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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426458/anti-tnf%C3%AE-treatment-after-surgical-resection-for-crohn-s-disease-is-effective-despite-previous-pharmacodynamic-failure
#1
Amit Assa, Jiri Bronsky, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Kristyna Zarubova, Tim de Meij, Oren Ledder, Margaret Sladek, Stephanie van Biervliet, Caterina Strisciuglio, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with Crohn's disease who failed anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) therapy despite adequate serum drug levels (pharmacodynamic failure) is unclear. We aimed to assess such pediatric patients who underwent intestinal resection and were re-treated with the same anti-TNFα agent postoperatively. METHODS: Pediatric patients with Crohn's disease who underwent intestinal resection and were treated with anti-TNFα agents postoperatively were assessed retrospectively...
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425133/fecal-microbiota-signatures-of-adult-patients-with-different-types-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#2
Yuhua Huang, Feilong Guo, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common cause of intestinal failure and can be divided into three types depending on intestinal anatomy. Gut dysbiosis has been observed in pediatric SBS patients and is associated with impaired outcome. Little is known about the changes in gut microbiota of adult SBS patients. Therefore, we aim to characterize the fecal microbiota of adult patients with different types of SBS. METHODS: Fifteen fecal samples from healthy controls and adult patients with type II or type III SBS were collected (five in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403983/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-sepsis
#3
REVIEW
Bastiaan W Haak, W Joost Wiersinga
For decades, the gut was thought to play an important role in sepsis pathogenesis. Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Organ failure assessment for sepsis focuses on respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, neurological, and haematological systems. Unfortunately, symptoms of gut failure are non-specific and are therefore not assessed. The composition of the intestinal microbiome, however, is affected by sepsis, and might contribute to the development of organ failure...
February 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401057/intestinal-hypoganglionosis-leading-to-intestinal-failure-and-the-compassionate-use-of-omegaven%C3%A2
#4
Racha Khalaf, Sara Karjoo, Paul Danielson, Michael Wilsey, Fauzia Shakeel
Intestinal hypoganglionosis is a rare innervation disorder that provides numerous nutritional, medical and surgical challenges. In this case report, we present a case of a newborn with intestinal hypoganglionosis leading to intestinal failure and intestinal failure-associated liver disease who responded to Omegaven™, a fat emulsion comprised of omega-3 fatty acids. Omegaven™ has been shown to be beneficial in the management of cholestatic liver injury. Clinical success with Omegaven™ was seen in this patient with a clear decrease in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and complete resolution of cholestasis with a direct bilirubin of zero within two weeks of initiation of Omegaven™...
March 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396264/causal-pathways-from-enteropathogens-to-environmental-enteropathy-findings-from-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#5
Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy (EE), the adverse impact of frequent and numerous enteric infections on the gut resulting in a state of persistent immune activation and altered permeability, has been proposed as a key determinant of growth failure in children in low- and middle-income populations. A theory-driven systems model to critically evaluate pathways through which enteropathogens, gut permeability, and intestinal and systemic inflammation affect child growth was conducted within the framework of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) birth cohort study that included children from eight countries...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396122/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-uremic-solute-accumulation-by-a-ce-tofms-based-metabolomics-approach
#6
Eikan Mishima, Shinji Fukuda, Chikahisa Mukawa, Akinori Yuri, Yoshitomi Kanemitsu, Yotaro Matsumoto, Yasutoshi Akiyama, Noriko N Fukuda, Hiroki Tsukamoto, Kei Asaji, Hisato Shima, Koichi Kikuchi, Chitose Suzuki, Takehiro Suzuki, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Tomoyoshi Soga, Sadayoshi Ito, Takaaki Abe
Gut microbiota is involved in the metabolism of uremic solutes. However, the precise influence of microbiota to the retention of uremic solutes in CKD is obscure. To clarify this, we compared adenine-induced renal failure and control mice under germ-free or specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions, examining the metabolite profiles of plasma, feces, and urine using a capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based approach. Mice with renal failure under germ-free conditions demonstrated significant changes in plasma metabolites...
April 8, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394957/-intestinal-failure-due-to-short-bowel-syndrome-impact-of-a-multidisciplinary-intestinal-rehabilitation-program
#7
María Elena Molina, Felipe Bellolio, Julieta Klaassen, Javier Gómez, Constanza Villalón, Juan Francisco Guerra, Álvaro Zúñiga
BACKGROUND: In patients suffering intestinal failure due to short bowel, the goal of an Intestinal Rehabilitation Program is to optimize and tailor all aspects of clinical management, and eventually, wean patients off lifelong parenteral nutrition. AIM: To report the results of our program in patients suffering intestinal failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A registry of all patients referred to the Intestinal Failure unit between January 2009 and December 2015 was constructed...
November 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394517/-technical-features-of-intestinal-ureteroplasty-art-6-simultaneous-ureteral-and-bladder-substitution
#8
B K Komyakov, A I Novikov, V A Ochelenko, B G Guliev, T Kh Al-Attar, M V Onoshko
AIM: To present the results and technical features of different methods of simultaneous ileal ureteral and bladder substitution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2016, 154 patients (mean age 52+/-9.2 years) underwent ileal and appendicular ureteroplasty. Of them, 70 (45.4%) were men and 84 (54.6%) women. Among them, 49 (31.8%) patients underwent ureteroplasty concurrently with orthotopic ileocystoplasty. The Studers ileal-ureter cystoplasty and Y-shaped bladder and ureteral reconstruction were performed in 38 (77...
April 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393968/-encapsulating-peritoneal-sclerosis
#9
Rubén Torres, Paula Ebner, María Eugenia Sanhueza, Miriam Alvo, Erico Segovia, Paula Segura
BACKGROUND: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) with a low prevalence but high mortality. It is characterized by peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis with subsequent development of intestinal encapsulation. It is associated with a long lapse on PD, frequent episodes of peritonitis, high glucose solution use, and high peritoneal transport status. AIM: To report the clinical features of patients on PD, who developed EPS...
January 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391291/rejuvenation-of-mucosal-immunosenescence-by-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Akitoshi Tsuruhara, Kazuyoshi Aso, Daisuke Tokuhara, Junichiro Ohori, Masaki Kawabata, Yuichi Kurono, Jerry R McGhee, Kohtaro Fujihashi
Age-associated alterations in the mucosal immune system are generally termed mucosal immunosenescence. The major change seen in the aged mucosa is a failure to elicit an antigen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody response, which is a central player for host defense from various pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this regard, it would be a first priority to compensate for mucosal dysregulation in the elderly in order to maintain their health in aging. We have successfully established antigen-specific SIgA antibody responses in aged (2 years old) mice, which provide protective immunity from Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus infections, by using a new adjuvant system consisting of a plasmid encoding Flt3 ligand (pFL) and CpG ODN...
January 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385289/use-of-a-novel-docosahexaenoic-acid-formulation-vs-control-in-a-neonatal-porcine-model-of-short-bowel-syndrome-leads-to-greater-intestinal-absorption-and-higher-systemic-levels-of-dha
#11
Camilia R Martin, Barbara Stoll, Joanne Cluette-Brown, Adesola C Akinkuotu, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Kathleen M Gura, Pratibha Singh, Munir M Zaman, Michael C Perillo, Mark Puder, Steven D Freedman, Doug Burrin
Infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) are at high risk for malabsorption, malnutrition, and failure to thrive. The objective of this study was to evaluate in a porcine model of SBS, the systemic absorption of a novel enteral Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) formulation that forms micelles independent of bile salts (DHA-ALT®). We hypothesized that enteral delivery of DHA-ALT® would result in higher blood levels of DHA compared to a control DHA preparation due to improved intestinal absorption. SBS was induced in term piglets through a 75% mid-jejunoileal resection and the piglets randomized to either DHA-ALT® or control DHA formulation (N=5 per group) for 4 postoperative days...
March 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385287/mice-with-infectious-colitis-exhibit-linear-growth-failure-and-subsequent-catch-up-growth-related-to-systemic-inflammation-and-igf-1
#12
Mark D DeBoer, Vidhya Vijayakumar, Meiqing Gong, John L Fowlkes, Rachel M Smith, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, James P Nataro
In developing communities, intestinal infection is associated with poor weight gain and linear-growth failure. Prior translational animal models have focused on weight gain investigations into key contributors to linear growth failure have been lacking. We hypothesized that murine intestinal infection with Citrobacter rodentium would induce linear-growth failure associated with systemic inflammation and suppressed serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We evaluated 4 groups of mice infected or sham-infected on day-of-life 28: uninfected-controls, wild-type C rodentium-infected, partially-attenuated C rodentium-infected (with deletion of 3 serine protease genes involved in colonization), and pair-fed (given the amount of daily food consumed by the wild-type C rodentium group)...
March 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379928/impact-of-multidisciplinary-teams-for-management-of-intestinal-failure-in-children
#13
Christina Belza, Paul W Wales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature related to the impact of an intestinal rehabilitation program (IRP) on the management of intestinal failure in children. RECENT FINDINGS: As publication of a systematic review of pediatric IRPs in 2013, there have been four publications further describing the impact of IRPs in children with intestinal failure. The results continue to support an improvement in survival and enteral autonomy, and a decrease in complications related to liver dysfunction, central venous catheters, and transplantation...
April 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374689/-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-parkinson-disease-results-of-a-12-month-open-study
#14
A A Skoromets, M M Odinak, E Z Yakupov, I V Litvinenko, Z A Zalyalova, A A Timofeeva, S Yu Kirtaev, R R Bogdanov, A S Agafina, K Chatamra, W Robieson, J Benesh, G R Latypova, M V Ershova, S N Illarioshkin
AIM: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of intrajejunal levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion in the treatment of patients with severe stages of Parkinson disease (PD) who did not respond adequately to treatment with oral drugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A large-scale international prospective open-label 54-week study of LCIG in patients with PD with severe motor fluctuations was carried out. A total of 48 patients were enrolled in Russia, 46 patients (95...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371636/laparoscopic-resection-of-sigmoid-colon-cancer-with-intestinal-malrotation-a-case-report
#15
Kazuhiro Nishida, Takaharu Kato, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Toshiyuki Suganuma
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal malrotation is a congenital abnormality which occurs due to a failure of the normal 270° rotation of the midgut. The non-rotation type is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on imaging studies. Intestinal malrotation accompanied by colon cancer is extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 53-year-old male presented with postprandial abdominal discomfort. Colonoscopy showed a 14mm polyp in the sigmoid colon and endoscopic polypectomy was performed...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368383/oncostatin-m-drives-intestinal-inflammation-and-predicts-response-to-tumor-necrosis-factor-neutralizing-therapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Nathaniel R West, Ahmed N Hegazy, Benjamin M J Owens, Samuel J Bullers, Bryan Linggi, Sofia Buonocore, Margherita Coccia, Dieter Görtz, Sébastien This, Krista Stockenhuber, Johanna Pott, Matthias Friedrich, Grigory Ryzhakov, Frédéric Baribaud, Carrie Brodmerkel, Constanze Cieluch, Nahid Rahman, Gerhard Müller-Newen, Raymond J Owens, Anja A Kühl, Kevin J Maloy, Scott E Plevy, Satish Keshav, Simon P L Travis, Fiona Powrie
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are complex chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract that are driven by perturbed cytokine pathways. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) antibodies are mainstay therapies for IBD. However, up to 40% of patients are nonresponsive to anti-TNF agents, which makes the identification of alternative therapeutic targets a priority. Here we show that, relative to healthy controls, inflamed intestinal tissues from patients with IBD express high amounts of the cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) and its receptor (OSMR), which correlate closely with histopathological disease severity...
April 3, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367140/transcriptomics-indicates-active-and-passive-metronidazole-resistance-mechanisms-in-three-seminal-giardia-lines
#17
Brendan R E Ansell, Louise Baker, Samantha J Emery, Malcolm J McConville, Staffan G Svärd, Robin B Gasser, Aaron R Jex
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes 200-300 million episodes of diarrhoea annually. Metronidazole (Mtz) is a front-line anti-giardial, but treatment failure is common and clinical resistance has been demonstrated. Mtz is thought to be activated within the parasite by oxidoreductase enzymes, and to kill by causing oxidative damage. In G. duodenalis, Mtz resistance involves active and passive mechanisms. Relatively low activity of iron-sulfur binding proteins, namely pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxins, and nitroreductase-1, enable resistant cells to passively avoid Mtz activation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366985/prosaposin-knockdown-in-caco-2-cells-decreases-cellular-levels-of-coenzyme-q10-and-atp-and-results-in-the-loss-of-tight-junction-barriers
#18
Misato Kashiba, Masayuki Terashima, Tomofumi Sagawa, Shinichi Yoshimura, Yorihiro Yamamoto
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a key component of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain and is one of the most important antioxidants. We previously found that glycoprotein prosaposin (Psap) binds CoQ10 in human cells. Although Psap is expressed in the intestines, its role in the gastrointestinal tract is not clear. To elucidate the role of Psap in the intestines, we established Psap knockdown (KD) Caco-2 cells, which are an intestinal epithelial cell line. Cellular CoQ10 levels decreased significantly in Psap KD Caco-2 cells as compared to parental Caco-2 cells...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365108/hybrid-interventions-for-catheter-placement-in-pediatric-intestinal-rehabilitation-patients-with-end-stage-venous-access
#19
Ludger Sieverding, Andreas Busch, Jens Gesche, Gunnar Blumenstock, Ekkehard Sturm, Ilias Tsiflikas, Femke Piersma, Anja Hauser, Gesa Wiegand, Steffen Hartleif, Michael Hofbeck, Jörg Fuchs, Steven W Warmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the combined approach of endovascular and open surgical procedures for insertion of permanent central venous catheters in children with intestinal failure and end-stage venous access. METHODS: Data of 14 children (16 interventions) with intestinal failure and end-stage venous access, treated within the pediatric intestinal rehabilitation program at our institution between September 2011 and November 2016, were retrospectively reviewed...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361844/new-mutations-of-epcam-gene-for-tufting-enteropathy-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Shaden AlMahamed, Abdelhai Hammo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tufting enteropathy (TE) is a rare cause of congenital intractable diarrhea in children. It often results in an irreversible intestinal failure and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) dependency; eventually, intestinal transplantation may be necessary. Data on TE from the Middle East are scarce; therefore, our aim of conducting this study was to clarify the clinical, histopathologic, and molecular features of TE in Saudi children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of four children with TE who presented between January 2011 and December 2013 to King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam (KFSH-D)...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
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