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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320132/early-markers-of-kidney-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-among-older-adults
#1
Yudan Wei, Yinan Kevin Wei, Jianmin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Age-related decline in kidney function can be an important risk factor for cognitive impairment in older adults. In this study, we examined several kidney function measures for the association with cognitive function in older adults in hope to identify early and sensitive markers that can be used for the detection or screening for cognitive impairment. METHODS: A total of 1982 older participants (aged ≥60years) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for the association between kidney function and cognitive impairment using multivariate logistic regression and general linear models...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320131/epigenetic-and-gene-expression-alterations-of-foxp3-in-the-t-cells-of-eae-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Ali Noori-Zadeh, Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with demyelination and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. It has been shown that the regulatory T (Treg) cells are responsible for maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and can suppress the autoimmune process in several animal models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Recent basic studies have demonstrated that forkhead box P (FOXP3) and BTB domain and CNC homolog 2 (BACH2) are the master transcription factors of these cells playing a pivotal role in the polarization of naïve T cells into Treg cells...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320129/immunoglobulin-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-multifocal-motor-neuropathy
#3
REVIEW
Aditya Kumar, Huned S Patwa, Richard J Nowak
Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder leading to slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Current treatments are aimed at modulating the immune system in order to avoid further decline and to maintain functional status. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is widely used in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders and is the only treatment approved for MMN. While patients do remain stable with maintenance IVIg treatment, most patients will slowly deteriorate over many years...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319996/oral-direct-acting-agent-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#4
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, David R Nelson, Michael W Fried, Jodi B Segal, Mark S Sulkowski
Background: Rapid improvements in hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy have led to the approval of multiple oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of chronic HCV infection. Purpose: To summarize published literature on the efficacy and safety of oral DAAs for treatment of persons with chronic HCV infection. Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception through 1 November 2016. Study Selection: 42 English-language studies from controlled and single-group registered clinical trials of adults with HCV infection that evaluated at least 8 weeks of an FDA-approved interferon-free HCV regimen that included at least 2 DAAs...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319949/the-impact-of-kidney-development-on-the-life-course-a-consensus-document-for-action
#5
(no author information available yet)
Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a significant impact on global morbidity and mortality. The Low Birth Weight and Nephron Number Working Group has prepared a consensus document aimed to address the relatively neglected issue for the developmental programming of hypertension and CKD. It emerged from a workshop held on April 2, 2016, including eminent internationally recognized experts in the field of obstetrics, neonatology, and nephrology. Through multidisciplinary engagement, the goal of the workshop was to highlight the association between fetal and childhood development and an increased risk of adult diseases, focusing on hypertension and CKD, and to suggest possible practical solutions for the future...
March 21, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319824/effect-of-long-term-remote-ischaemic-conditioning-on-platelet-function-and-fibrinolysis-in-patients-with-chronic-ischaemic-heart-failure
#6
Kasper Pryds, Jacobina Kristiansen, Søs Neergaard-Petersen, Roni R Nielsen, Michael R Schmidt, Jens Refsgaard, Steen D Kristensen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Anne-Mette Hvas, Erik L Grove
INTRODUCTION: Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) protects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury through cellular protective pathways, but may also modulate haemostasis. We aimed to investigate the effect of long-term RIC on platelet function and fibrinolysis in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure (CIHF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a prospective, outcome-assessor blinded, paired study, 16 patients with CIHF and 21 age- and gender-matched controls without ischaemic heart disease (IHD) were treated with RIC once daily for 28±4days...
March 10, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319817/indoor-air-quality-of-low-and-middle-income-urban-households-in-durban-south-africa
#7
Nkosana Jafta, Lars Barregard, Prakash M Jeena, Rajen N Naidoo
INTRODUCTION: Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM10, NO2 and SO2) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319790/within-host-rna-virus-persistence-mechanisms-and-consequences
#8
REVIEW
Richard E Randall, Diane E Griffin
In a prototypical response to an acute viral infection it would be expected that the adaptive immune response would eliminate all virally infected cells within a few weeks of infection. However many (non-retrovirus) RNA viruses can establish 'within host' persistent infections that occasionally lead to chronic or reactivated disease. Despite the importance of 'within host' persistent RNA virus infections, much has still to be learnt about the molecular mechanisms by which RNA viruses establish persistent infections, why innate and adaptive immune responses fail to rapidly clear these infections, and the epidemiological and potential disease consequences of such infections...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319732/an-antigen-to-remember-regulation-of-b-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Aleta Pupovac, Kim L Good-Jacobson
Vaccine success relies on the formation of immunity. Humoral immunity is critical and is mediated by long-lived antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells (MBCs). Chronic infectious diseases cause a significant global burden of disease; pathogens that evade the immune system can cause phenotypical and functional changes to immune memory populations. Thus, recent studies have focused on MBC subset function. IgM(+) MBCs have emerged as important early responders in malaria. Atypical MBCs have functional qualities associated with exhaustion in chronic infectious diseases, but the requirements for their formation and where they localize remains unknown...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319653/the-ecology-of-human-microbiota-dynamics-and-diversity-in-health-and-disease
#10
Antti Karkman, Jenni Lehtimäki, Lasse Ruokolainen
Social welfare, better health care, and urbanization have greatly improved human health and well-being. On the other hand, Western societies suffer from the downsides of the elevated standard of living. Among other factors, the Western diet (poor in dietary fiber), lack of contact with natural biodiversity, and excessive antibiotic use are known to be associated with the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders. Limited exposure to microbial biodiversity, in combination with severe lifestyle-related disturbances to commensal microbial communities, especially during early life, is changing the diversity and composition of human microbiota...
March 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319650/-monoclonal-antibodies-in-the-treatment-of-ms-emergence-of-b-cell-targeted-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Ai-Lan Nguyen, Melissa Gresle, Tessa Marshall, Helmut Butzkueven, Judith Field
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS, and one of the most common causes of disability in young adults. Over the last decade, new disease modifying therapies have rapidly emerged, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that have provided highly targeted therapies with superior efficacy compared to platform therapies. In particular, monoclonal antibodies directed against CD20-positive B cells have shown remarkable results in recent clinical trials, and renewed interest in the mechanism of B-cell depleting therapies to ameliorate relapse activity and progression in MS...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319598/allium-vegetable-intakes-and-the-incidence-of-cardiovascular-disease-hypertension-chronic-kidney-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-in-adults-a-longitudinal-follow-up-study
#12
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Amir A Momenan, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between habitual consumption of allium vegetables (garlic and onion) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, hypertension (HTN), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Adult men and women, participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008 to 2012-2014), were recruited. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319561/pediatric-enteric-neuropathies-diagnosis-and-current-management
#13
Maggie L Westfal, Allan M Goldstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurointestinal diseases are increasingly recognized as causes of significant gastrointestinal morbidity in children. This review highlights the most common pediatric enteric neuropathies and their diagnosis and management, emphasizing insights and discoveries from the most recent literature available. RECENT FINDINGS: The embryologic and histopathologic causes of enteric neuropathies are varied. They range from congenital aganglionosis in Hirschsprung disease, to autoimmune-mediated loss of neuronal subtypes in esophageal achalasia and Chagas disease, to degenerative neuropathies in some cases of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and gastroparesis...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319485/recent-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-not-the-same-old-song
#14
Raymond K Hsu, Neil R Powe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review recent updates on the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent analyses from the National Health and Nutritional Examination survey describe the temporal trend in CKD prevalence in US adults. The overall prevalence of estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m increased from 4.8% in 1988-1994 to 6.9% in 2003-2004, but has since stabilized at 6.4-6.9% up to 2011-2012. Prevalence of CKD stages 1-4 has also stabilized at ∼14% of adults since 2003-2004...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319415/transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-an-important-biomarker-for-developing-cardiovascular-diseases-in-chronic-renal-failure
#15
E Avci, G Alp Avci, B Ozcelik, S Coskun Cevher, M Suicmez
OBJECTIVE: Our study focuses on the determination and evaluation of TGF-β1 levels of patients receiving hemodialysis treatment because of chronic renal failure. BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure, characterized by irreversible loss of renal function, is a major public health problem in the world. Transforming growth factor-beta is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the cellular growth, differentiation, migration, apoptosis and immune regulation. Among the three TGF-β isoforms, TGF-β1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319168/targeting-chronic-cardiac-remodeling-with-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Janine C Deddens, Dries A Feyen, Peter-Paul Zwetsloot, Maike A Brans, Sailay Siddiqi, Linda W van Laake, Pieter A Doevendans, Joost P Sluijter
BACKGROUND: Translational failure for cardiovascular disease is a substantial problem involving both high research costs and an ongoing lack of novel treatment modalities. Despite the progress already made, cell therapy for chronic heart failure in the clinical setting is still hampered by poor translation. We used a murine model of chronic ischemia/reperfusion injury to examine the effect of minimally invasive application of cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) in cardiac remodeling and to improve clinical translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319158/a-morphological-method-for-ammonia-detection-in-liver
#17
Virginia Gutiérrez-de-Juan, Sergio López de Davalillo, David Fernández-Ramos, Lucía Barbier-Torres, Imanol Zubiete-Franco, Pablo Fernández-Tussy, Jorge Simon, Fernando Lopitz-Otsoa, Javier de Las Heras, Paula Iruzubieta, María Teresa Arias-Loste, Erica Villa, Javier Crespo, Raúl Andrade, M Isabel Lucena, Marta Varela-Rey, Shelly C Lu, José M Mato, Teresa Cardoso Delgado, María-Luz Martínez-Chantar
Hyperammonemia is a metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of ammonia and a common event in acute liver injury/failure and chronic liver disease. Even though hepatic ammonia levels are potential predictive factors of patient outcome, easy and inexpensive methods aiming at the detection of liver ammonia accumulation in the clinical setting remain unavailable. Thus, herein we have developed a morphological method, based on the utilization of Nessler´s reagent, to accurately and precisely detect the accumulation of ammonia in biological tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319118/functional-mri-for-characterization-of-renal-perfusion-impairment-and-edema-formation-due-to-acute-kidney-injury-in-different-mouse-strains
#18
Susanne Tewes, Faikah Gueler, Rongjun Chen, Marcel Gutberlet, Mi-Sun Jang, Martin Meier, Michael Mengel, Dagmar Hartung, Frank Wacker, Song Rong, Katja Hueper
PURPOSE: The purpose was to characterize acute kidney injury (AKI) in C57BL/6 (B6)- and 129/Sv (Sv)-mice by noninvasive measurement of renal perfusion and tissue edema using functional MRI. METHODS: Different severities of AKI were induced in B6- and Sv-mice by renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI) or 45 min (severe AKI) was done. MRI (7-Tesla) was performed 1, 7 and 28 days after surgery using a flow alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319106/a-systematic-review-on-the-impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-the-ocular-surface
#19
REVIEW
K Co Shih, K S-L Lam, L Tong
Diabetes mellitus is associated with extensive morbidity and mortality in any human community. It is well understood that the burden of diabetes is attributed to chronic progressive damage in major end-organs, but it is underappreciated that the most superficial and transparent organ affected by diabetes is the cornea. Different corneal components (epithelium, nerves, immune cells and endothelium) underpin specific systemic complications of diabetes. Just as diabetic retinopathy is a marker of more generalized microvascular disease, corneal nerve changes can predict peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, providing a window of opportunity for early treatment...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319103/microglia-activation-due-to-obesity-programs-metabolic-failure-leading-to-type-two-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
R Maldonado-Ruiz, L Montalvo-Martínez, L Fuentes-Mera, A Camacho
Obesity is an energy metabolism disorder that increases susceptibility to the development of metabolic diseases. Recently, it has been described that obese subjects have a phenotype of chronic inflammation in organs that are metabolically relevant for glucose homeostasis and energy. Altered expression of immune system molecules such as interleukins IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum amyloid A (SAA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), among others, has been associated with the development of chronic inflammation in obesity...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
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