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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672038/short-total-synthesis-of-15n5-cylindrospermopsins-from-15nh4cl-enables-precise-quantification-of-freshwater-cyanobacterial-contamination
#1
Artur K Mailyan, Joanna L Chen, Weiwei Li, Arturo A Keller, Shawn Sternisha, Brian G Miller, Armen Zakarian
Fresh water cyanobacterial algal blooms represent a major health risk because these organisms produce cylindrospermopsin, a toxic, structurally complex, zwitterionic uracil-guanidine alkaloid recognized by the EPA as a dangerous drinking water contaminant. At present, the ability to detect and quantify the presence of cylindrospermospin in water samples is severely hampered by the lack of an isotopically-labeled standard for analytical mass spectrometry. Herein, we present a concise, scaled total synthesis of 15N cylindrospermosin from 15N ammonium chloride, which leverages a unique stereoselective intramolecular double conjugate addition step to assemble the tricyclic guanidine core...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589436/biotoxin-tropolone-contamination-associated-with-nationwide-occurrence-of-pathogen-burkholderia-plantarii-in-agricultural-environments-in-china
#2
Xiaoyu Liu, Xiaoyan Fan, Haruna Matsumoto, Yanxia Nie, Zhimin Sha, Kunpeng Yi, Jiuyue Pan, Yuan Qian, Mengchao Cao, Yihu Wang, Guonian Zhu, Mengcen Wang
Tropolone, a biotoxin produced by the agricultural pathogen Burkholderia plantarii, exerts cytotoxicity toward a wide array of biota. However, due to the lack of quantitative and qualitative approach, both B. plantarii occurrence and tropolone contamination in agricultural environments remain poorly understood. Here, we presented a sensitive and reliable method for detection of B. plantarii in artificial, plant, and environmental matrices by tropolone-targeted gas chromatography-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
March 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564241/yessotoxin-detection-in-bivalve-molluscs-a-case-study-from-coastal-mussel-farms-sardinia-italy
#3
Alessandro Graziano Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Anna Maria Bazzoni, Riccardo Bazzardi, Giuseppe Tedde, Igor Arras, Giovanna Sanna, Cinzia Santucciu, Edoardo Marongiu, Sebastiano Virgilio
This work reports the first communication relating to the presence of yessotoxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal mussel farms (Sardinia, western Mediterranean) detected during 2008 and 2013 through a monitoring programme. The paper emphasizes how the changes both in yessotoxin permitted limits and used methods, established by legislation, have influenced the interpretation of the obtained results. Consequently, the samples that resulted negative during 2008 would have been positive until August 2013 and negative from September 2013 up to now, and the samples that were positive in 2013 would have been positive in 2008 and negative nowadays, according to Regulation currently in force...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554636/the-role-of-marine-biotoxins-on-the-trophic-transfer-of-mn-and-zn-in-fish
#4
Simon Pouil, Rachel J Clausing, Marc Metian, Paco Bustamante, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui Bottein
Essential nutrients are critical for physiological processes of organisms. In fish, they are obtained primarily from the diet, and their transfer and accumulation are known to be impacted by environmental variables such as water temperature, pH and salinity, as well as by diet composition and matrices. Yet, prey items consumed by fish may also contain toxic compounds such as marine toxins associated with harmful algae. These biotoxins have the potential to affect essential trace element assimilation in fish through chemical interactions such as the formation of trace element-toxin complexes or by affecting general fish physiology as in the modification of ion-specific transport pathways...
March 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534428/eu-regulatory-risk-management-of-marine-biotoxins-in-the-marine-bivalve-mollusc-food-chain
#5
REVIEW
Micheál O'Mahony
Food safety risk assessment in the European Union (EU) recognises consumer illness that arises from marine biotoxins as a risk associated with bivalve mollusc consumption. EU food regulations contain various general food safety obligations, which should contribute significantly to managing this risk. EU food regulations additionally impose various specific obligations on both Food Business Operators and Competent Authorities in order to manage the marine biotoxin food safety risk in the bivalve mollusc food-chain...
March 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499535/epidemiological-investigation-of-tattoo-like-skin-lesions-among-bottlenose-dolphins-in-shark-bay-australia
#6
Sarah N Powell, Megan M Wallen, Shweta Bansal, Janet Mann
Bottlenose dolphins are excellent bioindicators of ocean ecosystem health for three reasons: (a) as long-lived apex predators they accumulate biotoxins and contaminants; (b) they are visible, routinely appearing at the water's surface in coastal areas, often coming into close contact with humans; and, (c) they exhibit a range of pathogenic lesions attributable to environmental degradation. In this study, we analyzed tattoo-like skin lesions in a population of Tursiops aduncus studied for 30+years in Shark Bay, Australia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488755/identification-of-21-22-dehydroazaspiracids-in-mussels-mytilus-edulis-and-in-vitro-toxicity-of-azaspiracid-26
#7
Jane Kilcoyne, Pearse McCarron, Michael J Twiner, Frode Rise, Philipp Hess, Alistair L Wilkins, Christopher O Miles
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the genera Azadinium and Amphidoma, pelagic marine dinoflagellates that may accumulate in shellfish resulting in human illness following consumption. The complexity of these toxins has been well documented, with more than 40 structural variants reported that are produced by dinoflagellates, result from metabolism in shellfish, or are extraction artifacts. Approximately 34 μg of a new AZA with MW 823 Da (AZA26 (3)) was isolated from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), and its structure determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487576/determination-of-lipophilic-marine-biotoxins-in-mussels-harvested-from-the-adriatic-sea-by-lc-ms-ms
#8
Maria Schirone, Miriam Berti, Pierina Visciano, Francesco Chiumiento, Giacomo Migliorati, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi, Federica Di Giacinto, Nicola Ferri
Lipophilic marine biotoxins include okadaic acid, pectenotoxin, yessotoxin and azaspiracid groups. The consumption of contaminated molluscs can lead to acute food poisoning syndromes depending on the exposure level. Regulatory limits have been set by Regulation (European Community, 2004a) No 853/2004 and LC-MS/MS is used as the official analytical method according to Regulation (European Community, 2011) No 15/2011. In this study specimens of mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis ) were collected along the coasts of the central Adriatic Sea during the years 2015-2017 and analyzed by the European harmonized Standard Operating Procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353171/microcystin-lr-nanobody-screening-from-an-alpaca-phage-display-nanobody-library-and-its-expression-and-application
#9
Chongxin Xu, Ying Yang, Liwen Liu, Jianhong Li, Xiaoqin Liu, Xiao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Xianjin Liu
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a type of biotoxin that pollutes the ecological environment and food. The study aimed to obtain new nanobodies from phage nanobody library for determination of MC-LR. The toxin was conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, then the conjugates were used as coated antigens for enrichment (coated MC-LR-KLH) and screening (coated MC-LR-BSA) of MC-LR phage nanobodies from an alpaca phage display nanobody library. The antigen-specific phage particles were enriched effectively with four rounds of biopanning...
April 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342840/evaluation-of-rapid-early-warning-approaches-to-track-shellfish-toxins-associated-with-dinophysis-and-alexandrium-blooms
#10
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Mark W Lusty, Ryan B Wallace, Bennie Haynes, Zhihong Wang, Maggie Broadwater, Jonathan R Deeds, Steve L Morton, William Hastback, Leonora Porter, Karen Chytalo, Christopher J Gobler
Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP), respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2...
January 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261163/biotechnological-and-pharmacological-applications-of-biotoxins-and-other-bioactive-molecules-from-dinoflagellates
#11
REVIEW
Joana Assunção, A Catarina Guedes, F Xavier Malcata
The long-lasting interest in bioactive molecules (namely toxins) produced by (microalga) dinoflagellates has risen in recent years. Exhibiting wide diversity and complexity, said compounds are well-recognized for their biological features, with great potential for use as pharmaceutical therapies and biological research probes. Unfortunately, provision of those compounds is still far from sufficient, especially in view of an increasing demand for preclinical testing. Despite the difficulties to establish dinoflagellate cultures and obtain reasonable productivities of such compounds, intensive research has permitted a number of advances in the field...
December 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197280/occurrence-of-cyclic-imines-in-european-commercial-seafood-and-consumers-risk-assessment
#12
Maria Rambla-Alegre, Christopher O Miles, Pablo de la Iglesia, Margarita Fernandez-Tejedor, Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, Wim Verbeke, Ingunn A Samdal, Morten Sandvik, Vera Barbosa, Alice Tediosi, Eneko Madorran, Kit Granby, Michiel Kotterman, Tanja Calis, Jorge Diogene
Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers...
February 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172777/a-novel-tumor-activated-ala-fusion-protein-for-specific-inhibition-on-the-growth-and-invasion-of-breast-cancer-cells-mda-mb-231
#13
Xiufeng Liu, Xintong Liu, Suwen Sunchen, Meixia Liu, Chen Shen, Juanjuan Wu, Wanli Zhao, Boyang Yu, Jihua Liu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to develop a novel ALA fusion protein for target to the malignant cells surface with high uPAR expression and locally release of the scorpion toxin AGAP in an uPA-cleavable manner. It will provide an effective approach for controlled release of the peptide toxins to treat cancerous cells. METHODS: The ALA fusion proteins were expressed in pichia pastoris, and the recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101380/reduced-graphene-oxide-gold-nanoparticle-nanoframework-as-a-highly-selective-separation-material-for-aflatoxins
#14
Wenbo Guo, Lidong Wu, Kai Fan, Dongxia Nie, Weijing He, Junhua Yang, Zhihui Zhao, Zheng Han
Graphene-based materials have been studied in many applications, owing to the excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of graphene. In the current study, an environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nanocomposite was developed by using L-cysteine and vitamin C as reductants under mild reaction conditions. The rGO-AuNP material showed a highly selective separation ability for 6 naturally occurring aflatoxins, which are easily adsorbed onto traditional graphene materials but are difficult to be desorbed...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100183/microcystin-lr-increases-genotoxicity-induced-by-aflatoxin-b1-through-oxidative-stress-and-dna-base-excision-repair-genes-in-human-hepatic-cell-lines
#15
Wenyi Liu, Lingqiao Wang, Chuanfen Zheng, Lebin Liu, Jia Wang, Daibo Li, Yao Tan, Xilong Zhao, Lixiong He, Weiqun Shu
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) simultaneously exist in polluted food and water in humid and warm areas, and each has been reported to be genotoxic to liver and associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the genotoxic effects of the two biotoxins in combination and potential mechanism remain unknown. We treated the human hepatic cell line HL7702 with AFB1 and MC-LR together at different ratios, examined their genotoxic effects using micronuclei and comet assays, and evaluated the possible mechanism by measuring oxidative stress markers and DNA base excision repair (BER) genes...
February 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031804/transcriptional-response-after-exposure-to-domoic-acid-producing-pseudo-nitzschia-in-the-digestive-gland-of-the-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#16
Antonio J Pazos, Pablo Ventoso, Roi Martínez-Escauriaza, M Luz Pérez-Parallé, Juan Blanco, Juan C Triviño, José L Sánchez
Bivalve molluscs are filter feeding species that can accumulate biotoxins in their body tissues during harmful algal blooms. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) is caused by species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, which produces the toxin domoic acid. The Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland transcriptome was de novo assembled based on the sequencing of 12 cDNA libraries, six obtained from control mussels and six from mussels naturally exposed to domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis...
October 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017199/-ciguatera-or-why-you-should-enquire-about-fish-consumption-in-cases-of-cold-allodynia
#17
Miriam Friedemann, Claus Doberauer, Gereon R Fink, Lothar Burghaus
Ciguatoxine sind potente, von Mikroalgen produzierte, marine Biotoxine, die sich in tropischen Raubfischen, lokal und saisonal unterschiedlich stark, anreichern können. Kurze Zeit nach dem Fischverzehr treten gastrointestinale, neurologische und/oder kardiovaskuläre Vergiftungssymptome auf. Durch die hohe Affinität der Toxine zu neuronalen Natriumkanälen sind neurologische Symptome für Ciguatera-Vergiftungen charakteristisch. Nahezu pathognomonisch ist dabei die Kälteallodynie, bei der kalte Oberflächen als heiß, schmerzhaft oder extrem unangenehm empfunden werden...
October 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965599/selenium-protein-identification-and-profiling-by-mass-spectrometry-a-tool-to-assess-progression-of-cardiomyopathy-in-a-whale-model
#18
Colleen E Bryan, Gregory D Bossart, Steven J Christopher, W Clay Davis, Lisa E Kilpatrick, Wayne E McFee, Terrence X O'Brien
Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death in humans and in some cases the etiology of cardiomyopathy can include the downstream effects of an essential element deficiency. Of all mammal species, pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps) present the greatest known prevalence of cardiomyopathy with more than half of examined individuals indicating the presence of cardiomyopathy from gross and histo-pathology. Several factors such as genetics, infectious agents, contaminants, biotoxins, and inappropriate dietary intake (vitamins, selenium, mercury, and pro-oxidants), may contribute to the development of idiopathic cardiomyopathy in K...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884655/screening-for-the-presence-of-lipophilic-marine-biotoxins-in-shellfish-samples-using-the-neuro-2a-bioassay
#19
Marcia Bodero, Toine F H Bovee, Si Wang, Ron L A P Hoogenboom, Mirjam D Klijnstra, Liza Portier, Peter J M Hendriksen, Arjen Gerssen
The neuro-2a bioassay is considered as one of the most promising cell-based in vitro bioassays for the broad screening of seafood products for the presence of marine biotoxins. The neuro-2a assay has been shown to detect a wide array of toxins like paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), ciguatoxins, and also lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMBs). However, the neuro-2a assay is rarely used for routine testing of samples due to matrix effects that, for example, lead to false positives when testing for LMBs. As a result there are only limited data on validation and evaluation of its performance on real samples...
September 8, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817087/the-preparation-and-identification-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-domoic-acid-and-establishment-of-detection-by-indirect-competitive-elisa
#20
Abdullah F U H Saeed, Sumei Ling, Jun Yuan, Shihua Wang
Domoic acid (DA) is a potent toxin, marine biotoxin, and primarily produced by Pseudo-nitzschia. The DA hapten was coupled with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ovalbumin (OVA) as carrier proteins. DA-BSA conjugate was used as immunogen and DA-OVA as coating antigen. Cell fusion between spleen cells and sp2/0 myeloma cells developed 1C3 hybridoma clone producing 1C3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Hybridoma was injected into the mice to produce ascites, and further purified by caprylic acid/ammonium sulfate method...
August 17, 2017: Toxins
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