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Ephanielle Verbanis, Anthony Martin, Raphaël Houlmann, Gianluca Boso, Félix Bussières, Hugo Zbinden
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Juan L Castejón, Raquel Gilar, Alejandro Veas, Pablo Miñano
The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jillian Carter Ford
I conducted semi-structured interviews with eight self-identified Black lesbian classroom teachers. Seven participants taught in three districts in the same large metropolitan area in the U.S. Southeast; one participant taught in a smaller city in a bordering state. In response to the vague prompt to describe the intersections between their sexuality and their schooling experiences as a teacher, every participant spoke explicitly about her unwillingness to lie about her sexuality if asked. In this article, I argue that honesty is a critical component of Black women's experiences, the necessity of which can be tied to womanism...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Honesty Kim, Lukas Cyrill Gerber, Daniel Chiu, Seung Ah Lee, Nate J Cira, Sherwin Yuyang Xia, Ingmar H Riedel-Kruse
For centuries, observational microscopy has greatly facilitated biology education, but we still cannot easily and playfully interact with the microscopic world we see. We therefore developed the LudusScope, an accessible, interactive do-it-yourself smartphone microscopy platform that promotes exploratory stimulation and observation of microscopic organisms, in a design that combines the educational modalities of build, play, and inquire. The LudusScope's touchscreen and joystick allow the selection and stimulation of phototactic microorganisms such as Euglena gracilis with light...
2016: PloS One
Adrianna Jenkins, Lusha Zhu, Ming Hsu
Understanding the neural basis of human honesty and deception has enormous potential scientific and practical value. However, past approaches, largely developed out of studies with forensic applications in mind, are increasingly recognized as having serious methodological and conceptual shortcomings. Here we propose to address these challenges by drawing on so-called signaling games widely used in game theory and ethology to study behavioral and evolutionary consequences of information transmission and distortion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Åsa Rejnö, Gunilla Silfverberg, Britt-Marie Ternestedt
BACKGROUND: Ethical problems are a universal phenomenon but rarely researched concerning patients dying from acute stroke. These patients often have a reduced consciousness from stroke onset and thereby lack ability to convey their needs and could be described as 'incompetent' decision makers regarding their own care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of stroke team members' reasoning about truth-telling in end-of-life care due to acute stroke...
September 22, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Adam Rzetelny, Barbara Zeller, Nicholas Miller, Kenneth L Kirsh, Steven D Passik
Clinical drug monitoring has an increasingly important role in the treatment of substance use disorders. Through semistructured interviews, we asked substance-use counselors about the clinical impact of drug tests on patients' treatment planning and outcomes. This study was conducted around the time of a facility-wide switch to a laboratory utilizing definitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry from a laboratory that had utilized the less-sensitive, presumptive immunoassay-based drug-testing methodology...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Azade Dogan, Yosuke Morishima, Felix Heise, Carmen Tanner, Rajna Gibson, Alexander F Wagner, Philippe N Tobler
Individuals differ profoundly when they decide whether to tell the truth or to be dishonest, particularly in situations where moral motives clash with economic motives, i.e., when truthfulness comes at a monetary cost. These differences should be expressed in the decision network, particularly in prefrontal cortex. However, the interactions between the core players of the decision network during honesty-related decisions involving trade-offs with economic costs remain poorly understood. To investigate brain connectivity patterns associated with individual differences in responding to economic costs of truthfulness, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and measured brain activations, while participants made decisions concerning honesty...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jamie LoCurto, Gina M Berg
The literature contains research regarding how trust is formed in healthcare settings but rarely discusses trust formation in an emergent care population. A literature review was conducted to determine which of the trust determinants are important for this process as well as how to develop a scale to measure trust. A search generated a total of 155 articles, 65 of which met eligibility criteria. Determinants that were important included the following: honesty, confidentiality, dependability, communication, competency, fiduciary responsibility, fidelity, and agency...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
M Petelo, L Swierk
Whether or not sexually selected traits consistently exhibit positive allometry, i.e., are disproportionately large in larger individuals, is an ongoing debate. Multiple models and exceptions to this rule suggest that the underlying drivers of sexual trait allometry are nuanced. Here, we compare allometries of sexual and non-sexual traits of a species (Anolis aquaticus Taylor, 1956) within a well-studied lizard genus to test the competing hypotheses that sexual traits are, or are not, defined by positive allometry...
September 8, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Benoit V Tudrej, Anne-Laure Heintz, Pierre Ingrand, Ludovic Gicquel, Philippe Binder
BACKGROUND: Adolescents often have emotional and behavioural problems that general practitioners are likely to miss. While nearly 80% of them consult their GP every year, it is usually for physical, not psychological reasons. Trust in their GPs in necessary for screening. OBJECTIVES: To identify the key quality desired by adolescents for them to feel free to confide in GPs. To determine whether this quality differed according to gender, level of at-risk behaviours or interlocutor: friend, parent or GP...
September 3, 2016: European Journal of General Practice
Steve Bearch, Michael Kovens, LeAnn Hubbert, Shae Honesty, Qiang Guo, Daniel Pap, Ru Dai, Laszlo Kovacs, Wenping Qiu
Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV), a new member of the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is associated with a vein clearing and vine decline disease that severely affects grape production and berry quality in commercial vineyards in the Midwest region of the USA. In this paper, the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of GVCV-VRU1 and GVCV-VRU2, two isolates from wild Vitis rupestris Scheele grapevines in their native habitat, are described. The GVCV-VRU1 genome is 7,755 bp long while the GVCV-VRU2 genome consists of 7,725 bp, both of which are different from the genome of the GVCV-CHA isolate (7,753 bp), which was originally discovered in the grape cultivar 'Chardonel'...
August 31, 2016: Phytopathology
Kun Zhao, Eamonn Ferguson, Luke D Smillie
Recent research has highlighted the role of prosocial personality traits-agreeableness and honesty-humility-in egalitarian distributions of wealth in the dictator game. Expanding on these findings, we ran two studies to examine individual differences in two other forms of prosociality-generosity and reciprocity-with respect to two major models of personality, the Big Five and the HEXACO. Participants (combined N = 560) completed a series of economic games in which allocations in the dictator game were compared with those in the generosity game, a non-constant-sum wealth distribution task where proposers with fixed payoffs selected the size of their partner's payoff ("generosity")...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Tuva Sandsdalen, Vigdis Abrahamsen Grøndahl, Reidun Hov, Sevald Høye, Ingrid Rystedt, Bodil Wilde-Larsson
BACKGROUND: Patients' perceptions of care quality within and across settings are important for the further development of palliative care. The aim was to investigate patients' perceptions of palliative care quality within settings, including perceptions of care received and their subjective importance, and contrast palliative care quality across settings. METHOD: A cross-sectional study including 191 patients in late palliative phase (73 % response rate) admitted to hospice inpatient care, hospice day care, palliative units in nursing homes, and home care was conducted, using the Quality from the Patients' Perspective instrument-palliative care (QPP-PC)...
2016: BMC Palliative Care
Thomas I Mackie, Radley C Sheldrick, Sarah D de Ferranti, Tully Saunders, Erick G Rojas, Laurel K Leslie
BACKGROUND: US federal funding agencies increasingly incentivize stakeholder-engaged research which represents a paradigm shift toward incorporating a range of stakeholders in research design, conduct, and dissemination. OBJECTIVES: We use qualitative methods to capture experience-based recommendations on how to operationalize 4 Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) principles in stakeholder-engaged research, specifically (1) reciprocal relationships, (2) colearning, (3) partnership, and (4) trust, transparency, and honesty...
August 19, 2016: Medical Care
Anthony Chiaravalloti, Barry D Kels, Jane M Grant-Kels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Mainul Haque, Zainal Zulkifli, Seraj Zohurul Haque, Zubair M Kamal, Abdus Salam, Vidya Bhagat, Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi, Nor Iza A Rahman
Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today's definition of medical professionalism is evolving - from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient-physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Su Laurent, Julia Samuel, Tracy Dowling
If you are facing a discussion with parents whose child has died, your humanity is as important as your clinical knowledge and skill. Nothing you can say will ever take away the emotional pain they are facing but your involvement on a very human level will make a difference. Listening builds a trusting relationship and is essential if families are to be responded to effectively. The key components needed for good support are honesty, information, choices and time. Parents need to be guided through what will happen next and to know who to turn to when they leave the hospital...
August 12, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Paul J Hutchison, Katie McLaughlin, Tom Corbridge, Kelly N Michelson, Linda Emanuel, Peter H S Sporn, Megan Crowley-Matoka
OBJECTIVE: In the ICU, discussions between clinicians and surrogate decision makers are often accompanied by conflict about a patient's prognosis or care plan. Trust plays a role in limiting conflict, but little is known about the determinants of trust in the ICU. We sought to identify the dimensions of trust and clinician behaviors conducive to trust formation in the ICU. DESIGN: Prospective qualitative study. SETTING: Medical ICU of a major urban university hospital...
August 10, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
José Antonio Santana Rangel, Luz Arenas Monreal, Janine M Ramsey
OBJECTIVE: To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. METHODS: Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with the population in general, so that residents could identify the relationship between the vector Triatoma pallidipennis, the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi), symptoms, and preventive actions for Chagas disease...
August 4, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
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