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Itch threshold

Christina Schut, Hideki Mochizuki, Shoshana K Grossman, Andrew C Lin, Christopher J Conklin, Feroze B Mohamed, Uwe Gieler, Joerg Kupfer, Gil Yosipovitch
Several studies show that itch and scratching cannot only be induced by pruritogens like histamine or cowhage, but also by the presentation of certain (audio-) visual stimuli like pictures on crawling insects or videos showing other people scratching. This phenomenon is coined "Contagious itch" (CI). Due to the fact that CI is more profound in patients with the chronic itchy skin disease atopic dermatitis (AD), we believe that it is highly relevant to study brain processing of CI in this group. Knowledge on brain areas involved in CI in AD-patients can provide us with useful hints regarding non-invasive treatments that AD-patients could profit from when they are confronted with itch-inducing situations in daily life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
H H Andersen, J Elberling, H Sølvsten, G Yosipovitch, L Arendt-Nielsen
Chronic or episodic severe itch is recurrent in atopic dermatitis (AD). Nonhistaminergic itch pathways are suggested to dominate in AD itch, contributing to an "itch-scratch-itch cycle" that prolongs and worsens itch, pain, and skin lesions. We hypothesized that nonhistaminergic neuronal sensitization contributes to itch in AD. Hence, we compared sensitivity with thermal, mechanical, and chemical pruritic stimuli in patients with AD and controls. The study comprised 25 patients with AD with chronic itch and 25 healthy controls...
September 2017: Pain
Anna Ghizzani, Cinzia Orlandini, Maria G Bernardi, Gabriele Cevenini, Stefano Luisi
Common gynecological and dermatological conditions resulting in sexual pain are seen often in gynecological practice and are easily diagnosed with visual observation and laboratory tests. The lower genital tract diseases we are referring to are: vaginitis, vaginoses, dermatoses, hypoestrogenism and endometriosis. All of them affect the vaginal mucosa with diverse mechanisms, their effects lasting for only few days or many months. Furthermore, they change the women's sense of well being sometimes significantly and for a long period...
April 4, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
C M Philpott, S E Erskine, A Clark, A Leeper, M Salam, R Sharma, G E Murty, T Hummel
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has suggested that sodium citrate improves hyposmia by decreasing mucus calcium levels in the nose. This study aimed to confirm or refute this effect in a single application and assess potential side-effects. DESIGN: Study design was a randomised double-blind controlled trial of sodium citrate nasal spray (intervention) vs sterile water (control). Fifty-five patients with non-conductive olfactory loss were randomised to receive the intervention or placebo...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
A L Henry, S D Kyle, A Chisholm, C E M Griffiths, C Bundy
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that sleep disturbance is common in psoriasis. While several sleep investigations have been conducted in psoriasis populations, many have methodological shortcomings, and no study has examined multiple dimensions of sleep-wake functioning. Moreover, research has yet to be performed comprehensively examining the range of physical and psychological factors that may affect sleep in people with psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: To characterize sleep disturbance using validated measures and to identify physical and psychological predictors of sleep quality in people with psoriasis...
October 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
Susannah C Walker, Paula D Trotter, William T Swaney, Andrew Marshall, Francis P Mcglone
Low intensity, non-noxious, stimulation of cutaneous somatosensory nerves has been shown to trigger oxytocin release and is associated with increased social motivation, plus reduced physiological and behavioural reactivity to stressors. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the specific nature of the mechanosensory nerves which mediate these effects. In recent years, the neuroscientific study of human skin nerves (microneurography studies on single peripheral nerve fibres) has led to the identification and characterisation of a class of touch sensitive nerve fibres named C-tactile afferents...
January 19, 2017: Neuropeptides
Aleksandra Sędzikowska, Maciej Osęka, Barbara Grytner-Zięcina
The purpose of this study was to determine subjective ocular symptoms occurring in patients infested with Demodex. The number of Demodex mites in the obtained material that correlated with the appearance of ocular symptoms was estimated. The study material were eyelashes collected from 1499 patients. The material were observed under a light microscope. T-test, the logistic regression method, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the analysis. Demodex mites were detected in 47% patients. The mean ages of infected women and men were 64 and 59 years, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Carola Vogel, Roman Rukwied, Lenka Stockinger, Marcus Schley, Martin Schmelz, Wolfgang Schleinzer, Christoph Konrad
At-level and above-level hypersensitivity was assessed in patients with chronic complete thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Patients were classified using somatosensory mapping (brush, cold, pinprick) and assigned into 2 groups (ie, patients with at-level hypersensitivity [SCIHs, n = 8] and without at-level hypersensitivity [SCINHs, n = 7]). Gender and age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Quantitative sensory testing (QST), electrically- and histamine-induced pain and itch, laser Doppler imaging, and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) were recorded at-level and above-level in SCI-patients...
January 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
T Hawro, S Lehmann, S Altrichter, J W Fluhr, T Zuberbier, M K Church, M Maurer, M Metz
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disorder. Its diagnosis relies on clinical judgment. Mild and untypical manifestations may cause diagnostic difficulties. Biomarkers for the differential diagnostic workup of AD are needed. OBJECTIVE: To test whether the results of skin provocation with cowhage, an established model of histamine-independent pruritus, and histamine are different in AD patients and healthy subjects and whether these tests may be used as diagnostic markers of AD...
December 2016: Allergy
Josef Brandström, Susanne Glaumann, Mirja Vetander, Caroline Nilsson
Acute allergic reactions to food are often IgE mediated. Symptoms vary in severity; from mild oral itching to anaphylactic reactions. Where birch pollen allergy is endemic, mild allergic reactions from e.g. fresh fruits and nuts are most likely caused by cross reactivity between pollen and plants (cross reactions). These mild symptoms, if caused by cross reactivity, do not progress to more severe symptoms, in contrast to »true« food allergy. However, making this distinction is a delicate task, since more severe reactions also often start with mild oral symptoms...
April 5, 2016: Läkartidningen
Manabu Sakakihara, Noritaka Imamachi, Yoji Saito
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist-induced itch is a significant issue associated with analgesic therapies. Research suggested that systemically administered κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists inhibit intrathecal morphine-induced itch in primates. However, serious adverse effects induced by systemically administered KOR agonists may restrict their usefulness in humans. We investigated the effects of intrathecal KOR agonists on intrathecal morphine-mediated itch and antinociception in mice.Mice received intrathecal injections of one of the following drugs: morphine (0...
January 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Pedro L Martinez-Espinosa, Jianping Wu, Chengtao Yang, Vivian Gonzalez-Perez, Huifang Zhou, Hongwu Liang, Xiao-Ming Xia, Christopher J Lingle
Two mammalian genes, Kcnt1 and Kcnt2, encode pore-forming subunits of Na(+)-dependent K(+) (KNa) channels. Progress in understanding KNa channels has been hampered by the absence of specific tools and methods for rigorous KNa identification in native cells. Here, we report the genetic disruption of both Kcnt1 and Kcnt2, confirm the loss of Slo2.2 and Slo2.1 protein, respectively, in KO animals, and define tissues enriched in Slo2 expression. Noting the prevalence of Slo2.2 in dorsal root ganglion, we find that KO of Slo2...
November 11, 2015: ELife
Ana Reynders, Aziz Moqrich
The skin is the largest sensory organ that is densely innervated by highly specialized sensory neurons allowing the detection of a wide range of stimulations including light touch, temperature, itch and pain. Our knowledge of the sets of genes instructing the functional specialization of sensory neurons is just emerging. In a previous study, we have identified a new Gαi inhibitory interacting protein (GINIP) that marks two distinct subsets of skin-innervating sensory neurons conveying noxious and pleasant touch: the MRGPRD-expressing C-fibers specialized in noxious touch and the TH(+)/TAFA4(+)/V-GLUT3(+) C-Low Threshold MechanoReceptors (C-LTMRs), part of neurons processing pleasant touch...
September 2015: Genomics Data
Yekaterina Eichel, Lee Marie Tormos, Jerry E Squires
BACKGROUND: Mutations of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) gene are an autosomal dominant cause of inherited thrombocytopenia in children. MYH9 spectrum disorders include May-Hegglin anomaly and Sebastian, Fechtner, and Epstein syndromes. Patients with these disorders often present with macroplatelets and thrombocytopenia and have a mild bleeding tendency; extrahematologic manifestations (nephropathy, deafness, and cataracts) correlate with specific mutations. No definitive guidelines exist for preoperative prophylactic platelet (PLT) transfusion in these patients...
February 2016: Transfusion
J C Szepietowski, A Reich
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, found in about 1-3% of the general population. Pruritus affects about 60-90% of patients with psoriasis. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge about the pathogenesis and treatment of this symptom in psoriasis patients. RESULTS: Majority of psoriatic patients consider pruritus as the most bothersome symptom. The pathogenesis of pruritus is still unknown but the major concept of its origin is focused on neurogenic inflammation...
January 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
T Akiyama, M Nagamine, A Davoodi, M Iodi Carstens, F Cevikbas, M Steinhoff, E Carstens
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in nonhistaminergic itch. Here we used electrophysiological methods to investigate whether mouse superficial dorsal horn neurons respond to intradermal (id) injection of ET-1 and whether ET-1-sensitive neurons additionally respond to other pruritic and algesic stimuli or spinal superfusion of bombesin, a homolog of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) that excites spinal itch-signaling neurons. Single-unit recordings were made from lumbar dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital-anesthetized C57BL/6 mice...
October 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
H Ham, S M An, E J Lee, E Lee, H O Kim, J S Koh
BACKGROUND: Sensitive skin is a universal term in the field of cosmetology. In addition, the development and demand for sensitive skin cosmetics is increasing. However, there is no appropriate method for detecting sensitive skin. METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between the frequency of response at each sensation (stinging, burning, and itching) during a lactic acid sting test and the current perception threshold (CPT) value of each frequency. To reconfirm this relationship, we analyzed differences of the CPT value (5 Hz) between the itch responder and non-itch responder groups...
February 2016: Skin Research and Technology
Cheng Juan, Liu ChengCheng, Zhao YaE, Hu Li, Yang YuanJun, Yang Fan, Shi ZhiYun
Psoroptidae mites are a type of small mites with a wide range of hosts. The proliferation of Psoroptidae mites could cause symptoms such as severe itching, atopic dermatitis, and hair loss in infected animals. If severely infected, death can also occur. The morphological classification and identification of Psoroptidae mites is problematic due to the overlapping geographical distribution. In addition, there is no divergence threshold for molecular classification and identification. To solve this problem, gDNA was extracted from individual Psoroptes and Otodectes mites (China) for amplification of rDNA ITS2 and mtDNA COI...
September 2015: Parasitology Research
Lilit Garibyan, Laura Cornelissen, William Sipprell, Joachim Pruessner, Sarina Elmariah, Tuan Luo, Ethan A Lerner, Yookyung Jung, Conor Evans, David Zurakowski, Charles B Berde, R Rox Anderson
Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive, skin cooling treatment for local fat reduction that causes prolonged hypoesthesia over the treated area. We tested the hypothesis that cryolipolysis can attenuate nociception of a range of sensory stimuli, including stimuli that evoke itch. The effects of cryolipolysis on sensory phenomena were evaluated by quantitative sensory testing (QST) in 11 healthy subjects over a period of 56 days. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were measured on treated and contralateral untreated (control) flanks...
November 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Magdalena Krzyżanowska, Katarzyna Muszer, Konrad Chabowski, Adam Reich
INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are chronic inflammatory skin diseases frequently accompanied by itching. The exact pathogenesis of dermatological pruritus remains unknown, but it is believed that altered skin innervation may play a role. AIM: The assessment of the sensory threshold in AD and psoriasis in relation to pruritus experienced by patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 18 subjects with AD, 20 with psoriasis and 49 healthy controls were exposed to alternating current generated by the current source...
April 2015: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
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