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Intestinal failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165511/-cystoisospora-belli-infection-in-hiv-patients-analysis-of-cases-with-different-clinical-evolution
#1
Heber Silva-Díaz, Darwin Fernández-Valverde, Gustavo Hernández-Córdova, Virgilio E Failoc-Rojas
INTRODUCTION: Cystoisospora belli infection is one of the most important causes of watery diarrhea in patients with HIV and causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in patients with HIV and diarrhea by C. belli. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected by analyzing clinical records. RESULTS: Four had recurrent diarrhea despite receiving secondary prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole and specific treatment, two of which had a good viral and immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the time of diagnosis and antiparasitic treatment...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161196/emergence-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsions-for-use-in-parenteral-nutrition
#2
Manpreet S Mundi, Robert Martindale, Ryan T Hurt
Since early work by Wretlind and Schuberth led to the development of a stable and safe intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) using soybean oil (SO) and egg phospholipid emulsifier, IFEs have become a crucial source of essential fatty acids and nonprotein energy in parenteral nutrition. However, largely due to their high ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and phytosterol content, SO IFEs have been associated with complications, including a proinflammatory profile and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as intestinal failure-associated liver disease...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160639/predictors-of-mortality-in-neonates-with-giant-omphaloceles
#3
Amulya K Saxena, Maja Raicevic
INTRODUCTION: This analysis was performed a review of giant-omphaloceles to determine the predictors of mortality. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Pubmed® and KoBson databases were searched for terms "giant" "omphalocele" and "mortality". Primary end points included mortality correlation with gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), eviscerated organs, associated anomalies and management. To calculate mean and median values IBM SPSS version 23.0 was used. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: After de-duplication and review search revealed 42 articles of which 23 met our inclusion criteria with 396 giant-omphaloceles for this analysis...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156596/microvesicle-involvement-in-shiga-toxin-associated-infection
#4
REVIEW
Annie Villysson, Ashmita Tontanahal, Diana Karpman
Shiga toxin is the main virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, a non-invasive pathogen that releases virulence factors in the intestine, causing hemorrhagic colitis and, in severe cases, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS manifests with acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Shiga toxin induces endothelial cell damage leading to platelet deposition in thrombi within the microvasculature and the development of thrombotic microangiopathy, mostly affecting the kidney. Red blood cells are destroyed in the occlusive capillary lesions...
November 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154988/role-of-p-mkk7-in-myricetin-induced-protection-against-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Yuchao Sun, Mengqiao Lian, Yuan Lin, Bin Xu, Yanli Li, Jin Wen, Dapeng Chen, Ming Xu, Marwan Almoiliqy, Li Wang
Intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) may cause inflammation-, oxidative stress-, and apoptosis-related tissue injuries and facilitate bacterial infection, leading to multiple organ failure. Myricetin, a flavonoid, is found to have diverse biological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. Based on our pre-experiment, we proposed that myricetin pretreatment (25, 50mg/kg) could ameliorate intestinal I/R injury and myricetin-induced modulation on MKK7/JNK signal pathway might play a key role in the amelioration...
November 15, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153975/optimisation-of-empirical-antimicrobial-therapy-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-and-febrile-neutropenia-how-long-study-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-phase-4-trial
#6
Manuela Aguilar-Guisado, Ildefonso Espigado, Almudena Martín-Peña, Carlota Gudiol, Cristina Royo-Cebrecos, José Falantes, Lourdes Vázquez-López, María Isabel Montero, Clara Rosso-Fernández, María de la Luz Martino, Rocío Parody, José González-Campos, Sebastián Garzón-López, Cristina Calderón-Cabrera, Pere Barba, Nancy Rodríguez, Montserrat Rovira, Enrique Montero-Mateos, Jordi Carratalá, José Antonio Pérez-Simón, José Miguel Cisneros
BACKGROUND: Continuation of empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) for febrile neutropenia in patients with haematological malignancies until neutrophil recovery could prolong the therapy unnecessarily. We aimed to establish whether EAT discontinuation driven by a clinical approach regardless of neutrophil recovery would optimise the duration of therapy. METHODS: We did an investigator-driven, superiority, open-label, randomised, controlled phase 4 clinical trial in six academic hospitals in Spain...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152528/x-linked-lissencephaly-with-absent-corpus-callosum-and-abnormal-genitalia-an-evolving-multisystem-syndrome-with-severe-congenital-intestinal-diarrhea-disease
#7
David Coman, Tom Fullston, Cheryl Shoubridge, Richard Leventer, Flora Wong, Simon Nazaretian, Ian Simpson, Josef Gecz, George McGillivray
X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia is a rare and devastating syndrome. The authors present an infant with a multisystem phenotype where the intestinal manifestations were as life limiting as the central nervous system features. Severe chronic diarrhea resulted in failure to thrive, dehydration, electrolyte derangements, long-term hospitalization, and prompted transition to palliative care. Other multisystem manifestations included megacolon, colitis, pancreatic insufficiency hypothalamic dysfunction, hypothyroidism, and hypophosphatasia...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151703/3d-printed-fistula-stent-designed-for-management-of-enterocutaneous-fistula-an-advanced-strategy
#8
Jin-Jian Huang, Jian-An Ren, Ge-Fei Wang, Zong-An Li, Xiu-Wen Wu, Hua-Jian Ren, Song Liu
Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs) are great challenges during the open abdomen. The loss of digestive juice, water-electrolyte imbalance and malnutrition are intractable issues during management of ECF. Techniques such as "fistula patch" and vacuum-assisted closure therapy have been applied to prevent contamination of open abdominal wounds by intestinal fistula drainage. However, failures are encountered due to high-output fistula and anatomical complexity. Here, we report 3D-printed patient-personalized fistula stent for ECF treatment based on 3D reconstruction of the fistula image...
November 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151417/-effect-of-early-use-of-different-doses-of-enteral-nutrition-on-prognosis-of-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#9
Jianting Gao, Qiuyan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the impact of initial low-dose (trophic type) enteral nutrition (EN) support on mechanical ventilation (MV) time, the incidence of complications and survival rate in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Forty-four patients with ARF undergoing MV admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of Hangzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital from September 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into a trophic feeding group (n = 23, study group) and a standard-dose feeding group (n = 21, control group)...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151415/-diagnostic-value-of-citrulline-and-intestinal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-on-acute-gastrointestinal-injury-in-critical-patients-a-prospective-study-of-530-patients
#10
Jing Wang, Limei Yu, Yonghong Xia, Yanling Gao, Wenbo Yu, Haihong Sun, Yizhu Sun
OBJECTIVE: To observe the incidence of acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and to approach the value of serum citrulline and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) on diagnosis of AGI in critical patients. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. 576 critical patients admitted to ICU of Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital from February 2016 to February 2017 were enrolled. According to the AGI classification proposed by European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) in 2012, the AGI and severity of the patients were observed...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150367/ileocolic-intussusception-predicting-the-probability-of-success-of-ultrasound-guided-saline-enema-from-clinical-and-sonographic-data
#11
REVIEW
A Soria, L Riaza, D Cuadras, X Tarrado, L Krauel
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To identify factors that dim the efficacy of ultrasound guided saline enema (USGSE) and to design a mathematical model for predicting the probability of success of USGSE. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients admitted with the diagnosis of ileocolic intussusception from 2009 to 2014. Demographics, clinical and sonographic data were reviewed. RESULTS: 116 first episodes of ileocolic intussusceptions. 109 USGSE attempts were analyzed...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#12
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148930/use-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsion-to-improve-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-long-term-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-case-report
#13
Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients who are not able to use their gastrointestinal tract. There are a number of complications associated with HPN, including metabolic bone disease, intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), and catheter-related bloodstream infections. We present a case of a 32-year-old HPN patient who initially developed biopsy-proven IFALD (total bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dL) while on long-term HPN. His HPN was initiated due to myopathic intestinal dysmotility and pseudo-obstruction when he was 15 years old...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148292/cholestatic-liver-injury-as-a-side-effect-of-dabigatran-and-the-use-of-coagulation-tests-in-dabigatran-intoxication-and-after-reversal-by-idarucizumab-in-bleeding-and-sepsis
#14
Willemijn J Comuth, Anne-Mette Haase, Linda Ø Henriksen, Jerzy Malczynski, Daan van de Kerkhof, Anna-Marie B Münster
Idarucizumab, an antidote specific for dabigatran, became available recently. Dabigatran is not associated with increased risk of hepatotoxicity in comparison with warfarin, but it is seen as a rare side-effect. Cases of cholestatic liver injury due to dabigatran have not been reported previously. We present a case of severe gastro-intestinal bleeding with underlying dabigatran intoxication in a patient with renal failure and the effect of reversal of dabigatran using idaruzicumab on coagulation assays. International normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) results were elevated in a setting of sepsis, possibly due to liver failure...
November 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144272/body-composition-in-children-with-chronic-illness-accuracy-of-bedside-assessment-techniques
#15
Enid E Martinez, Craig D Smallwood, Nicolle L Quinn, Katelyn Ariagno, Lori J Bechard, Christopher P Duggan, Nilesh M Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of estimated fat mass and fat-free mass from bedside methods compared with reference methods in children with chronic illnesses. STUDY DESIGN: Fat mass and fat-free mass values were obtained by skinfold, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium dilution method in children with spinal muscular atrophy, intestinal failure, and post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141924/antenatal-bartter-syndrome-presenting-with-vomiting-and-constipation-mimicking-subacute-intestinal-obstruction-in-a-20-day-old-neonate
#16
Ibtihal Siddiq Abdelgadir, Fawzia Elgharbawy, Khalil Mohamad Salameh, Baha Eldin Juma
Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a rare condition that can present with different clinical features. These features include early onset maternal polyhydramnios, failure to thrive, prematurity and nephrocalcinosis.We are presenting this 20-day-old girl who had an antenatal history of polyhydramnios. She developed persistent non-bilious vomiting that was associated with constipation soon after birth. She presented with failure to thrive and features suggestive of intestinal obstruction. On the initial evaluation, she was noted to have hypokalaemic, hyponatraemic metabolic alkalosis...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140803/use-of-postmortem-computed-tomography-to-detect-bowel-obstruction-and-its-relationship-to-the-cause-of-death
#17
Dominic Gascho, Sarah Schaerli, Lucile Tuchtan-Torrents, Michael J Thali, Guillaume Gorincour
Bowel distension frequently indicates bowel obstruction, which is a common diagnosis in clinical radiology. Typically, symptoms and complaints lead to radiological examinations and the detection of the etiology. Untreated intestinal obstructions can lead to a fatal outcome through cardiac failure due to septic shock. Certain of these cases undergo medicolegal investigations depending on the case history, the condition of the decedent, the location of the finding, or recent visits to medical professionals. Computed tomography (CT) is a recommended method in clinical radiology for the detection of bowel obstruction, which is indicated by bowel distension and further radiological signs (eg, the whirl sign, which indicates a volvulus)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140240/case-report-strongyloides-stercoralis-hyperinfection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#18
Richelle Guerrero-Wooley, Ernesto Aranda-Aguirre, Wencheng Li, Aimee Wilkin, Elizabeth Palavecino
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can cause disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. It is most commonly acquired in developing countries. It was previously a common infection in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Appalachian region, but is rarely identified currently. Here, we describe a patient born and raised in Appalachia, with no history of travel outside the United States, who presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and S. stercoralis hyperinfection characterized by acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130735/evaluation-of-the-pharmacodynamic-effects-of-the-potassium-binder-rdx7675-in-mice
#19
James P Davidson, Andrew J King, Padmapriya Kumaraswamy, Jeremy S Caldwell, Paul Korner, Robert C Blanks, Jeffrey W Jacobs
INTRODUCTION: Hyperkalemia is a common complication in patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease, particularly those who are taking inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. RDX7675, the calcium salt of a reengineered polystyrene sulfonate-based resin, is a potassium binder that is being investigated as a novel treatment for hyperkalemia. This study evaluated the pharmacodynamic effects of RDX7675 in mice, compared to 2 current treatments, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) and patiromer...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129242/intestinal-failure-as-a-significant-risk-factor-for-renal-impairment-in-children
#20
Elisa Ylinen, Laura Merras-Salmio, Riikka Gunnar, Timo Jahnukainen, Mikko P Pakarinen
OBJECTIVE: Although impaired renal function has been a frequent finding among adults with intestinal failure (IF), the data on children is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess renal function in pediatric-onset IF. METHODS: Medical records of 70 patients (38 boys) with pediatric-onset IF due to either short bowel syndrome (n = 59) or primary motility disorder (n = 11) and a history of parenteral nutrition (PN) dependency for ≥1 mo were evaluated. Renal function at the most recent follow-up was studied using plasma creatinine, cystatin C, and urea concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
January 2018: Nutrition
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