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Chronic disease

Timothy Mott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Family Medicine
I-Ching Kuo, Hugo You-Hsien Lin, Sheng-Wen Niu, Jia-Jung Lee, Yi-Wen Chiu, Chi-Chih Hung, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Hung-Chun Chen
A common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), anemia can influence glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. In diabetic patients, anemia occurs earlier and with higher severity over the course of CKD stages. To elucidate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) on the predictive value of HbA1c, we enrolled 1558 diabetic patients with stages 3-4 CKD, categorized according to baseline Hb and HbA1c quartiles. Linear regression revealed that higher HbA1c correlated significantly with higher Hb in the Hb < 10 g/dL group (β = 0...
2018: PloS One
Kun Wang, Shuai Li, Yong Gao, Xiaobo Feng, Wei Liu, Rongjin Luo, Yu Song, JiTu, Yingle Liu, Cao Yang
OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an essential component of the signaling complex that mediates osteoclastogenesis. As an adaptor protein of E3 ligase function, TRAF6 regulates NF-κB signaling via TAK1 and I-κB kinase (IKK) activation. Here, we investigated novel mechanisms by which TRAF6 signaling is regulated under receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. DESIGN: A yeast two-hybrid screen system identified cellular factors that interact with TRAF6...
June 19, 2018: Bone
Shan-Shan Li, Ling-Lin Zhang, Shu Nie, Ting Lv, Hong-Wei Wang
Acne is a common skin disease in adolescence. It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units, which mainly occurs on the face and upper parts of the trunk. Based on severity of the lesions, acne can be mild, moderate or severe. Severe acne is usually featured with a protracted course and residual scars. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been demonstrated to be effective in severe acne recently. We report a case of monozygotic twins with severe acne who were successfully treated with PDT.
June 19, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Marcos de Lima, Betul Oran, Richard E Champlin, Esperanza B Papadopoulos, Sergio A Giralt, Bart L Scott, Basem M William, Joel Hetzer, Eric Laille, Becky Hubbell, Barry S Skikne, Charles Craddock
BACKGROUND: Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Injectable azacitidine can improve posttransplant outcomes but presents challenges with exposure and compliance. Oral CC-486 allows extended dosing to prolong azacitidine activity. We investigated use of CC-486 maintenance therapy post-alloSCT. METHODS: Adults with MDS or AML in morphological complete remission at CC-486 initiation (42-84 days post-alloSCT) were included...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Vittoria Massafra, Roberto Pellicciari, Antimo Gioiello, Saskia W C van Mil
Bile acids are amphipathic molecules that were previously known to serve as fat solubilizers in the intestine in postprandial conditions. In the last two decades, bile acids have been recognized as signaling molecules regulating energy metabolism pathways via, amongst others, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Upon bile acid activation, FXR controls expression of genes involved in bile acid, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. In addition, FXR activation has been shown to limit the inflammatory response...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Amanda Santiago, Lígia Mendes Soares, Melissa Schepers, Humberto Milani, Tim Vanmierlo, Jos Prickaerts, Rúbia M Weffort de Oliveira
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been associated with aging-related vascular dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. It can be induced by the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4VO/ICA) model in aged rats, resulting in persistent memory deficits, white matter injury, and significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4-I) roflumilast has been reported to have pro-cognitive effects in several behavioral paradigms. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated roflumilast treatment in aged rats that were subjected to CCH...
June 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Milos D Ikonomovic, Eric E Abrahamson, Shaun W Carlson, Steven H Graham, C Edward Dixon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for development of chronic neurodegenerative disorders later in life. This review summarizes the current knowledge and concepts regarding the connection between long-term consequences of TBI and aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and Parkinsonism, with implications for novel therapy targets. Several aggregation-prone proteins such as the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, tau proteins, and α-synuclein protein are involved in secondary pathogenic cascades initiated by a TBI and are also major building blocks of the hallmark pathological lesions in chronic human neurodegenerative diseases with dementia...
June 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Igor Akushevich, Julia Kravchenko, Arseniy P Yashkin, Anatoliy I Yashin
Longer lifespan is accompanied by a larger number of chronic diseases among older adults. Because of a growing proportion of older adults in the U.S., this brings the problem of age-related morbidity to the forefront as a major contributor to rising medical expenditures. We evaluated 15-year time trends (from 1998 to 2013) in the prevalence of 48 acute and chronic non-cancer diseases and cancers in older U.S. adults aged 65+ and estimated the annual percentage changes of these prevalence trends using SEER-Medicare and HRS-Medicare data...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Sufficiently high and prolonged inhalation exposures to some respirable elongated mineral particles (REMPs), notably including amphibole asbestos fibers, can increase risk of inflammation-mediated diseases including malignant mesothelioma, pleural diseases, fibrosis, and lung cancer. Chronic inflammation involves ongoing activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which enables immune cells to produce potent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (in particular, mitochondrial ROS) contribute to NRLP3 activation via a well-elucidated mechanism involving oxidation of reduced thioredoxin and association of thioredoxin-interacting protein with NLRP3...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Juan Ni, Tao Xie, Meifang Xiao, Wei Xiang, Lishen Wang
The anti-cancer activities of amide-linked local anesthetics have been demonstrated in various types of bulky/differentiated cancer cells. However, whether these anesthetics also affect biological functions of cancer stem cells is largely unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of three commonly used amide-linked local anesthetics (ropivacaine, lidocaine and bupivacaine) on leukemia stem cell (LSC) derived from two different leukemia diseases (acute myeloid leukemia, n = 8 and chronic myeloid leukemia, n = 8) as well as normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) derived from cord blood donors (n = 8) as comparison...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lei Liu, Yiping Li, Zhi Wang, Fengan Ding, Zhengyuan Cheng, Qing Xu, Yingying Cai, Manoj Hang Limbu, Yiqiong Yang, Bicheng Liu, Pingsheng Chen
Most patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present with proteinuria and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the interstitium. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is important for maintaining ECM metabolism and it affects the formation and development of CKD. Autophagy has been reported to be protective against renal tubular injury, but the role of autophagy related to ECM metabolism is unclear. Rab7 is a shared molecule of endocytosis and autophagy. The aim of this study is to explore the role of autophagy in regulating MMP-2 activity and to determine whether Rab7 functions in regulating MMP-2 activity and injury in albumin-overloaded TECs...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Tomomi Shijo, Hitoshi Warita, Naoki Suzuki, Kensuke Ikeda, Shio Mitsuzawa, Tetsuya Akiyama, Hiroya Ono, Ayumi Nishiyama, Rumiko Izumi, Yasuo Kitajima, Masashi Aoki
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by the systemic loss of motor neurons with prominent astrocytosis and microgliosis in the spinal cord and brain. Astrocytes play an essential role in maintaining extracellular microenvironments that surround motor neurons, and are activated by various insults. Growing evidence points to a non-cell autonomous neurotoxicity caused by chronic and sustained astrocytic activation in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Alex Reichenbach, Romana Stark, Mathieu Mequinion, Sarah H Lockie, Moyra B Lemus, Randall L Mynatt, Serge Luquet, Zane B Andrews
Hunger-sensing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons ensure survival by adapting metabolism and behavior to low caloric environments. This adaption is accomplished by consolidating food intake, suppressing energy expenditure, and maximizing fat storage (nutrient partitioning) for energy preservation. The intracellular mechanisms responsible are unknown. Here we report that AgRP carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) knockout (KO) mice exhibited increased fatty acid utilization and greater fat loss after 9 d of calorie restriction (CR)...
June 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ehab Billatos, Alen Faiz, Yaron O Gesthalter, Ashley LeClerc, Yuriy Alekseyev, Xiaohui Zhang, Gang Liu, Nick H T Ten Hacken, Irene Heijink, Wim Timens, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Dirkje S Postma, Maarten van den Berge, Avrum Spira, Marc E Lenburg
BACKGROUND: Understanding effects of Acute Smoke Exposure (ASE) on airway epithelial gene expression and their relationship with the effects of Chronic Smoke Exposure (CSE) may provide biological insights into the development of smoking-related respiratory diseases. METHODS: Bronchial airway epithelial cell brushings were collected from 63 individuals without recent cigarette smoke exposure, before and 24-hours after smoking three cigarettes. RNA from these samples was profiled on Affymetrix Human Gene 1...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Kent A Lemaster, Stephanie J Frisbee, Luc DuBois, Nikolaos Tzemos, Fan Wu, Matthew T Lewis, Robert W Wiseman, Jefferson C Frisbee
It has been long known that chronic metabolic disease is associated with a parallel increase in the risk for developing peripheral vascular disease. Although more clinically relevant, our understanding about reversing established vasculopathy is limited in comparison to our understanding of the mechanisms and development of impaired vascular structure/function under these conditions. Using the 13-week old obese Zucker rat (OZR) model of the metabolic syndrome, where microvascular dysfunction is sufficiently established to contribute to impaired skeletal muscle function, we imposed a 7-week intervention of chronic atorvastatin (ATOR) treatment, chronic treadmill exercise (EXER), or both...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Marina Bockaj, Barnabas Fung, Michael Tsoulis, Lauren Warren Foster, Leyla Soleymani
Currently, a blood test for the diagnosis of endometriosis, a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, does not exist. Recent studies suggest that circulating concentrations of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have potential for the diagnosis of endometriosis. However, at present BDNF can only be measured by ELISA which requires a clinic visit, a routine blood sample, and laboratory testing. Therefore, we developed a point-of-care device (EndoChip) for use with small blood volumes that can be collected through a finger prick...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Odette Fisher-Glover, Barbara Edlund, Emily Johnson
This quality improvement project evaluated whether offering a series of 5 structured interdisciplinary diabetic educational teaching sessions would improve glycemic control as measured by random blood sugars (RBS) in a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). Five diabetic educational sessions were held over a 4-week period with 50 participants (N = 50). Data were analyzed and displayed using descriptive statistics and figures. Average RBS remained steady from 176.34 pre- to 175.52 post-intervention...
July 2017: Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA
Elodie Archer-Lahlou, Cathy Lan, R Thomas Jagoe
Standard in vitro myotube culture conditions are nonphysiological and there is increasing evidence that this may distort adaptations to both catabolic and anabolic stimuli and hamper preclinical research into mechanisms and treatments for muscle atrophy in cancer and other chronic diseases. We tested a new model of myotube culture which mimics more accurately the basal conditions for muscle tissue in patients with chronic disease, such as cancer. Myotubes derived from C2C12 myoblasts, cultured under the modified conditions were thinner, more numerous, with more uniform morphology and an increased proportion of mature myotubes...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Brandee Decker, Kevin Pumiglia
Nitric oxide, produced by eNOS, plays critical roles in the regulation of vascular function and maintenance. Chronic PI3K signaling has recently been associated with vascular malformations. A well described substrate downstream of PI3K signaling is eNOS. Another critical downstream target of PI3K is the metabolic regulator, mTORc1. The relationship between mTORc1 and eNOS regulation, has not been determined. We generated cells with manipulated PI3K signaling by expressing the activating mutation, PIK3CAH1047R , or knocking down PTEN expression...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
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