keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

biotoxin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089692/in%C3%A2-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-the-marine-biotoxins-okadaic-acid-dinophysistoxin-2-and-their-7-o-acyl-fatty-acid-ester-derivatives-in-raw-and-steamed-shellfish
#1
Diana Manita, Ricardo N Alves, Ana Catarina Braga, Fabiola H S Fogaça, António Marques, Pedro Reis Costa
Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxins (DTX1 and DTX2) and their acyl-derivatives (DTX3) are marine toxins responsible for the human diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. To date the amount of toxins ingested from consumption of shellfish has been considered equal to the amount of toxins available for uptake by the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the OA, DTX2 and DTX3 fractions released from raw and steamed mussels and cockles into the digestive fluids (bioaccessibility) using a static in vitro digestion model...
January 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073545/a-validated-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-surveillance-of-ten-aquatic-biotoxins-in-european-brackish-and-freshwater-systems
#2
Brett Greer, Sara E McNamee, Bas Boots, Lucia Cimarelli, Delphine Guillebault, Karim Helmi, Stefania Marcheggiani, Stefan Panaiotov, Ulrich Breitenbach, Reyhan Akçaalan, Linda K Medlin, Katrin Kittler, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Over the past few decades, there has been an increased frequency and duration of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems globally. These can produce secondary metabolites called cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins, raising concerns about repeated exposure through ingestion of contaminated drinking water or food or through recreational activities such as bathing/swimming. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) multi-toxin method has been developed and validated for freshwater cyanotoxins; microcystins-LR, -YR, -RR, -LA, -LY and -LF, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a and the marine diatom toxin domoic acid...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073536/microelectrode-array-mea-platform-as-a-sensitive-tool-to-detect-and-evaluate-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-toxicity
#3
Susanna Alloisio, Valentina Giussani, Mario Nobile, Mariachiara Chiantore, Antonio Novellino
In the last decade, the occurrence of harmful dinoflagellate blooms of the genus Ostreopsis has increased both in frequency and in geographic distribution with adverse impacts on public health and the economy. Ostreopsis species are producers of palytoxin-like toxins (putative palytoxin and ovatoxins) which are among the most potent natural non-protein compounds known to date, exhibiting extreme toxicity in mammals, including humans. Most existing toxicological data are derived from in vivo mouse assay and are related to acute effects of pure palytoxin, without considering that the toxicity mechanism of dinoflagellates can be dependent on the varying composition of complex biotoxins mixture and on the presence of cellular components...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073524/distribution-occurrence-and-biotoxin-composition-of-the-main-shellfish-toxin-producing-microalgae-within-european-waters-a-comparison-of-methods-of-analysis
#4
Sara E McNamee, Linda K Medlin, Jessica Kegel, Gary R McCoy, Robin Raine, Lucia Barra, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor, Johannes Hagstrom, Eva Perez Blanco, Edna Graneli, Francisco Rodríguez, Laura Escalera, Beatriz Reguera, Simon Dittami, Bente Edvardsen, Joe Taylor, Jane M Lewis, Yolanda Pazos, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073449/harmful-algal-bloom-forecast-system-for-sw-ireland-part-ii-are-operational-oceanographic-models-useful-in-a-hab-warning-system
#5
Caroline Cusack, Tomasz Dabrowski, Kieran Lyons, Alan Berry, Guy Westbrook, Rafael Salas, Conor Duffy, Glenn Nolan, Joe Silke
This study investigated the application of a three-dimensional physical hydrodynamic model in a harmful algal bloom forecast system for Bantry Bay, southwest Ireland. Modelled oceanographic conditions were studied and used to help understand observed changes in the chemical and biological patterns from the national biotoxins and phytoplankton monitoring program. The study focused on two toxic events in 2013. An upwelling event was predicted by the model prior to the appearance and population increase of potentially toxic diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia, and associated domoic acid in shellfish...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073436/forecasting-the-risk-of-harmful-algal-blooms
#6
EDITORIAL
Keith Davidson, Donald M Anderson, Marcos Mateus, Beatriz Reguera, Joe Silke, Marc Sourisseau, Julie Maguire
The "Applied Simulations and Integrated Modelling for the Understanding of Harmful Algal Blooms" (Asimuth) project sought to develop a harmful algal bloom (HAB) alert system for Atlantic Europe. This was approached by combining, at a national or regional level, regulatory monitoring phytoplankton and biotoxin data with satellite remote sensing and other information on current marine conditions, coupled with regional scale models that included a representation of HAB transport. Synthesis of these products was achieved by expert interpretation within HAB risk alert bulletins that were prepared on a regular basis (typically weekly) for use by the aquaculture industry...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003064/saxitoxin-increases-phocine-distemper-virus-replication-upon-in-vitro-infection-in-harbor-seal-immune-cells
#7
Andrea L Bogomolni, Anna L Bass, Spencer Fire, Lindsay Jasperse, Milton Levin, Ole Nielsen, Gordon Waring, Sylvain De Guise
Several marine mammal epizootics have been closely linked to infectious diseases, as well as to the biotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs). In two of three saxitoxin (STX) associated mortality events, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) or phocine distemper virus (PDV) was isolated in affected individuals. While STX is notorious for its neurotoxicity, immunotoxic effects have also been described. This study investigated the role of STX in altering immune function, specifically T lymphocyte proliferation, in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) upon in-vitro exposure...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995097/monitoring-the-presence-of-domoic-acid-in-the-production-areas-of-bivalve-molluscs
#8
Rachele Rossi, Olga Arace, Maria Giovanna Buonomo, Daniela Capozzo, Vincenzo Castellano, Samantha Imbimbo, Vittorio Soprano
Algal biotoxins, chemical compounds produced by some microscopic algae, constitute the phytoplankton. The mussels, feeding on phytoplankton, can accumulate these compounds to become themselves toxic. There have been several cases of food poisoning by consumption of contaminated shellfish. Such food poisoning have pushed our health care system to provide monitoring of shellfish in the framework of the monitoring plans carried out by AASSLL. In this paper we report the results obtained monitoring the presence of amnesic shellfish poisoning biotoxins, like domoic acid and its isomers, produced by Pseudonitzschia algae...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919180/investigation-of-a-mortality-cluster-in-wild-adult-yellow-eyed-penguins-megadyptes-antipodes-at-otago-peninsula-new-zealand
#9
Brett Gartrell, David Agnew, Maurice Alley, Tim Carpenter, Hye Jeong Ha, Laryssa Howe, Stuart Hunter, Kate McInnes, Rex Munday, Roe Wendi, Young Melanie
We investigated an epidemic mortality cluster of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) that involved 67 moribund or dead birds found on various beaches of the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, between January 21 and March 20, 2013. Twenty-four carcases were examined postmortem. Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis and haemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds. Fifteen birds also had haemoglobin-like protein droplets within renal tubular epithelial cells. Despite consistent histological lesions, a cause of death could not be established...
December 6, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825528/hybridization-chain-reaction-based-colorimetric-aptasensor-of-adenosine-5-triphosphate-on-unmodified-gold-nanoparticles-and-two-label-free-hairpin-probes
#10
Zhuangqiang Gao, Zhenli Qiu, Minghua Lu, Jian Shu, Dianping Tang
This work designs a new label-free aptasensor for the colorimetric determination of small molecules (adenosine 5'-triphosphate, ATP) by using visible gold nanoparticles as the signal-generation tags, based on target-triggered hybridization chain reaction (HCR) between two hairpin DNA probes. The assay is carried out referring to the change in the color/absorbance by salt-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles after the interaction with hairpins, gold nanoparticles and ATP. To construct such an assay system, two hairpin DNA probes with a short single-stranded DNA at the sticky end are utilized for interaction with gold nanoparticles...
March 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822651/mediterranean-azadinium-dexteroporum-dinophyceae-produces-six-novel-azaspiracids-and-azaspiracid-35-a-structural-study-by-a-multi-platform-mass-spectrometry-approach
#11
Rachele Rossi, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Bernd Krock, Patrizia Ciminiello, Isabella Percopo, Urban Tillmann, Vittorio Soprano, Adriana Zingone
Azadinium dexteroporum is the first species of the genus described from the Mediterranean Sea and it produces different azaspiracids (AZA). The aims of this work were to characterize the toxin profile of the species and gain structural information on azaspiracids produced by the A. dexteroporum strain SZN-B848 isolated from the Gulf of Naples. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses were carried out on three MS systems having different ion source geometries (ESI, TurboIonSpray®, ESI ION MAX) and different MS analyzers operating either at unit resolution or at high resolution, namely a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap (Q-Trap MS), a time of flight (TOF MS), and a hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap XL Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap XL FTMS)...
November 7, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816587/enzyme-linked-aptamer-based-competitive-biolayer-interferometry-biosensor-for-palytoxin
#12
Shunxiang Gao, Xin Zheng, Bo Hu, Mingjuan Sun, Jihong Wu, Binghua Jiao, Lianghua Wang
In this study, we coupled biolayer interferometry (BLI) with competitive binding assay through an enzyme-linked aptamer and developed a real-time, ultra-sensitive, rapid quantitative method for detection of the marine biotoxin palytoxin. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled aptamers were used as biorecognition receptors to competitively bind with palytoxin, which was immobilized on the biosensor surface. The palytoxin: horseradish peroxidase-aptamer complex was then submerged in a 3,3'-diaminobenzidine solution, which resulted in formation of a precipitated polymeric product directly on the biosensor surface and a large change in the optical thickness of the biosensor layer...
March 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720471/physiological-and-behavioural-impacts-of-pacific-ciguatoxin-1-p-ctx-1-on-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#13
Yim Ling Mak, Jing Li, Chih-Ning Liu, Shuk Han Cheng, Paul K S Lam, Jinping Cheng, Leo L Chan
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are natural biotoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, which are bioaccumulated and biotransformed along food chains in coral ecosystems. They are neurotoxins that activate voltage-gated sodium channels and disrupt ion conductance in the excitable tissues. Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) is the most prevalent and potent CTX congener present in fishes from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, P-CTX-1 was administrated to larval marine medaka (2h post-hatch) via microinjection...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669302/the-mechanism-of-diarrhetic-shellfish-poisoning-toxin-production-in-prorocentrum-spp-physiological-and-molecular-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Chun-Hung Lee, Fiona Long-Yan Fong, Kin-Chung Ho, Fred Wang-Fat Lee
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature...
September 22, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646025/determination-of-the-toxic-variability-of-lipophilic-biotoxins-in-marine-bivalve-and-gastropod-tissues-treated-with-an-industrial-canning-process
#15
Carlos García, Javiera Oyaneder-Terrazas, Cristóbal Contreras, Miguel Del Campo, Rafael Torres, Héctor R Contreras
Contamination of shellfish with lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMB), pectenotoxins (PTXs), yessotoxins (YTXs) and okadaic acid (OA) toxin groups in southern Chile is a constant challenge for the development of miticulture considering the high incidence of toxic episodes that tend to occur. This research is focused on using methodologies for assessing the decrease in toxins of natural resources in Chile with high value, without altering the organoleptic properties of the shellfish. The species were processed through steaming (1 min at 121°C) and subsequent canning (5 min at 121°C)...
November 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576062/investigation-of-the-genotoxic-potential-of-the-marine-biotoxins-azaspiracid-1-3
#16
Barbara Doerr, John O'Halloran, Nora O'Brien, Frank van Pelt
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are the most recently discovered group of biotoxins and are the cause of azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) in humans. To date over thirty analogues have been identified. However, toxicological studies of AZAs are limited due to the lack of availability of toxins and toxin standards. Most data available are on acute toxicity and there are no data available on genotoxicity of AZAs. This study presents an integrated approach investigating the genotoxic potential of AZA1-3 in cell culture systems using the Comet assay combined with assays to provide information on possible apoptotic processes, cytotoxicity and changes in cell number...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546874/development-of-certified-reference-materials-for-diarrhetic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-part-2-shellfish-matrix-materials
#17
Pearse McCarron, Kelley L Reeves, Sabrina D Giddings, Daniel G Beach, Michael A Quilliam
Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can accumulate in shellfish and cause the human illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Regulatory testing of shellfish is required to protect consumers and the seafood industry. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential for the development, validation, and quality control of analytical methods, and thus play an important role in toxin monitoring. This paper summarizes work on research and development of shellfish tissue reference materials for OA and DTXs...
September 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513372/understanding-the-sorption-mechanisms-of-aflatoxin-b1-to-kaolinite-illite-and-smectite-clays-via-a-comparative-computational-study
#18
Fuxing Kang, Yangyang Ge, Xiaojie Hu, Caspar Goikavi, Michael Gatheru Waigi, Yanzheng Gao, Wanting Ling
In current adsorption studies of biotoxins to phyllosilicate clays, multiply weak bonding types regarding these adsorptions are not well known; the major attractive forces, especially for kaolinite and illite, are difficult to be identified as compared to smectite with exchangeable cations. Here, we discriminated the bonding types of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminant to these clays by combined batch experiment with model computation, expounded their bonding mechanisms which have been not quantitatively described by researchers...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486682/hematopoiesis-in-bivalvia-larvae-cellular-origin-differentiation-of-hemocytes-and-neoplasia
#19
REVIEW
Vyacheslav A Dyachuk
Hemocytes play vital roles in the immune response. Despite progress in the characterization of molluscan hemocytes and immune cells, including their cellular receptors and signal transduction pathways, the processes that lead to their differentiation in bivalve larvae remain unknown. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of that decide hemocyte stem cell fate and self-renewal during development remain poorly characterized. Similar to adult mollusks, the larvae are filter feeders and are highly susceptible to pathogens and biotoxins; therefore, it is important to understand the development and function of their immune system...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463836/passive-sampling-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-chemical-profiling-of-french-coastal-areas-with-a-focus-on-marine-biotoxins
#20
Zita Zendong, Samuel Bertrand, Christine Herrenknecht, Eric Abadie, Cécile Jauzein, Rodolphe Lemée, Jérémie Gouriou, Zouher Amzil, Philipp Hess
Passive samplers (solid phase adsorption toxin tracking: SPATT) are able to accumulate biotoxins produced by microalgae directly from seawater, thus providing useful information for monitoring of the marine environment. SPATTs containing 0.3, 3, and 10 g of resin were deployed at four different coastal areas in France and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Quantitative targeted screening provided insights into toxin profiles and showed that toxin concentrations and profiles in SPATTs were dependent on the amount of resin used...
August 16, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
keyword
keyword
46114
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"