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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515879/sexual-signals-reflect-telomere-dynamics-in-a-wild-bird
#1
Conor Claverie Taff, Corey R Freeman-Gallant
Telomere dynamics in natural populations have been linked to survival, reproduction, and energetic investment. Given their putative role in mediating life-history trade-offs, telomeres are also a likely candidate for maintaining honesty in sexually selected signals; few studies to date, however, have demonstrated a correlation between sexual signals and telomere dynamics. Here, we show that plumage coloration in male common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) is correlated with both relative telomere length and with the rate of telomere loss between years...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505118/communicatively-constructing-the-bright-and-dark-sides-of-hope-family-caregivers-experiences-during-end-of-life-cancer-care
#2
Jody Koenig Kellas, Katherine M Castle, Alexis Johnson, Marlene Z Cohen
(1) Background: The communication of hope is complicated, particularly for family caregivers in the context of cancer who struggle to maintain hope for themselves and their loved ones in the face of terminality. In order to understand these complexities, the current study examines the bright and dark sides of how hope is communicated across the cancer journey from the vantage point of bereaved family caregivers; (2) Methods: We analyzed interviews with bereaved family caregivers using qualitative thematic and case oriented strategies to identify patterns in the positive and negative lived experiences when communicating about hope at the end of life; (3) Results: Two overarching patterns of hope emerged...
May 15, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494000/validating-bayesian-truth-serum-in-large-scale-online-human-experiments
#3
Morgan R Frank, Manuel Cebrian, Galen Pickard, Iyad Rahwan
Bayesian truth serum (BTS) is an exciting new method for improving honesty and information quality in multiple-choice survey, but, despite the method's mathematical reliance on large sample sizes, existing literature about BTS only focuses on small experiments. Combined with the prevalence of online survey platforms, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk, which facilitate surveys with hundreds or thousands of participants, BTS must be effective in large-scale experiments for BTS to become a readily accepted tool in real-world applications...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493758/lying-because-we-care-compassion-increases-prosocial-lying
#4
Matthew J Lupoli, Lily Jampol, Christopher Oveis
Prosocial lies, or lies intended to benefit others, are ubiquitous behaviors that have important social and economic consequences. Though emotions play a central role in many forms of prosocial behavior, no work has investigated how emotions influence behavior when one has the opportunity to tell a prosocial lie-a situation that presents a conflict between two prosocial ethics: lying to prevent harm to another, and honesty, which might also provide benefits to the target of the lie. Here, we examine whether the emotion of compassion influences prosocial lying, and find that compassion causally increases and positively predicts prosocial lying...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490760/hormonal-pleiotropy-helps-maintain-queen-signal-honesty-in-a-highly-eusocial-wasp
#5
Ricardo Caliari Oliveira, Ayrton Vollet-Neto, Cintia Akemi Oi, Jelle S van Zweden, Fabio Nascimento, Colin Sullivan Brent, Tom Wenseleers
In insect societies, both queens and workers produce chemicals that reliably signal caste membership and reproductive status. The mechanisms that help to maintain the honesty of such queen and fertility signals, however, remain poorly studied. Here we test if queen signal honesty could be based on the shared endocrine control of queen fertility and the production of specific signals. In support of this "hormonal pleiotropy" hypothesis, we find that in the common wasp, application of methoprene (a juveline hormone analogue) caused workers to acquire a queen-like cuticular hydrocarbon profile, resulting in the overproduction of known queen pheromones as well as some compounds typically linked to worker fertility...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481648/data-intensive-science-and-research-integrity
#6
David B Resnik, Kevin C Elliott, Patricia A Soranno, Elise M Smith
In this commentary, we consider questions related to research integrity in data-intensive science and argue that there is no need to create a distinct category of misconduct that applies to deception related to processing, analyzing, or interpreting data. The best way to promote integrity in data-intensive science is to maintain a firm commitment to epistemological and ethical values, such as honesty, openness, transparency, and objectivity, which apply to all types of research, and to promote education, policy development, and scholarly debate concerning appropriate uses of statistics...
May 8, 2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452941/failure-to-captcha-attention-null-results-from-an-honesty-priming-experiment-in-guatemala
#7
Stewart Kettle, Marco Hernandez, Michael Sanders, Oliver Hauser, Simon Ruda
We report results from a large online randomised tax experiment in Guatemala. The trial involves short messages and choices presented to taxpayers as part of a CAPTCHA pop-up window immediately before they file a tax return, with the aim of priming honest declarations. In total our sample includes 627,242 taxpayers and 3,232,430 tax declarations made over four months. Treatments include: honesty declaration; information about public goods; information about penalties for dishonesty, questions allowing a taxpayer to choose which public good they think tax money should be spent on; or questions allowing a taxpayer to state a view on the penalty for not declaring honestly...
April 28, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450847/the-role-of-cognition-personality-and-trust-in-fraud-victimization-in-older-adults
#8
Rebecca A Judges, Sara N Gallant, Lixia Yang, Kang Lee
Older adults are more at risk to become a victim of consumer fraud than any other type of crime (Carcach et al., 2001) but the research on the psychological profiles of senior fraud victims is lacking. To bridge this significant gap, we surveyed 151 (120 female, 111 Caucasian) community-dwelling older adults in Southern Ontario between 60 and 90 years of age about their experiences with fraud. Participants had not been diagnosed with cognitive impairment or a neurological disorder by their doctor and looked after their own finances...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448608/more-intelligent-extraverts-are-more-likely-to-deceive
#9
Justyna Sarzyńska, Marcel Falkiewicz, Monika Riegel, Justyna Babula, Daniel S Margulies, Edward Nęcka, Anna Grabowska, Iwona Szatkowska
The tendency to lie is a part of personality. But are personality traits the only factors that make some people lie more often than others? We propose that cognitive abilities have equal importance. People with higher cognitive abilities are better, and thus more effective liars. This might reinforce using lies to solve problems. Yet, there is no empirical research that shows this relationship in healthy adults. Here we present three studies in which the participants had free choice about their honesty. We related differences in cognitive abilities and personality to the odds of lying...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432782/the-good-lies-altruistic-goals-modulate-processing-of-deception-in-the-anterior-insula
#10
Lijun Yin, Yang Hu, Dennis Dynowski, Jian Li, Bernd Weber
When it comes to lies, the beneficiaries of one's dishonesty play an important role in the decision-making process. Altruistic lies that are made with the intention of benefiting others are a specific type of lies and very common in real life. While it has been shown that altruistic goals influence (dis)honest behaviors, the neural substrates of this effect is still unknown. To reveal how the brain integrates altruistic goals into (dis)honest decisions, this study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural activity of participants in a real incentivized context while they were making (dis)honest decisions...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431908/implementation-of-a-person-centered-medical-care-model-in-a-skilled-nursing-facility-a-pilot-evaluation
#11
Kathleen Abrahamson, Jaclyn Myers, Arif Nazir
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of implementing a person-centered medical care model for post-acute care residents within a skilled nursing facility (SNF). DESIGN: A mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) pilot evaluation. SETTING: An 89-bed SNF located within a large midwestern city. PARTICIPANTS: Forty SNF post-acute patients admitted to the facility during a 6-month period were enrolled in the pilot evaluation...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407568/the-relation-between-anorexic-symptoms-in-women-and-their-reports-of-trustworthiness-in-interactions-with-close-persons
#12
Ken J Rotenberg, Kelley Edwards
The study examined the relation between women's anorexic symptoms and their reports of trustworthiness in interactions with close persons. Ninety-eight females (mean age=24years-10months) completed the anorexic symptom subscale of the SEDS and reported (ascribed) the extent to which they showed reliability, emotional, and honesty trustworthiness behaviors in interactions with their mother, father, and close friend. Negative linear relations were found between anorexic symptoms and ascribed: (a) trustworthiness with close friends; (b) reliability trustworthiness; and (c) at a trend level, honesty trustworthiness...
March 31, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404710/honesty-not-forgetting-and-our-fragile-world-linking-ecological-action-and-clinical-encounters
#13
Sarah de Leeuw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402477/coercive-and-legitimate-authority-impact-tax-honesty-evidence-from-behavioral-and-erp-experiments
#14
Katharina Gangl, Daniela M Pfabigan, Claus Lamm, Erich Kirchler, Eva Hofmann
Cooperation in social systems such as tax honesty is of central importance in our modern societies. However, we know little about cognitive and neural processes driving decisions to evade or pay taxes. This study focuses on the impact of perceived tax authority and examines the mental chronometry mirrored in ERP data allowing a deeper understanding about why humans cooperate in tax systems. We experimentally manipulated coercive and legitimate authority and studied its impact on cooperation and underlying cognitive (experiment 1, 2) and neuronal (experiment 2) processes...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396395/increasing-honesty-in-humans-with-noninvasive-brain-stimulation
#15
Michel André Maréchal, Alain Cohn, Giuseppe Ugazio, Christian C Ruff
Honesty plays a key role in social and economic interactions and is crucial for societal functioning. However, breaches of honesty are pervasive and cause significant societal and economic problems that can affect entire nations. Despite its importance, remarkably little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms supporting honest behavior. We demonstrate that honesty can be increased in humans with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Participants (n = 145) completed a die-rolling task where they could misreport their outcomes to increase their earnings, thereby pitting honest behavior against personal financial gain...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394965/-ethical-conflicts-in-the-authorship-of-scientific-papers
#16
Astrid von Oetinger, Kabir P Sadarangani, Sofía P Salas
The frequency of conflicts about authorship of publications has increased along with the increase in the number of people involved in scientific work. Some of the factors that strongly influence the generation of conflicts and malpractices in authorship definition of scientific publications are the pressure of academia, economic incentives from the pharmaceutical industry in the field of biomedicine and authors’ wishes and expectations of recognition, among other factors. The article analyzes this problem, increasingly common in the field of medicine and related areas...
November 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388303/the-detrimental-effects-of-oxytocin-induced-conformity-on-dishonesty-in-competition
#17
Gökhan Aydogan, Andrea Jobst, Kimberlee D'Ardenne, Norbert Müller, Martin G Kocher
Justifications may promote unethical behavior because they constitute a convenient loophole through which people can gain from immoral behavior and preserve a positive self-image at the same time. A justification that is widely used is rooted in conformity: Unethical choices become more permissible because one's peers are expected to make the same unethical choices. In the current study, we tested whether an exogenous alteration of conformity led to a lower inclination to adhere to a widely accepted norm (i...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351257/understanding-and-responding-to-severe-and-enduring-patient-distress-resulting-from-episodes-of-healthcare
#18
Linda Kenward
This article focuses on the severe, long-term and debilitating distress that may be experienced by patients as a result of their interactions with healthcare professionals and services. It is essential for healthcare professionals to be able to respond effectively to severe patient distress resulting from episodes of healthcare. Severe and enduring patient distress can occur in response to neglect - even when unintentional, misdiagnosis, surgical errors and/or deficits in the quality of care. Severe and enduring distress experienced by patients may go unacknowledged; the long-term consequences may not be recognised, or resolution may be presumed following formal apologies or receipt of compensation...
March 29, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346603/residency-program-directors-interview-methods-and-satisfaction-with-resident-selection-across-multiple-specialties
#19
Tonya VanOrder, Wayne Robbins, Eric Zemper
CONTEXT: Competition for postdoctoral training positions is at an all-time high, and residency program directors continue to have little direction when it comes to structuring an effective interview process. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a relationship existed between interview methods used and program director satisfaction with resident selection decisions and whether programs that used methods designed to assess candidate personal characteristics were more satisfied with their decisions...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346115/the-malevolent-side-of-human-nature
#20
Peter Muris, Harald Merckelbach, Henry Otgaar, Ewout Meijer
The term dark triad refers to the constellation of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Over the past few years, the concept has gained momentum, with many researchers assuming that the dark triad is a prominent antecedent of transgressive and norm-violating behavior. Our purpose in this meta-analytic review was to evaluate (a) interrelations among narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy; (b) gender differences in these traits; (c) how these traits are linked to normal personality factors; and (d) the psychosocial correlates of the dark triad...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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