etima, A van der Straten
Consistent over-reporting of product use limits researchers' ability to accurately measure adherence and estimate product efficacy in HIV prevention trials. While lying is a universal characteristic of the human condition, growing evidence of a stark discrepancy between self-reported product use and biologic or pharmacokinetic evidence demands examination of the reasons research participants frequently misrepresent product use in order to mitigate this challenge in future research. This study (VOICE-D) was an ancillary post-trial study of the vaginal and oral interventions to control the epidemic (VOICE) phase IIb trial (MTN 003)...
November 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849366/predicting-smartphone-operating-system-from-personality-and-individual-differences
#6
Heather Shaw, David A Ellis, Libby-Rae Kendrick, Fenja Ziegler, Richard Wiseman
Android and iPhone devices account for over 90 percent of all smartphones sold worldwide. Despite being very similar in functionality, current discourse and marketing campaigns suggest that key individual differences exist between users of these two devices; however, this has never been investigated empirically. This is surprising, as smartphones continue to gain momentum across a variety of research disciplines. In this article, we consider if individual differences exist between these two distinct groups...
November 16, 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834205/rigorous-science-a-how-to-guide
#7
EDITORIAL
Arturo Casadevall, Ferric C Fang
Proposals to improve the reproducibility of biomedical research have emphasized scientific rigor. Although the word "rigor" is widely used, there has been little specific discussion as to what it means and how it can be achieved. We suggest that scientific rigor combines elements of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and ethics. We propose a framework for rigor that includes redundant experimental design, sound statistical analysis, recognition of error, avoidance of logical fallacies, and intellectual honesty...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831700/normative-personality-trait-development-in-adulthood-a-6-year-cohort-sequential-growth-model
#8
Petar Milojev, Chris G Sibley
The present study investigated patterns of normative change in personality traits across the adult life span (19 through 74 years of age). We examined change in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and honesty-humility using data from the first 6 annual waves of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 10,416; 61.1% female, average age = 49.46). We present a cohort-sequential latent growth model assessing patterns of mean-level change due to both aging and cohort effects...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819776/-effective-communication-and-academic-honesty
#9
Horacio Rivera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808468/plagiarism-in-nursing-education-an-integrative-review
#10
REVIEW
Joan Lynch, Bronwyn Everett, Lucie M Ramjan, Renee Callins, Paul Glew, Yenna Salamonson
AIM: To identify the prevalence and antecedents of plagiarism within nursing education and approaches to prevention and management. BACKGROUND: There has been growing media attention highlighting the prevalence of plagiarism in universities, including the academic integrity of undergraduate nursing students. A breach of academic integrity among nursing students also raises further concern with the potential transfer of this dishonest behaviour to the clinical setting...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798310/social-costs-enforce-honesty-of-a-dynamic-signal-of-motivation
#11
Russell A Ligon, Kevin J McGraw
Understanding the processes that promote signal reliability may provide important insights into the evolution of diverse signalling strategies among species. The signals that animals use to communicate must comprise mechanisms that prohibit or punish dishonesty, and social costs of dishonesty have been demonstrated for several fixed morphological signals (e.g. colour badges of birds and wasps). The costs maintaining the honesty of dynamic signals, which are more flexible and potentially cheatable, are unknown...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794549/clinicians-use-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-in-clinical-practice-and-decision-making
#12
Gillian J Leichtling, Jessica M Irvine, Christi Hildebran, Deborah J Cohen, Sara E Hallvik, Richard A Deyo
OBJECTIVES:  Little is known about clinicians' use of prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) profiles in decision-making. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand how clinicians use, interpret, and integrate PDMP profiles with other information in making clinical decisions. DESIGN : Qualitative interviews of clinician PDMP users. SETTING:  Oregon registrants in the state's PDMP. SUBJECTS:  Thirty-three clinicians practicing in primary care, emergency medicine, pain management, psychiatry, dentistry, and surgery...
October 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792533/sex-difference-in-condition-dependence-of-carotenoid-gapes-in-the-eurasian-roller-coracias-garrulus
#13
Jesús M Avilés, Deseada Parejo
In altricial birds, sex differentiation can start early in the ontogeny in the form of color, physiology, and/or growth and may potentially result in sex-specific condition dependence of traits mediating parent-offspring communication. Carotenoids have long been hypothesized to modulate the expression of gape coloration, but their sex-specific role enforcing honesty of gape coloration remains poorly studied. In a within-nest design, we provided carotenoid supplementation to nestlings of the Eurasian roller (Coracias garrulus) and measured the response in circulating carotenoids, coloration of the gape, cutaneous immune responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin, and growth while accounting for the sex of nestlings...
November 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790162/the-co-evolution-of-honesty-and-strategic-vigilance
#14
Christophe Heintz, Mia Karabegovic, Andras Molnar
We hypothesize that when honesty is not motivated by selfish goals, it reveals social preferences that have evolved for convincing strategically vigilant partners that one is a person worth cooperating with. In particular, we explain how the patterns of dishonest behavior observed in recent experiments can be motivated by preferences for social and self-esteem. These preferences have evolved because they are adaptive in an environment where it is advantageous to be selected as a partner by others and where these others are strategically vigilant: they efficiently evaluate the expected benefit of cooperating with specific partners and attend to their intentions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740788/24-hour-relativistic-bit-commitment
#15
Ephanielle Verbanis, Anthony Martin, Raphaël Houlmann, Gianluca Boso, Félix Bussières, Hugo Zbinden
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729879/differences-in-learning-strategies-goal-orientations-and-self-concept-between-overachieving-normal-achieving-and-underachieving-secondary-students
#16
Juan L Castejón, Raquel Gilar, Alejandro Veas, Pablo Miñano
The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723439/-very-simple-i-just-don-t-lie-the-role-of-honesty-in-black-lesbian-k-12-teachers-experiences-in-the-u-s-southeast
#17
Jillian Carter Ford
I conducted semi-structured interviews with eight self-identified Black lesbian classroom teachers. Seven participants taught in three districts in the same large metropolitan area in the U.S. Southeast; one participant taught in a smaller city in a bordering state. In response to the vague prompt to describe the intersections between their sexuality and their schooling experiences as a teacher, every participant spoke explicitly about her unwillingness to lie about her sexuality if asked. In this article, I argue that honesty is a critical component of Black women's experiences, the necessity of which can be tied to womanism...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706189/ludusscope-accessible-interactive-smartphone-microscopy-for-life-science-education
#18
Honesty Kim, Lukas Cyrill Gerber, Daniel Chiu, Seung Ah Lee, Nate J Cira, Sherwin Yuyang Xia, Ingmar H Riedel-Kruse
For centuries, observational microscopy has greatly facilitated biology education, but we still cannot easily and playfully interact with the microscopic world we see. We therefore developed the LudusScope, an accessible, interactive do-it-yourself smartphone microscopy platform that promotes exploratory stimulation and observation of microscopic organisms, in a design that combines the educational modalities of build, play, and inquire. The LudusScope's touchscreen and joystick allow the selection and stimulation of phototactic microorganisms such as Euglena gracilis with light...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695704/cognitive-neuroscience-of-honesty-and-deception-a-signaling-framework
#19
Adrianna Jenkins, Lusha Zhu, Ming Hsu
Understanding the neural basis of human honesty and deception has enormous potential scientific and practical value. However, past approaches, largely developed out of studies with forensic applications in mind, are increasingly recognized as having serious methodological and conceptual shortcomings. Here we propose to address these challenges by drawing on so-called signaling games widely used in game theory and ethology to study behavioral and evolutionary consequences of information transmission and distortion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660184/reasoning-about-truth-telling-in-end-of-life-care-of-patients-with-acute-stroke
#20
Åsa Rejnö, Gunilla Silfverberg, Britt-Marie Ternestedt
BACKGROUND: Ethical problems are a universal phenomenon but rarely researched concerning patients dying from acute stroke. These patients often have a reduced consciousness from stroke onset and thereby lack ability to convey their needs and could be described as 'incompetent' decision makers regarding their own care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of stroke team members' reasoning about truth-telling in end-of-life care due to acute stroke...
September 22, 2016: Nursing Ethics
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