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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576005/protein-directed-gold-nanoparticles-with-excellent-catalytic-activity-for-4-nitrophenol-reduction
#1
Kewei Liu, Lei Han, Junyang Zhuang, Da-Peng Yang
To explore high-performance noble metal nanomaterials for the reduction of the biotoxin 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in medicine, we developed a green synthesis strategy of bovine serum albumin-stabilized Au nanoparticles (Au@BSA NPs). The as-synthesized Au@BSA NPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The functional bio-nanocomposites showed Au-protein core-shell structure and uniform distribution, and their sizes were dependent on the additive amount of HAuCl4...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558232/transparent-carbon-ultramicroelectrode-arrays-for-the-electrochemical-detection-of-a-bacterial-warfare-toxin-pyocyanin
#2
Janine Elliott, Olja Simoska, Scott Karasik, Jason B Shear, Keith J Stevenson
Pyocyanin is a virulence factor produced as a secondary metabolite by the opportunistic human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fast and direct detection of pyocyanin is of importance as it could provide important insights regarding P. aeruginosa's virulence mechanisms. Here, we present an electrochemical sensing platform of redox-active pyocyanin using transparent carbon ultramicroelectrode arrays (T-CUAs), which were made using a previously reported simple fabrication process ( Duay et al. Anal. Chem. 2015 , 87 , 10109 )...
June 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532167/how-the-marine-biotoxins-affect-human-health
#3
Silvia Morabito, Serena Silvestro, Caterina Faggio
Several marine microalgae produce dangerous toxins very damaging to human health, aquatic ecosystems and coastal resources. These Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in recent decades seem greatly increased regarding frequency, severity and biogeographical level, causing serious health risks as a consequence of the consumption of contaminated seafood. Toxins can cause various clinically described syndromes, characterised by a wide range of symptoms: amnesic (ASP), diarrhoetic (DSP), azaspirazid (AZP), neurotoxic (NSP) and paralytic (PSP) shellfish poisonings and ciguatera fish poisoning...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527836/native-ruditapes-decussatus-and-non-indigenous-r-%C3%A2-philippinarum-shellfish-species-living-in-sympatry-comparison-of-regulated-and-non-regulated-biotoxins-accumulation
#4
Ana C Braga, Sandra Lage, Mário Pacheco, Sara Rydberg, Pedro R Costa
The native Ruditapes decussatus and the non-indigenous Ruditapes philippinarum are an important target of shellfish industries. The aim of this study was to compare an invader with a native species living in sympatry in the view of marine biotoxins accumulation. Samples were analysed for regulated and non-regulated biotoxins. The consistently occurrence of okadaic acid-group toxins and BMAA, may cause human health problems and economical losses. A strong positive relationship was observed between species, with significantly higher DSP toxicity in R...
May 11, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516259/-poisoning-caused-by-marine-biotoxins
#5
REVIEW
Philipp Hess
This paper presents a short summary of the knowledge on marine biotoxins. As toxins are known for their acute effects, they have been classified here according to the effects they cause in acute human poisoning incidents. Toxins may thus be distinguished into those that affect the nervous system (paralytic and other neurotoxins), memory (amnesic poisons), and the digestive system (diarrhetic toxins). Furthermore, newly emerging toxins, such as ciguatoxins or shark toxins, and factors that lead to the introduction of toxins in new areas, are presented...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439007/ocean-warming-since-1982-has-expanded-the-niche-of-toxic-algal-blooms-in-the-north-atlantic-and-north-pacific-oceans
#6
Christopher J Gobler, Owen M Doherty, Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Andrew W Griffith, Yoonja Kang, R Wayne Litaker
Global ocean temperatures are rising, yet the impacts of such changes on harmful algal blooms (HABs) are not fully understood. Here we used high-resolution sea-surface temperature records (1982 to 2016) and temperature-dependent growth rates of two algae that produce potent biotoxins, Alexandrium fundyense and Dinophysis acuminata, to evaluate recent changes in these HABs. For both species, potential mean annual growth rates and duration of bloom seasons significantly increased within many coastal Atlantic regions between 40°N and 60°N, where incidents of these HABs have emerged and expanded in recent decades...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429183/label-free-okadaic-acid-detection-using-growth-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-sensor-gaps-as-a-conductive-tag
#7
Yuxiang Pan, Zijian Wan, Longjie Zhong, Xueqin Li, Qi Wu, Jun Wang, Ping Wang
Okadaic acid (OA) is a marine toxin ingested by shellfish. In this work, a simple, sensitive and label-free gap-based electrical competitive bioassay has been developed for this biotoxin detection. The gap-electrical biosensor is constructed by modifying interdigitated microelectrodes with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and using the self-catalytic growth of AuNPs as conductive bridges. In this development, the AuNPs growth is realized in the solution of glucose and chloroauric acid, with glucose oxidation used as the catalysis for growth of the AuNPs...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427570/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-screening-reveals-lipophilic-toxins-in-multiple-trophic-levels-from-the-north-sea
#8
Gabriel Orellana, Lieven Van Meulebroek, Maarten De Rijcke, Colin R Janssen, Lynn Vanhaecke
Lipophilic marine biotoxins, which are mainly produced by small dinoflagellates, are increasingly detected in coastal waters across the globe. As these producers are consumed by zooplankton and shellfish, the toxins are introduced, bioaccumulated and possibly biomagnified throughout marine food chains. Recent research has demonstrated that ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is an excellent tool to detect marine toxins in algae and seafood. In this study, UHPLC-HRMS was used to screen lipophilic marine biotoxins in organisms from different trophic levels of the Belgian coastal zone ecosystem...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414161/metabolism-of-okadaic-acid-by-nadph-dependent-enzymes-present-in-human-or-rat-liver-s9-fractions-results-in-different-toxic-effects
#9
Franziska Kolrep, Kathleen Rein, Alfonso Lampen, Stefanie Hessel-Pras
The lipophilic marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA) represents a natural contaminant produced by algae accumulating in seafood. Acute intoxications result in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning causing symptoms like nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. OA was preincubated with liver enzymes present in S9 fractions from humans, rats and rats pretreated with enzyme inducers in the presence or absence of the cofactor NADPH to investigate hepatic metabolism. Cytotoxicity was examined in HepG2 cells and metabolites of OA were determined by LC-MS/MS...
April 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366384/photorelease-of-microcystin-lr-from-resuspended-sediments
#10
Robert J Kieber, Lindsey M Hartrey, David Felix, Coleman Corzine, G Brooks Avery, Ralph N Mead, Stephen A Skrabal
A series of ten photolysis experiments was conducted with sediments exposed to Microcystis sp. blooms to determine if sunlight is capable of mobilizing the biotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) into the water column. There was a net photorelease of MC-LR in irradiated suspensions in all cases relative to dark controls, ranging from 0.4 to 192μgL(-1)g(-1) into the dissolved phase. This should be viewed as a minimum estimate of photorelease due to concurrent photodegradation of dissolved toxin. Dissolved MC-LR concentrations in a sediment suspension increased linearly in the aqueous phase during a six-hour irradiation with simulated sunlight suggesting that longer exposure times produce greater quantities of MC-LR...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359039/spatiotemporal-patterns-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-their-relationships-with-environmental-variables-in-british-columbia-canada-from-2002-to-2012
#11
Stephen Finnis, Nikolas Krstic, Lorraine McIntyre, Trisalyn A Nelson, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Harmful algal blooms produce paralytic shellfish toxins that accumulate in the tissues of filter feeding shellfish. Ingestion of these toxic shellfish can cause a serious and potentially fatal condition known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The coast of British Columbia is routinely monitored for shellfish toxicity, and this study uses data from the monitoring program to identify spatiotemporal patterns in shellfish toxicity events and their relationships with environmental variables...
July 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089692/in%C3%A2-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-the-marine-biotoxins-okadaic-acid-dinophysistoxin-2-and-their-7-o-acyl-fatty-acid-ester-derivatives-in-raw-and-steamed-shellfish
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Diana Manita, Ricardo N Alves, Ana Catarina Braga, Fabiola H S Fogaça, António Marques, Pedro Reis Costa
Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxins (DTX1 and DTX2) and their acyl-derivatives (DTX3) are marine toxins responsible for the human diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. To date the amount of toxins ingested from consumption of shellfish has been considered equal to the amount of toxins available for uptake by the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the OA, DTX2 and DTX3 fractions released from raw and steamed mussels and cockles into the digestive fluids (bioaccessibility) using a static in vitro digestion model...
March 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073545/a-validated-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-surveillance-of-ten-aquatic-biotoxins-in-european-brackish-and-freshwater-systems
#13
Brett Greer, Sara E McNamee, Bas Boots, Lucia Cimarelli, Delphine Guillebault, Karim Helmi, Stefania Marcheggiani, Stefan Panaiotov, Ulrich Breitenbach, Reyhan Akçaalan, Linda K Medlin, Katrin Kittler, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Over the past few decades, there has been an increased frequency and duration of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems globally. These can produce secondary metabolites called cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins, raising concerns about repeated exposure through ingestion of contaminated drinking water or food or through recreational activities such as bathing/swimming. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) multi-toxin method has been developed and validated for freshwater cyanotoxins; microcystins-LR, -YR, -RR, -LA, -LY and -LF, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a and the marine diatom toxin domoic acid...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073536/microelectrode-array-mea-platform-as-a-sensitive-tool-to-detect-and-evaluate-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-toxicity
#14
Susanna Alloisio, Valentina Giussani, Mario Nobile, Mariachiara Chiantore, Antonio Novellino
In the last decade, the occurrence of harmful dinoflagellate blooms of the genus Ostreopsis has increased both in frequency and in geographic distribution with adverse impacts on public health and the economy. Ostreopsis species are producers of palytoxin-like toxins (putative palytoxin and ovatoxins) which are among the most potent natural non-protein compounds known to date, exhibiting extreme toxicity in mammals, including humans. Most existing toxicological data are derived from in vivo mouse assay and are related to acute effects of pure palytoxin, without considering that the toxicity mechanism of dinoflagellates can be dependent on the varying composition of complex biotoxins mixture and on the presence of cellular components...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073524/distribution-occurrence-and-biotoxin-composition-of-the-main-shellfish-toxin-producing-microalgae-within-european-waters-a-comparison-of-methods-of-analysis
#15
Sara E McNamee, Linda K Medlin, Jessica Kegel, Gary R McCoy, Robin Raine, Lucia Barra, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor, Johannes Hagstrom, Eva Perez Blanco, Edna Graneli, Francisco Rodríguez, Laura Escalera, Beatriz Reguera, Simon Dittami, Bente Edvardsen, Joe Taylor, Jane M Lewis, Yolanda Pazos, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073449/harmful-algal-bloom-forecast-system-for-sw-ireland-part-ii-are-operational-oceanographic-models-useful-in-a-hab-warning-system
#16
Caroline Cusack, Tomasz Dabrowski, Kieran Lyons, Alan Berry, Guy Westbrook, Rafael Salas, Conor Duffy, Glenn Nolan, Joe Silke
This study investigated the application of a three-dimensional physical hydrodynamic model in a harmful algal bloom forecast system for Bantry Bay, southwest Ireland. Modelled oceanographic conditions were studied and used to help understand observed changes in the chemical and biological patterns from the national biotoxins and phytoplankton monitoring program. The study focused on two toxic events in 2013. An upwelling event was predicted by the model prior to the appearance and population increase of potentially toxic diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia, and associated domoic acid in shellfish...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073436/forecasting-the-risk-of-harmful-algal-blooms
#17
EDITORIAL
Keith Davidson, Donald M Anderson, Marcos Mateus, Beatriz Reguera, Joe Silke, Marc Sourisseau, Julie Maguire
The "Applied Simulations and Integrated Modelling for the Understanding of Harmful Algal Blooms" (Asimuth) project sought to develop a harmful algal bloom (HAB) alert system for Atlantic Europe. This was approached by combining, at a national or regional level, regulatory monitoring phytoplankton and biotoxin data with satellite remote sensing and other information on current marine conditions, coupled with regional scale models that included a representation of HAB transport. Synthesis of these products was achieved by expert interpretation within HAB risk alert bulletins that were prepared on a regular basis (typically weekly) for use by the aquaculture industry...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003064/saxitoxin-increases-phocine-distemper-virus-replication-upon-in-vitro-infection-in-harbor-seal-immune-cells
#18
Andrea L Bogomolni, Anna L Bass, Spencer Fire, Lindsay Jasperse, Milton Levin, Ole Nielsen, Gordon Waring, Sylvain De Guise
Several marine mammal epizootics have been closely linked to infectious diseases, as well as to the biotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs). In two of three saxitoxin (STX) associated mortality events, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) or phocine distemper virus (PDV) was isolated in affected individuals. While STX is notorious for its neurotoxicity, immunotoxic effects have also been described. This study investigated the role of STX in altering immune function, specifically T lymphocyte proliferation, in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) upon in-vitro exposure...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995097/monitoring-the-presence-of-domoic-acid-in-the-production-areas-of-bivalve-molluscs
#19
Rachele Rossi, Olga Arace, Maria Giovanna Buonomo, Daniela Capozzo, Vincenzo Castellano, Samantha Imbimbo, Vittorio Soprano
Algal biotoxins, chemical compounds produced by some microscopic algae, constitute the phytoplankton. The mussels, feeding on phytoplankton, can accumulate these compounds to become themselves toxic. There have been several cases of food poisoning by consumption of contaminated shellfish. Such food poisoning have pushed our health care system to provide monitoring of shellfish in the framework of the monitoring plans carried out by AASSLL. In this paper we report the results obtained monitoring the presence of amnesic shellfish poisoning biotoxins, like domoic acid and its isomers, produced by Pseudonitzschia algae...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919180/investigation-of-a-mortality-cluster-in-wild-adult-yellow-eyed-penguins-megadyptes-antipodes-at-otago-peninsula-new-zealand
#20
Brett Gartrell, David Agnew, Maurice Alley, Tim Carpenter, Hye Jeong Ha, Laryssa Howe, Stuart Hunter, Kate McInnes, Rex Munday, Wendi Roe, Melanie Young
We investigated an epidemic mortality cluster of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) that involved 67 moribund or dead birds found on various beaches of the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, between 21 January and 20 March 2013. Twenty-four carcases were examined post-mortem. Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis and haemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds. Fifteen birds also had haemoglobin-like protein droplets within renal tubular epithelial cells. Despite consistent histological lesions, a cause of death could not be established...
June 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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