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Intestinal failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526379/the-polish-intestinal-failure-centres-consensus-on-the-use-of-teduglutide-for-the-treatment-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#1
Stanisław Klek, Marek Kunecki, Jacek Sobocki, Konrad Matysiak, Katarzyna Karwowska, Krystyna Urbanowicz
OBJECTIVE: Teduglutide is an active, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 analog with proven clinical efficacy regarding intestinal adaptation in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). There are two factors that preclude its reimbursement, and thereby, its availability: its cost (reaching ∼$300,000/y)-which significantly exceeds the cost of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in most countries-and the lack of clear guidelines. The aim of this study was to create evidence-based working criteria for the use of teduglutide that could be used in clinical settings...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521656/oral-feeding-difficulties-in-children-with-short-bowel-syndrome-a-narrative-review
#2
Judy Hopkins, Sharon A Cermak, Russell J Merritt
Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with associated intestinal failure may be unable to absorb sufficient nutrients to sustain life. Improvements in the medical management of SBS, including use of parenteral nutrition, has significantly increased life expectancy. Independence from parenteral nutrition further improves quality of life. However, children living with SBS often develop oral aversions and feeding difficulties. There is limited research and information on which to base interventions that will preserve and develop oral motor and feeding skills...
May 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521607/intravenous-fish-oil-and-pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-changes-in-plasma-phytosterols-cytokines-and-bile-acids-and-erythrocyte-fatty-acids
#3
Kara L Calkins, Andrea DeBarber, Robert D Steiner, Martiniano J Flores, Tristan R Grogan, Susanne M Henning, Laurie Reyen, Robert S Venick
BACKGROUND: Soybean oil (SO) emulsions are associated with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD); fish oil (FO) emulsions are used to treat IFALD. SO and FO differ with respect to their fatty acid and phytosterol content. In children with IFALD whose SO was replaced with FO, we aimed to (1) quantify changes in erythrocyte fatty acids and plasma phytosterols, cytokines, and bile acids and (2) correlate these changes with direct bilirubin (DB). DESIGN: This study enrolled IFALD children who received 6 months of FO...
May 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514703/bacterial-infections-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-liver-cirrhosis-prophylaxis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Damian Piotrowski, Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections...
May 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514243/celiac-disease-symptom-resolution-effectiveness-of-the-gluten-free-diet
#5
Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini, Karine Amirikian, Hilary Jericho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the gluten free diet (GFD) on gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptom resolution and identify predictors for persistence of symptoms in all celiac patients at the University of Chicago. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review from 2002 to 2015. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms included: abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, failure to thrive/weight loss, nausea, reflux and vomiting. Extra-intestinal (EI) symptoms included: abnormal liver enzymes, arthralgia/arthritis, dermatitis herpetiformis, alopecia, fatigue, headache, anemia, stomatitis, myalgia, psychiatric disorders, rashes, seizures, neuropathy, short stature, delayed puberty, osteoporosis, and infertility...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509830/using-small-intestine-submucosa-to-augment-repair-of-moderate-to-large-rotator-cuff-tears-did-not-reduce-repair-failures
#6
Seth Gamradt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505451/toward-successful-cyclodextrin-based-solubility-enabling-formulations-for-oral-delivery-of-lipophilic-drugs-solubility-permeability-tradeoff-biorelevant-dissolution-and-the-unstirred-water-layer
#7
Noa Fine-Shamir, Avital Beig, Moran Zur, David Lindley, Jon Miller, Arik Dahan
The purpose of this work was to investigate key factors dictating the success/failure of cyclodextrin-based solubility-enabling formulations for oral delivery of low-solubility drugs. We have studied the solubility, the permeability, and the solubility-permeability interplay, of the highly lipophilic drug danazol, formulated with different levels (8.5, 10, 20 and 30%) of the commonly used hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), accounting for the biorelevant solubilization of the drug along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the unstirred water layer (UWL) adjacent to the GI membrane, and the overall absorption...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502441/intestinal-transplant-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Nidhi Rawal, Nada Yazigi
The past decade has seen major advances in the field of transplantation; it is the treatment of choice for many with intestinal failure. One-year mortality from pediatric intestinal transplantation has significantly declined, from 30% to 10% to 15% nationally, mainly due to a multidisciplinary approach in transplant centers. Pediatric age carries special considerations along the spectrum of care that continue to cause challenges but also offers growth opportunities. Pediatric intestinal transplantation indications and timing are changing as a result of new developments in diagnostic and treatment tools...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502260/the-first-study-on-opportunistic-intestinal-microsporidiosis-in-ibd-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-medications-in-iran
#9
Z Hasani, H Asadzadeh Aghdaei, H Balaii, M Azimirad, E S Mirsamadi, H Mirjalali, M R Zali
Microsporida are known as opportunistic unicellular organisms and have recently been reclassified as fungi that have been frequently reported from patients with congenital and acquired immunity failure disorders, worldwide. However, use of immunosuppressive medications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients significantly decreases overall immunity, and increases their susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Totally, 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients consisted of 69 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and two Crohn's disease (CD) patients...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501098/alterations-in-intestinal-microbiota-relate-to-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-and-central-line-infections
#10
Panliang Wang, Ying Wang, Lina Lu, Weihui Yan, Yijing Tao, Kejun Zhou, Jie Jia, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a vital role in modulating the metabolic and immune functions of the intestines. We aimed to analyze the dysbiosis of microbiota in infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with different complications. PROCEDURE: We included 26 fecal samples from 18 infants with SBS during parenteral nutrition. The samples were categorized into three groups: asymptomatic, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500294/adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein-is-overexpressed-in-cirrhosis-and-correlates-with-clinical-outcomes
#11
Isabel Graupera, Mar Coll, Elisa Pose, Chiara Elia, Salvatore Piano, Elsa Solà, Delia Blaya, Patricia Huelin, Cristina Solé, Rebeca Moreira, Gloria de Prada, Núria Fabrellas, Adrià Juanola, Manuel Morales-Ruiz, Pau Sancho-Bru, Càndid Villanueva, Pere Ginès
Fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are small intracellular proteins that coordinate lipid-mediated processes by targeting metabolic and immune response pathways. The aim of the study was to investigate plasma FABPs levels and their relationship with clinical outcomes in cirrhosis. Plasma levels of L-FABP1(liver and kidney), I-FABP2(intestine), and A-FABP4(adipocyte and macrophages) were measured in 274 patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Hepatic gene expression of FABPs was assessed in liver biopsies from patients with decompensated cirrhosis and in liver cell types from mice with cirrhosis...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498300/volatile-decay-products-in-breath-during-peritonitis-shock-are-attenuated-by-enteral-blockade-of-pancreatic-digestive-proteases
#12
Frank A DeLano, Jason Chow, Geert W Schmid-Schönbein
There is a need to develop markers for early detection of organ failure in shock that can be non-invasively measured at point of care. We explore here the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in expired air in a rat peritonitis shock model. Expired breath samples were collected into Tedlar gas bags and analyzed by standardized gas chromatography. The gas chromatograms were digitally analyzed for presence of peak amounts over a range of Kovach indices. Following the induction of peritonitis, selected volatile compounds were detected within about one hour, which remained at elevated amounts over a 6 hours observation period...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498296/interleukin-22-prevents-microbial-dysbiosis-and-promotes-intestinal-barrier-regeneration-following-acute-injury
#13
Adam M Hammer, Niya L Morris, Abigail R Cannon, Omair M Khan, Robin C Gagnon, Nellie V Movtchan, Ilse van Langeveld, Xiaoling Li, Bin Gao, Mashkoor A Choudhry
Intestine barrier disruption and bacterial translocation can contribute to sepsis and multiple organ failure- leading causes of mortality in burn-injured patients. Additionally, findings suggest ethanol (alcohol) intoxication at the time of injury worsens symptoms associated with burn injury. We have previously shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22) protects from intestinal leakiness and prevents overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria following ethanol and burn injury, but how IL-22 mediates these effects has not been established...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495316/effect-of-infectious-bursal-disease-ibd-vaccine-on-salmonella-enteritidis-infected-chickens
#14
Nagah Arafat, Abdelfattah H Eladl, Hebatallah Mahgoub, Reham A El-Shafei
BACKGROUND: Chickens infected with both infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Salmonella had higher mortality. In this work, we investigated the effect of IBDV vaccine (modified live-virus bursal disease vaccine, Nobilis strain 228E®) on experimentally infected chickens with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). METHODS: Four experimental groups were included in this study, negative control group, 228E®group, 228E®+SE infected group, and SE infected group. Chickens were ocularly administrated 228E® at 12days of age and orally infected with S...
May 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494549/-changes-in-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-mice-with-acute-liver-failure-induced-by-d-galactosamine
#15
Y X Hu, L Yu, H J Liu, M L Cheng
Objective: To investigate the changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure and identify characteristic bacteria, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of acute liver failure with intestinal microbiota disorders. Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free male BALB/c mice were used in this study, including 25 mice in the model group and 5 mice in the control group. An acute liver failure model was induced by D-galactosamine. Microbial DNA was extracted from intestinal contents in different segments of the lower digestive tract (ileum and colon) and feces and then were amplified using PCR...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492497/regulation-of-th17-cells-and-associated-cytokines-in-wound-healing-tissue-regeneration-and-carcinogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Leonie Brockmann, Anastasios D Giannou, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
Wound healing is a crucial process which protects our body against permanent damage and invasive infectious agents. Upon tissue damage, inflammation is an early event which is orchestrated by a multitude of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets including TH17 cells. TH17 cells and TH17 cell associated cytokines can impact wound healing positively by clearing pathogens and modulating mucosal surfaces and epithelial cells. Injury of the gut mucosa can cause fast expansion of TH17 cells and their induction from naïve T cells through Interleukin (IL)-6, TGF-β, and IL-1β signaling...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490481/vitamin-a-deficiency-due-to-chronic-malabsorption-an-ophthalmic-manifestation-of-a-systemic-condition
#17
James Cheshire, Sai Kolli
A 47-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive loss of vision, first manifesting as night blindness. Additionally, the patient reported frequent severe episodes of diarrhoea over the past month. Her medical history included end-stage renal failure for which she was currently on haemodialysis after a failed renal transplant, chronic pancreatitis and autonomic diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmological examination revealed severe bilateral corneal xerosis, bilateral Bitot's spots and inferior ulceration of the right cornea...
May 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490478/mixed-cryoglobulinemia-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#18
Maria Túlio, Liliana Carvalho, Tiago Bana E Costa, Cristina Chagas
Mixed cryoglobulinemia is frequently secondary to hepatitis C virus infection. Diagnosis and therapeutic management are challenging, depending on the spectrum and severity of manifestations, as well as on the presence of comorbidities. We describe a case of a 79-year-old woman with a non-cirrhotic hepatitis C virus infection presenting with weakness, arthralgias, purpuric rash with left leg ulcerative lesions, bilateral peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy, renal impairment and cardiac failure. The investigation was compatible with a severe type II mixed cryoglobulinemia with multisystemic involvement, including a low-grade B cell lymphoma and concomitant intestinal tuberculosis...
May 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488023/glucose-enhances-rotavirus-enterotoxin-induced-intestinal-chloride-secretion
#19
Liangjie Yin, Rejeesh Menon, Reshu Gupta, Lauren Vaught, Paul Okunieff, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
Rotavirus causes severe diarrhea in small children and is typically treated using glucose-containing oral rehydration solutions; however, glucose may have a detrimental impact on these patients, because it increases chloride secretion and presumably water loss. The rotavirus enterotoxin nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) directly inhibits glucose-mediated sodium absorption. We examined the effects of NSP4 and glucose on sodium and chloride transport in mouse small intestines and Caco-2 cells. Mouse small intestines and Caco-2 cells were incubated with NSP4114-135 in the presence/absence of glucose...
May 10, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485323/rhubarb-monomers-protect-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-in-sepsis-via-junction-proteins
#20
Lyu Wang, Yun-Liang Cui, Zhe Zhang, Zhao-Fen Lin, De-Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins. METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230-250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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