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Hui Qi, Shrestha Priyadarsini, Sarah E Nicholas, Akhee Sarker-Nag, Jeremy Allegood, Charles E Chalfant, Nawajes A Mandal, Dimitrios Karamichos
The pathophysiology of human keratoconus (KC), a bilateral progressive corneal disease, leading to protrusion of the cornea, stromal thinning, and scarring is not well understood. In this study we investigated a novel Sphingolipid (SPL) signaling pathway through which KC may be regulated. Using human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) and human keratoconus cells (HKC) we examined the SPL pathway modulation. Both cell types were stimulated by the three TGF-β isoforms: TGF-B1 (T1), B2 (T2), and B3 (T3). All samples were analyzed using lipidomics, and real time-PCR...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Shuncong Zhang, Pengbo Feng, Guoye Mo, Daxing Li, Yongxian Li, Ling Mo, Zhidong Yang, De Liang
OBJECTIVE: To build mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and mouse osteoclast RAW264.7 co-culture system and to study the effect of icariin on the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the co-culture system. METHODS: In vitro acquisition and cultivation of mouse osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 and mouse RAW264.7 cells were conducted. Osteoblast and osteoclast activities of cells were detected by CCK-8 staining experiment, alizarin red staining and tartaric-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining...
January 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lidiany Freitas Gonçalves, Ana Paula Fernandes, Leopoldo Cosme-Silva, Fabio Antonio Colombo, Natália Silva Martins, Thais Marchini Oliveira, Tomaz Henrique Araujo, Vivien Thiemy Sakai
Bioactive molecules stored in dentin, such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-b1), may be involved in the signaling events related to dental tissue repair. The authors conducted an in vitro evaluation of the amount of TGF-b1 released from dentin slices after treatment with 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and the effect of this growth factor on stem cell migration from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Sixty 1-mm-thick tooth slices were prepared with or without the predentin layer, and treated with either 10% EDTA for 1 minute, 2...
December 22, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Gianluca Turcatel, Katelyn Millette, Matthew Thornton, Stephanie Leguizamon, Brendan Grubbs, Wei Shi, David Warburton
The signaling crosstalk between the tracheal mesenchyme and epithelium has not been researched extensively leaving a substantial gap of knowledge in the mechanisms dictating embryonic development of the proximal airways by the adjacent mesenchyme. Recently, we have reported that embryos lacking mesenchymal expression of Sox9 did not develop tracheal cartilage rings and showed altered differentiation of the tracheal epithelium. Herein, we propose that tracheal cartilage provides local inductive signals responsible for the proper differentiation, metabolism, and inflammatory status regulation of the tracheal epithelium...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Marcelina Koćwin, Mateusz Jonakowski, Marcelina Przemęcka, Jan Zioło, Michał Panek, Piotr Kuna
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory heterogeneous disease of the lower respiratory tract characterised by the occurrence of bronchial hyper-responsiveness and paroxysmal, changeable bronchial obstruction. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b) is one of the cytokines involved in mediating airway inflammation and remodelling. The level of TGF-b1 gene expression correlates with severity of symptoms. Alterations in the main SMAD signal transmission, overexpression of TGF-b genes and changes in the transcriptome cause excessive secretion of TGF-b and its increased expression in target cells, which clinically induces a moderate-severe or severe course of asthma as well as an earlier and faster disease progression...
2016: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
Hanan Hussein Shehata, Azza Hassan Abou Ghalia, Eman Khairy Elsayed, Azza Mohamed Ahmed Said, Safaa Saleh Mohamed
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values of survivin and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-B1) expression in aqueous humor and serum of retinoblastoma (RB) in comparison to the conventional RB marker lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to elucidate a possible correlation between them and the clinicopathological features of the disease. METHODS: This prospective, comparative study included 88 newly diagnosed children with RB and 80 age-matched controls with ophthalmic conditions other than tumors prepared for intraocular surgeries...
September 20, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Alper Tunga Özdemir, Rabia Bilge Özgül Özdemir, Cengiz Kırmaz, Ayla Eker Sarıboyacı, Zehra Seda Ünal Halbutoğlları, Ceren Özel, Erdal Karaöz
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have strong immunomodulatory properties, however these properties may show some differences according to the tissue type of their isolate. In this study we investigated the paracrine interactions between human DP derived MSCs (hDP-MSCs) and the CD4(+) T helper cell subsets to establish their immunomodulatory mechanisms. We found that the CD4(+)-Tbet(+) (Th1) and CD4(+)-Gata3(+) (Th2) cells were suppressed by the hDP-MSCs, but the CD4(+)-Stat3(+) (Th17) and CD4(+)-CD25(+)-FoxP3(+) (Treg) cells were stimulated...
August 24, 2016: Cellular Immunology
Nouf Al-Rasheed, Laila Faddah, Nawal Al-Rasheed, Yieldez A Bassiouni, Iman H Hasan, Ayman M Mahmoud, Raeesa A Mohamad, Hazar I Yacoub
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of silymarin (SIL), alone and combined with chlorogenic acid (CA) and/or melatonin (ME), using a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, IP). One day after, rats were received SIL (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with CA (60 mg/kg) and/or ME (20 mg/kg) for 21 days. RESULTS: SIL significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, inflammatory cytokines, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Jorge A Roman-Blas, Emanuele Bizzi, Raquel Largo, Alberto Migliore, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
INTRODUCTION: The lack of a complete understanding of the complex processes involved in the etiopathogenesis and subsequent appropriate phenotyping makes it difficult to find therapies that may be efficacious in most patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Consensus recommendations involve mainly non-pharmacological approaches. Analgesics and NSAIDs are considered second choice options due to their poor efficacy/safety ratios. To some extent, OA may be considered an orphan disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify effective and safe new pharmacologic modalities for treating OA...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Dimitris N Lyras, Konstantinos Kazakos, Konstantinos Tilkeridis, Anna Kokka, Athanasios Ververidis, Sotirios Botaitis, George Agrogiannis
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to find out the spatial and temporal expression of TGF-b1 during the tendon healing, after application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). METHODS: A patellar tendon defect model in rabbits was used for this purpose. 48 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, weighing 3.5 kg, were used for this study. Equal numbers of animals from both groups were sacrificed at 4 different time points (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th week). A full thickness patellar tendon substance in the right limb of each animal was excised from its central portion during the operation...
April 2016: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Qiang Kai Huang, Hu-Yuan Qiao, Ming-Huan Fu, Gang Li, Wen-Bin Li, Zhi Chen, Jian Wei, Bing-Sheng Liang
BACKGROUND Denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy results in significant biochemical and physiological changes potentially leading to devastating outcomes including increased mortality. Effective treatments for skeletal muscle diseases are currently not available. Muscle-specific miRNAs, such as miR-206, play an important role in the regulation of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to examine the beneficial effects of miR-206 treatment during the early changes in skeletal muscle atrophy, and to study the underlying signaling pathways in a rat skeletal muscle atrophy model...
April 7, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
W Z Li, X H Wang, H X Zhang, S M Mao, C Z Zhao
The objective of this study was to observe the protective effect of the n-butyl alcohol phase of Toona sinensis seed extract on the kidneys of diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats and its preliminary mechanism. Male wistar rats were administered a normal or high-fat diet for 1 month. DN rats were divided into a model group and a petroleum ether phase of T. sinensis seed extract intervention group. The intervention group was administered 5 mg·100 g-1·day-1 extract. After treatment for 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples and the renal cortex were collected...
March 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Silvia Morini, Giuseppina Musumeci, Isabella Bon, Anna Miserocchi, Francesco Alviano, Serena Longo, Alessia Bertoldi, Claudio V Velati, Davide Gibellini, Maria Carla Re
Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Besides chronic disease, opportunistic infections, nutritional deficiencies and antiretroviral drug toxicity, the direct role of HIV in the development of anemia has not yet been fully investigated. To explore the HIV-related mechanisms involved in the genesis of anemia, we used two experimental designs. In the first, HPCs purified from cord blood were challenged with HIV-1IIIb or recombinant gp120 (rgp120) and then committed to erythrocyte differentiation (EPO-post-treated HPCs)...
January 2016: New Microbiologica
Manal R Abdel El-Haleem, Asmaa A A Kattaia, Samia A Abdel El-Baset, Heba El Sayed Mostafa
Ochratoxins (OTA) are secondary metabolites of Aspergillus and Penicillium. The detoxification of OTA has been of major interest due to its widespread threat to human health. We aimed to investigate the possible alleviative effect of myricetin (MYR) against OTA-induced damage in renal cortex of rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were randomized into five equal groups: control (untreated), vehicle control (0.5 ml corn oil/day including dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]), MYR (100 mg MYR/kg b.w./day in distilled water), OTA (0...
April 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Dai Nakajima, Yasuhiko Tabata, Soh Sato
Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured...
September 2015: Biomedical Materials
Fredrick J Bohanon, Xiaofu Wang, Brittany M Graham, Anesh Prasai, Sadhashiva J Vasudevan, Chunyong Ding, Ye Ding, Geetha L Radhakrishnan, Cristiana Rastellini, Jia Zhou, Ravi S Radhakrishnan
Oridonin, isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, has been proven to possess various anti-neoplastic and anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we reported the anti-fibrogenic effects of oridonin for liver in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a newly designed analog CYD0692 in vitro. Cell viability was measured by Alamar Blue assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by Cell Death ELISA and Yo-Pro-1 staining. Western blots were performed for cellular proteins. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle regulation...
December 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
C Zingler, H-D Carl, B Swoboda, S Krinner, F Hennig, K Gelse
OBJECTIVE: Cellular outgrowth from articular cartilage tissue has been described in a number of recent experimental studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cellular outgrowth from articular cartilage explants isolated from adult human donors. METHOD: Macroscopically intact articular cartilage specimens were isolated from adult human donors and cultured either in their native status, or in a cleansed status achieved by forced washing to minimize attaching cells...
January 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Wagdi Almishri, Julie Deans, Mark G Swain
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are present within the liver and have been implicated in the development of many liver diseases. Upon activation by glycolipid ligands (including α-galactosylceramide; αGalCer), hepatic iNKT cells produce numerous cytokines and recruit both pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune cells. However, the involvement of B cells in this process is poorly defined. METHODS: Wild-type (male, C57BL/6), B cell deficient, or B cell depleted mice were injected with αGalCer or vehicle, hepatic B cell phenotype and liver injury was subsequently determined...
October 2015: Journal of Hepatology
M E Mahfouz
To evaluate the ameliorative effect of curcumin on dietary aflatoxin-induced changes in the expression of genes in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus liver, the fish were fed with a diet contaminated by 200 ppb of atlatoxin B1 (AFB1) with and without curcumin (5 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks in addition to a negative and positive controls fed with the basal diet and basal diet supplemented with curcumin, respectively. Further, two recovery groups with and without curcumin were tested after 2 more weeks. Relative mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant function (superoxide dismutase, SOD), biotransformation (cytochrome P4501A, CYPA) and immune response (interleukin-1β, IL-1β and transforming growth factor β, TGF-β) were assessed using RT-PCR...
March 2015: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Mohamed M'baye, Guohua Hua, Hamid Ali Khan, Liguo Yang
Inhibins are members of the TGFβ superfamily and act as suppressors of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from pituitary glands via a negative feedback mechanism to regulate folliculogenesis. In this study, the INHBB gene was knocked down by three RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen vector- mediated recombinant plasmids to explore the effects of INHBB silencing on granulosa cell (GC) cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid production in vitro. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, flow cytometry and ELISA were performed to evaluate the role of INHBB in the mouse GC cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid production in vitro...
2015: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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