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Yim Ling Mak, Jing Li, Chih-Ning Liu, Shuk Han Cheng, Paul K S Lam, Jinping Cheng, Leo L Chan
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are natural biotoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, which are bioaccumulated and biotransformed along food chains in coral ecosystems. They are neurotoxins that activate voltage-gated sodium channels and disrupt ion conductance in the excitable tissues. Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) is the most prevalent and potent CTX congener present in fishes from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, P-CTX-1 was administrated to larval marine medaka (2h post-hatch) via microinjection...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Thomas Chun-Hung Lee, Fiona Long-Yan Fong, Kin-Chung Ho, Fred Wang-Fat Lee
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature...
2016: Toxins
Carlos García, Javiera Oyaneder-Terrazas, Cristóbal Contreras, Miguel Del Campo, Rafael Torres, Héctor R Contreras
Contamination of shellfish with lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMB), pectenotoxins (PTXs), yessotoxins (YTXs) and okadaic acid (OA) toxin groups in southern Chile is a constant challenge for the development of miticulture considering the high incidence of toxic episodes that tend to occur. This research is focused on using methodologies for assessing the decrease in toxins of natural resources in Chile with high value, without altering the organoleptic properties of the shellfish. The species were processed through steaming (1 min at 121°C) and subsequent canning (5 min at 121°C)...
October 11, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Barbara Doerr, John O'Halloran, Nora O'Brien, Frank van Pelt
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are the most recently discovered group of biotoxins and are the cause of azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) in humans. To date over thirty analogues have been identified. However, toxicological studies of AZAs are limited due to the lack of availability of toxins and toxin standards. Most data available are on acute toxicity and there are no data available on genotoxicity of AZAs. This study presents an integrated approach investigating the genotoxic potential of AZA1-3 in cell culture systems using the Comet assay combined with assays to provide information on possible apoptotic processes, cytotoxicity and changes in cell number...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Pearse McCarron, Kelley L Reeves, Sabrina D Giddings, Daniel G Beach, Michael A Quilliam
Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can accumulate in shellfish and cause the human illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Regulatory testing of shellfish is required to protect consumers and the seafood industry. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential for the development, validation, and quality control of analytical methods, and thus play an important role in toxin monitoring. This paper summarizes work on research and development of shellfish tissue reference materials for OA and DTXs...
September 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Fuxing Kang, Yangyang Ge, Xiaojie Hu, Caspar Goikavi, Michael Gatheru Waigi, Yanzheng Gao, Wanting Ling
In current adsorption studies of biotoxins to phyllosilicate clays, multiply weak bonding types regarding these adsorptions are not well known; the major attractive forces, especially for kaolinite and illite, are difficult to be identified as compared to smectite with exchangeable cations. Here, we discriminated the bonding types of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminant to these clays by combined batch experiment with model computation, expounded their bonding mechanisms which have been not quantitatively described by researchers...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Vyacheslav A Dyachuk
Hemocytes play vital roles in the immune response. Despite progress in the characterization of molluscan hemocytes and immune cells, including their cellular receptors and signal transduction pathways, the processes that lead to their differentiation in bivalve larvae remain unknown. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of that decide hemocyte stem cell fate and self-renewal during development remain poorly characterized. Similar to adult mollusks, the larvae are filter feeders and are highly susceptible to pathogens and biotoxins; therefore, it is important to understand the development and function of their immune system...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zita Zendong, Samuel Bertrand, Christine Herrenknecht, Eric Abadie, Cécile Jauzein, Rodolphe Lemée, Jérémie Gouriou, Zouher Amzil, Philipp Hess
Passive samplers (solid phase adsorption toxin tracking: SPATT) are able to accumulate biotoxins produced by microalgae directly from seawater, thus providing useful information for monitoring of the marine environment. SPATTs containing 0.3, 3, and 10 g of resin were deployed at four different coastal areas in France and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Quantitative targeted screening provided insights into toxin profiles and showed that toxin concentrations and profiles in SPATTs were dependent on the amount of resin used...
August 16, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pierina Visciano, Maria Schirone, Miriam Berti, Anna Milandri, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi
Harmful algal blooms are natural phenomena caused by the massive growth of phytoplankton that may contain highly toxic chemicals, the so-called marine biotoxins causing illness and even death to both aquatic organisms and humans. Their occurrence has been increased in frequency and severity, suggesting a worldwide public health risk. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in bivalve molluscs and regulatory limits have been set for some classes according to European Union legislation. These compounds can be distinguished in water- and fat-soluble molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniel A McPartlin, Michael J Lochhead, Laurie B Connell, Gregory J Doucette, Richard J O'Kennedy
Increasing occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the ocean are a major concern for countries around the globe, and with strong links between HABs and climate change and eutrophication, the occurrences are only set to increase. Of particular concern with regard to HABs is the presence of toxin-producing algae. Six major marine biotoxin groups are associated with HABs. Ingestion of such toxins via contaminated shellfish, fish, or other potential vectors, can lead to intoxication syndromes with moderate to severe symptoms, including death in extreme cases...
June 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
Yuji Nagashima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Chūdoku Kenkyū: Chūdoku Kenkyūkai Jun Kikanshi, the Japanese Journal of Toxicology
Meong Cheol Shin, Kyoung Ah Min, Heesun Cheong, Cheol Moon, Yongzhuo Huang, Huining He, Victor C Yang
PURPOSE: To investigate the applicability of fusion biotoxins combining pore-forming toxins (PFTs) and ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) for the anti-cancer treatment. METHODS: Membrane active PFTs tend to destabilize cell membranes of tumor cells, but lack a warhead inducing significant cause of cell death. Cell-impermeable RIPs possess a powerful warhead, yet not able to enter the tumor cells. To address these challenges for anti-tumor effects, we introduced a fusion strategy of conjugating melittin (a PFT) and gelonin (a type 1 RIP) via chemical and recombinant methods, followed by in vitro assays and in vivo animal studies...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Shelly R Gunn, G Gibson Gunn, Francis W Mueller
BACKGROUND: Patients with multisymptom chronic conditions, such as refractory ulcerative colitis (RUC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), present diagnostic and management challenges for clinicians, as well as the opportunity to recognize and treat emerging disease entities. In the current case we report reversal of co-existing RUC and CFS symptoms arising from biotoxin exposures in a genetically susceptible individual. CASE REPORT: A 25-year-old previously healthy male with new-onset refractory ulcerative colitis (RUC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) tested negative for autoimmune disease biomarkers...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Margherita Ferrante, Pietro Zuccarello, Angela Garufi, Antonio Cristaldi, Gea Oliveri Conti
A literature review was performed to retrieve updated information on the quality of dialysis water, with a focus on the emerging problem of the presence of algal toxins (microcystins) produced by cyanobacteria. Current legislation was examined as well as studies conducted to date in different geographic areas. In this article, the authors present review results along with recommendations to operators and managers of dialysis units, for preventing possible risks for patients.
January 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Ambbar Aballay-Gonzalez, Viviana Ulloa, Alejandra Rivera, Víctor Hernández, Macarena Silva, Teresa Caprile, Lorena Delgado-Rivera, Allisson Astuya
Detecting marine biotoxins such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is essential to ensuring the safety of seafood. The mouse bioassay is the internationally accepted method for monitoring PSTs, but technical and ethical issues have led to a search for new detection methods. The mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (Neuro-2a CBA) using ouabain and veratridine (O/V) has proven useful for the detection of PSTs. However, CBAs are sensitive to shellfish-associated matrix interferences. As the extraction method highly influences matrix interferences, this study compared three extraction protocols: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2005...
May 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Jun Chen, Su-Min Guan, Wei Sun, Han Fu
Melittin is a basic 26-amino-acid polypeptide that constitutes 40-60% of dry honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom. Although much is known about its strong surface activity on lipid membranes, less is known about its pain-producing effects in the nervous system. In this review, we provide lines of accumulating evidence to support the hypothesis that melittin is the major pain-producing substance of bee venom. At the psychophysical and behavioral levels, subcutaneous injection of melittin causes tonic pain sensation and pain-related behaviors in both humans and animals...
June 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Dale E Bredesen
Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic manifestation of chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), due to biotoxins such as mycotoxins...
February 2016: Aging
Shunxiang Gao, Bo Hu, Xin Zheng, Ying Cao, Dejing Liu, Mingjuan Sun, Binghua Jiao, Lianghua Wang
Gonyautoxin 1/4 (GTX1/4) are potent marine neurotoxins with significant public health impact. However, the ethical issues and technical defects associated with the currently applied detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxin GTX1/4 are pressing further studies to develop suitable alternatives in a regulatory monitoring system. This work describes the first successful selection, optimization, and characterization of an aptamer that bind with high affinity and specificity to GTX1/4. Compared to the typical MB-SELEX, GO-SELEX, an advanced screening technology, has significant advantages for small molecular aptamer development...
May 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ana C Braga, Ricardo N Alves, Ana L Maulvault, Vera Barbosa, António Marques, Pedro R Costa
Okadaic acid (OA) and their derivatives are marine toxins responsible for the human diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). To date the amount of toxins ingested in food has been considered equal to the amount of toxins available for uptake by the human body. In this study, the OA fraction released from the food matrix into the digestive fluids (bioaccessibility) was assessed using a static in vitro digestion model. Naturally contaminated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and donax clams (Donax sp.), collected from the Portuguese coast, containing OA and dinophysistoxin-3 (DTX3) were used in this study...
March 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jane Kilcoyne, Pearse McCarron, Philipp Hess, Christopher O Miles
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1-3 (1-3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating...
December 30, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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