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Itch threshold

T Hawro, S Lehmann, S Altrichter, J W Fluhr, T Zuberbier, M K Church, M Maurer, M Metz
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disorder. Its diagnosis relies on clinical judgment. Mild and untypical manifestations may cause diagnostic difficulties. Biomarkers for the differential diagnostic workup of AD are needed. OBJECTIVE: To test whether the results of skin provocation with cowhage, an established model of histamine-independent pruritus, and histamine are different in AD patients and healthy subjects and whether these tests may be used as diagnostic markers of AD...
July 29, 2016: Allergy
Josef Brandström, Susanne Glaumann, Mirja Vetander, Caroline Nilsson
Acute allergic reactions to food are often IgE mediated. Symptoms vary in severity; from mild oral itching to anaphylactic reactions. Where birch pollen allergy is endemic, mild allergic reactions from e.g. fresh fruits and nuts are most likely caused by cross reactivity between pollen and plants (cross reactions). These mild symptoms, if caused by cross reactivity, do not progress to more severe symptoms, in contrast to »true« food allergy. However, making this distinction is a delicate task, since more severe reactions also often start with mild oral symptoms...
2016: Läkartidningen
Manabu Sakakihara, Noritaka Imamachi, Yoji Saito
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist-induced itch is a significant issue associated with analgesic therapies. Research suggested that systemically administered κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists inhibit intrathecal morphine-induced itch in primates. However, serious adverse effects induced by systemically administered KOR agonists may restrict their usefulness in humans. We investigated the effects of intrathecal KOR agonists on intrathecal morphine-mediated itch and antinociception in mice.Mice received intrathecal injections of one of the following drugs: morphine (0...
January 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Pedro L Martinez-Espinosa, Jianping Wu, Chengtao Yang, Vivian Gonzalez-Perez, Huifang Zhou, Hongwu Liang, Xiao-Ming Xia, Christopher J Lingle
Two mammalian genes, Kcnt1 and Kcnt2, encode pore-forming subunits of Na(+)-dependent K(+) (KNa) channels. Progress in understanding KNa channels has been hampered by the absence of specific tools and methods for rigorous KNa identification in native cells. Here, we report the genetic disruption of both Kcnt1 and Kcnt2, confirm the loss of Slo2.2 and Slo2.1 protein, respectively, in KO animals, and define tissues enriched in Slo2 expression. Noting the prevalence of Slo2.2 in dorsal root ganglion, we find that KO of Slo2...
2015: ELife
Ana Reynders, Aziz Moqrich
The skin is the largest sensory organ that is densely innervated by highly specialized sensory neurons allowing the detection of a wide range of stimulations including light touch, temperature, itch and pain. Our knowledge of the sets of genes instructing the functional specialization of sensory neurons is just emerging. In a previous study, we have identified a new Gαi inhibitory interacting protein (GINIP) that marks two distinct subsets of skin-innervating sensory neurons conveying noxious and pleasant touch: the MRGPRD-expressing C-fibers specialized in noxious touch and the TH(+)/TAFA4(+)/V-GLUT3(+) C-Low Threshold MechanoReceptors (C-LTMRs), part of neurons processing pleasant touch...
September 2015: Genomics Data
Yekaterina Eichel, Lee Marie Tormos, Jerry E Squires
BACKGROUND: Mutations of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) gene are an autosomal dominant cause of inherited thrombocytopenia in children. MYH9 spectrum disorders include May-Hegglin anomaly and Sebastian, Fechtner, and Epstein syndromes. Patients with these disorders often present with macroplatelets and thrombocytopenia and have a mild bleeding tendency; extrahematologic manifestations (nephropathy, deafness, and cataracts) correlate with specific mutations. No definitive guidelines exist for preoperative prophylactic platelet (PLT) transfusion in these patients...
February 2016: Transfusion
J C Szepietowski, A Reich
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, found in about 1-3% of the general population. Pruritus affects about 60-90% of patients with psoriasis. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge about the pathogenesis and treatment of this symptom in psoriasis patients. RESULTS: Majority of psoriatic patients consider pruritus as the most bothersome symptom. The pathogenesis of pruritus is still unknown but the major concept of its origin is focused on neurogenic inflammation...
January 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
T Akiyama, M Nagamine, A Davoodi, M Iodi Carstens, F Cevikbas, M Steinhoff, E Carstens
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in nonhistaminergic itch. Here we used electrophysiological methods to investigate whether mouse superficial dorsal horn neurons respond to intradermal (id) injection of ET-1 and whether ET-1-sensitive neurons additionally respond to other pruritic and algesic stimuli or spinal superfusion of bombesin, a homolog of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) that excites spinal itch-signaling neurons. Single-unit recordings were made from lumbar dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital-anesthetized C57BL/6 mice...
October 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
H Ham, S M An, E J Lee, E Lee, H O Kim, J S Koh
BACKGROUND: Sensitive skin is a universal term in the field of cosmetology. In addition, the development and demand for sensitive skin cosmetics is increasing. However, there is no appropriate method for detecting sensitive skin. METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between the frequency of response at each sensation (stinging, burning, and itching) during a lactic acid sting test and the current perception threshold (CPT) value of each frequency. To reconfirm this relationship, we analyzed differences of the CPT value (5 Hz) between the itch responder and non-itch responder groups...
February 2016: Skin Research and Technology
Cheng Juan, Liu ChengCheng, Zhao YaE, Hu Li, Yang YuanJun, Yang Fan, Shi ZhiYun
Psoroptidae mites are a type of small mites with a wide range of hosts. The proliferation of Psoroptidae mites could cause symptoms such as severe itching, atopic dermatitis, and hair loss in infected animals. If severely infected, death can also occur. The morphological classification and identification of Psoroptidae mites is problematic due to the overlapping geographical distribution. In addition, there is no divergence threshold for molecular classification and identification. To solve this problem, gDNA was extracted from individual Psoroptes and Otodectes mites (China) for amplification of rDNA ITS2 and mtDNA COI...
September 2015: Parasitology Research
Lilit Garibyan, Laura Cornelissen, William Sipprell, Joachim Pruessner, Sarina Elmariah, Tuan Luo, Ethan A Lerner, Yookyung Jung, Conor Evans, David Zurakowski, Charles B Berde, R Rox Anderson
Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive, skin cooling treatment for local fat reduction that causes prolonged hypoesthesia over the treated area. We tested the hypothesis that cryolipolysis can attenuate nociception of a range of sensory stimuli, including stimuli that evoke itch. The effects of cryolipolysis on sensory phenomena were evaluated by quantitative sensory testing (QST) in 11 healthy subjects over a period of 56 days. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were measured on treated and contralateral untreated (control) flanks...
November 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Magdalena Krzyżanowska, Katarzyna Muszer, Konrad Chabowski, Adam Reich
INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are chronic inflammatory skin diseases frequently accompanied by itching. The exact pathogenesis of dermatological pruritus remains unknown, but it is believed that altered skin innervation may play a role. AIM: The assessment of the sensory threshold in AD and psoriasis in relation to pruritus experienced by patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 18 subjects with AD, 20 with psoriasis and 49 healthy controls were exposed to alternating current generated by the current source...
April 2015: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
B Weinkauf, M Dusch, J van der Ham, J Benrath, M Ringkamp, M Schmelz, R Rukwied
BACKGROUND: Mechano-sensitive and mechano-insensitive C-nociceptors in human skin differ in receptive field sizes and electrical excitation thresholds, but their distinct functional roles are yet unclear. METHODS: After blocking the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (NCFL) in eight healthy male subjects (3-mL Naropin(®) 1%), we mapped the skin innervation territory being anaesthetic to mechanical pin prick but sensitive to painful transcutaneous electrical stimuli...
February 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Shan Lou, Xiaoxin Pan, Tianwen Huang, Bo Duan, Fu-Chia Yang, Juan Yang, Mulin Xiong, Yang Liu, Qiufu Ma
Mammalian skin is innervated by diverse, unmyelinated C fibers that are associated with senses of pain, itch, temperature, or touch. A key developmental question is how this neuronal cell diversity is generated during development. We reported previously that the runt domain transcription factor Runx1 is required to coordinate the development of these unmyelinated cutaneous sensory neurons, including VGLUT3(+) low-threshold c-mechanoreceptors (CLTMs), MrgprD(+) polymodal nociceptors, MrgprA3(+) pruriceptors, MrgprB4(+) c-mechanoreceptors, and others...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
H Ding, K Hayashida, T Suto, D D Sukhtankar, M Kimura, V Mendenhall, M C Ko
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide (NOP) receptor agonists display a promising analgesic profile in preclinical studies. However, supraspinal N/OFQ produced hyperalgesia in rodents and such effects have not been addressed in primates. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of centrally administered ligands on regulating pain and itch in non-human primates. In particular, nociceptive thresholds affected by intracisternal N/OFQ were compared with those of morphine and substance P, known to provide analgesia and mediate hyperalgesia, respectively, in humans...
July 2015: British Journal of Pharmacology
Steeve Bourane, Katja S Grossmann, Olivier Britz, Antoine Dalet, Marta Garcia Del Barrio, Floor J Stam, Lidia Garcia-Campmany, Stephanie Koch, Martyn Goulding
Sensory circuits in the dorsal spinal cord integrate and transmit multiple cutaneous sensory modalities including the sense of light touch. Here, we identify a population of excitatory interneurons (INs) in the dorsal horn that are important for transmitting innocuous light touch sensation. These neurons express the ROR alpha (RORα) nuclear orphan receptor and are selectively innervated by cutaneous low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMs). Targeted removal of RORα INs in the dorsal spinal cord leads to a marked reduction in behavioral responsiveness to light touch without affecting responses to noxious and itch stimuli...
January 29, 2015: Cell
Annunziatina Laurino, Gaetano De Siena, Francesco Resta, Alessio Masi, Claudia Musilli, Riccardo Zucchi, Laura Raimondi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Itch is associated with increased sensitization to nociceptive stimuli. We investigated whether 3-iodothyroacetic acid (TA1), by releasing histamine, induces itch and increases sensitization to noxious and painful heat stimuli. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Itch was evaluated after s.c. administration of TA1 (0.4, 1.32 and 4 μg·kg(-1) ). Mice threshold to noxious (NHT) and to painful heat stimuli were evaluated by the increasing-temperature hot plate (from 45...
April 2015: British Journal of Pharmacology
Dmitry Usoskin, Alessandro Furlan, Saiful Islam, Hind Abdo, Peter Lönnerberg, Daohua Lou, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Jesper Haeggström, Olga Kharchenko, Peter V Kharchenko, Sten Linnarsson, Patrik Ernfors
The primary sensory system requires the integrated function of multiple cell types, although its full complexity remains unclear. We used comprehensive transcriptome analysis of 622 single mouse neurons to classify them in an unbiased manner, independent of any a priori knowledge of sensory subtypes. Our results reveal eleven types: three distinct low-threshold mechanoreceptive neurons, two proprioceptive, and six principal types of thermosensitive, itch sensitive, type C low-threshold mechanosensitive and nociceptive neurons with markedly different molecular and operational properties...
January 2015: Nature Neuroscience
Amanda Zimmerman, Ling Bai, David D Ginty
The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors...
November 21, 2014: Science
Steve Davidson, Bryan A Copits, Jingming Zhang, Guy Page, Andrea Ghetti, Robert W Gereau
Biological differences in sensory processing between human and model organisms may present significant obstacles to translational approaches in treating chronic pain. To better understand the physiology of human sensory neurons, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from 141 human dorsal root ganglion (hDRG) neurons from 5 young adult donors without chronic pain. Nearly all small-diameter hDRG neurons (<50 μm) displayed an inflection on the descending slope of the action potential, a defining feature of rodent nociceptive neurons...
September 2014: Pain
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