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palliative radiotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938697/intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-dosimetric-and-clinical-results
#1
REVIEW
Sun Hyun Bae, Won Il Jang, Hee Chul Park
Since the introduction of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), new radiotherapy techniques have expanded the indication of radiotherapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), from the hitherto palliative to a now curative-intent purpose. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), currently the most advanced radiotherapy technique, is considered an attractive option for the treatment of HCC, and is more widely applied because it can deliver a higher dose to the tumor than 3DCRT while sparing surrounding normal organs...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936438/unusual-case-of-spindle-cell-sarcoma-metastases-to-right-ventricle-a-case-report-and-a-literature-review
#2
Rezarta Frakulli, Silvia Cammelli, Fabrizio Salvi, Damiano Balestrini, Antonella Baldissera, Claudio Degli Esposti, Ombretta Martelli, Massimo Abate, Anna Piaoli, Stefano Ferrari, Alessio G Morganti, Giovanni Piero Frezza
Cardiac metastases from sarcoma are uncommon. Due to their rarity there is not a standard of care. However, complete cardiac metastases resection is the best option but most of patients has widespread disease. In these patients palliative radiotherapy (RT) might improve symptoms and prevent further cardiac function decline. Here we present the case of a symptomatic 30-year-old woman with spindle cell sarcoma metastasis of right ventriculum and widespread disease. The patient received radiotherapy to the heart with palliative intent...
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936153/management-and-treatment-recommendations-for-world-health-organization-grade-iii-and-iv-gliomas
#3
REVIEW
Abdullah K Altwairgi, Shanker Raja, Mohammed Manzoor, Sadeq Aldandan, Eyad Alsaeed, Ali Balbaid, Hussain Alhussain, Yassir Orz, Ahmed Lary, Abdullah A Alsharm
The treatment recommendations provided in this manuscript are intended to serve as a knowledge base for clinicians and health personals involved in treating patients with high-grade malignant glioma. In newly diagnosed patients, complete resection or biopsy is required for histological characterization of the tumor, which in turn is essential to decide the treatment strategy. In patients with good or borderline performance score, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy are the preferred management. In patients with poor performance score, RT with best possible supportive care is the mainstay of the management...
July 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934992/breast-cancer-metastases-to-the-thyroid-gland-an-uncommon-sentinel-for-diffuse-metastatic-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Agata M Plonczak, Aimee N DiMarco, Roberto Dina, Dorothy J Gujral, Fausto F Palazzo
BACKGROUND: Metastases to the thyroid are rare. The most common primary cancer to metastasize to the thyroid is renal cell carcinoma, followed by malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin, with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid being rare. Overall, the outcomes in malignancies that have metastasized to the thyroid are poor. There are no prospective studies addressing the role of surgery in metastatic disease of the thyroid. Isolated thyroidectomy has been proposed as a local disease control option to palliate and prevent the potential morbidity of tumor extension related to the airway...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927075/tumor-initiating-cells-contribute-to-radiation-resistance-in-primary-human-renal-clear-cell-carcinomas-by-activating-the-dna-damage-checkpoint-response
#5
Bo Li, Yong-Ju Gao, Xin-Yu Wu, Jing Cui, Ye Long, Jun-Ling Xu, De-Gang Ding
The use of radiotherapy in patients with clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is predominantly limited to palliation of metastases or control of local growth, because ccRCC cells readily develop radioresistance. The mechanisms underlying ccRCC resistance remain elusive. The present study demonstrated that ccRCC cells that survive fractionated radiation treatment display tumor-initiating cell (TIC) characteristics, such as high self-renewal and tumorigenic capacities, and overexpress stemness genes. ccRCC cells that survived fractionated radiation exhibited increased activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response and G2/M phase arrest compared with sham-irradiated cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918804/recent-advances-in-therapeutic-endosonography-for-cancer-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Saurabh Mukewar, Venkataraman Raman Muthusamy
Therapeutic endosonography (EUS) may play an important role in the management of cancers. EUS-guided fiducial placement has a high success rate and can aid in stereotactic radiotherapy. EUS-guided tumor ablation therapies can help in palliation of locally advanced tumors. EUS-guided antitumor injection seems to be feasible and safe in animals; initial human studies suffer from small sample size and lack of controls. Randomized, controlled trials have not shown benefit over conventional therapy. EUS celiac plexus neurolysis has gained popularity and is performed by interventional endosonographers...
October 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917256/postoperative-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-spinal-metastases
#7
Majed Alghamdi, Chia-Lin Tseng, Sten Myrehaug, Pejman Maralani, Chris Heyn, Hany Soliman, Young Lee, Mark Ruschin, Leodante Da Costa, Victor Yang, Mikki Campbell, Arjun Sahgal
Spine is a common site of metastases in cancer patients. Spine surgery is indicated for select patients, typically those with mechanical instability and/or malignant epidural spinal cord (or cauda equina) compression. Although post-operative conventional palliative external beam radiation therapy has been the standard of care, technical improvements in radiation planning and image-guided radiotherapy have allowed for the application of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to the spine. Spine SBRT is intended to ablate residual tumor and optimize local control by delivering several fold greater biologically effective doses...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915886/prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-loco-regionally-advanced-gastric-cancer
#8
Bo Hultman, Ulf Gunnarsson, Peter Nygren, Magnus Sundbom, Bengt Glimelius, Haile Mahteme
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate epidemiologic and prognostic factors relevant to the treatment of loco-regionally advanced gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-five patients with GC were identified in Uppsala County between 2000 and 2009. Patient records were analyzed for loco-regionally advanced GC defined as tumor with peritoneal involvement, excluding serosal invasion from the primary tumor only, at primary diagnosis or during follow-up...
September 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915584/a-phase-1-dose-escalation-study-of-the-oral-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-abexinostat-in-combination-with-standard-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#9
Eric Deutsch, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Vanesa Gregorc, Paolo Andrea Zucali, Jean Menard, Jean-Charles Soria, Ioana Kloos, Jeff Hsu, Ying Luan, Emily Liu, Remus Vezan, Thorsten Graef, Sofia Rivera
Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893119/screening-for-psychological-distress-before-radiotherapy-for-painful-bone-metastases-may-be-useful-to-identify-patients-with-high-levels-of-distress
#10
Paulien G Westhoff, Alexander de Graeff, Evelyn M Monninkhof, Maaike J Berveling, Marco van Vulpen, Jan Willem H Leer, Corrie A M Marijnen, Anna K L Reyners, Yvette M van der Linden
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress (PD) has a major impact on quality of life. We studied the incidence of PD before and after radiotherapy for painful bone metastases. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors predictive for PD. METHODS: Between 1996 and 1998, the Dutch Bone Metastasis Study included 1157 patients with painful bone metastases. Patients were randomized between two fractionation schedules. The study showed a pain response of 74% in both groups. Patients filled out weekly questionnaires for 13 weeks, then monthly for two years...
September 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893026/superior-vena-cava-as-gateway-to-heart-metastatic-breast-carcinoma-causing-ball-in-a-loop-metastasis-to-right-atrium
#11
Harpreet Singh Sandhu, Sampath Kumar Mahadevappa Mahendrakar, Sulaiman Sadruddin Ladhani, Azizullah Hafizullah Khan, Yunus Shafi Loya
Breast carcinoma is the most common invasive cancer in women worldwide. It metastasizes commonly to bone, lungs, regional lymph nodes and brain. Cardiac metastasis of lung and breast cancers is a known but rare complication of advanced disease with tumour metastasising to pericardium via the locoregional lymphatic system. Here we present a case of 59-year-old female presenting with right upper limb oedema, facial puffiness and features of Superior Vena Cava (SVC) syndrome 15 years after mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy for carcinoma of the right breast...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892918/sarcomatoid-carcinoma-of-renal-pelvis-with-abundant-heterologous-osteosarcomatous-element-a-case-report
#12
Mona Lisa, Guddi Rani Singh, Richa Madhawi, Bipin Kumar, Zeenat Sarmadi Imam
A 47-year-old male presented with haematuria and flank pain for two weeks. Ultrasonography and renal scan revealed a poorly functioning left kidney with multiple calculi. Simple nephrectomy was performed and the specimen revealed a mass in his renal pelvis which showed both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components on microscopy. The sarcomatous component consisted of diffuse pleomorphic osteoblasts with intervening lacy osteoid, giving an osteosarcoma-like appearance. These areas of tumour were strongly positive for vimentin and osteopontin...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892215/living-with-life-prolonging-chemotherapy-control-and-meaning-making-in-the-tension-between-life-and-death
#13
K Kvåle, O Synnes
Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy and immune therapy have made many cancers chronic, potential curable diseases rather than inevitably fatal, but the treatments are often both mentally and physically stressful even if the side effects varies. The right use of palliative chemotherapy is a complex issue and there are many aspects to take into consideration. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the illness narratives of cancer patients, from the day they suspected that something was wrong up to the present day where they are living with incurable cancer, undergoing life-prolonging chemotherapy...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890815/the-role-of-neoadjuvant-radiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-with-resectable-synchronous-metastasis
#14
Croix C Fossum, Jasim Y Alabbad, Lindsay B Romak, Christopher L Hallemeier, Michael G Haddock, Marianne Huebner, Eric J Dozois, David W Larson
BACKGROUND: Although neoadjuvant radiotherapy is typically administered for locally-advanced rectal cancer to reduce local recurrence (LR), its role for patients who present with synchronous resectable liver and/or lung metastasis is not well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of neoadjuvant radiotherapy for patients with stage IV rectal cancer undergoing curative-intent surgery. METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained surgical registry of all consecutive adult patients who underwent curative-intent resection at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, from January 1990 until December 2014 with a median follow-up time of 43 (IQR 16-67) months...
August 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888554/how-to-treat-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-in-elderly-how-far-can-we-go-in-2017
#15
REVIEW
Marine Gilabert, Jean Luc Raoul, Frederique Rousseau
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal cancers that frequently affects older patients. Limited data suggest that older patients are as likely to benefit from surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy as younger patients. The only potentially curative approach for pancreatic cancer is surgery but this is only performed in less than 20% of patients considered resectable. With improvements in surgical techniques, older patients without major comorbidities show a course of disease after resection similar to that of younger patients...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875882/osteosarcoma-patient-outcomes-at-a-south-african-tertiary-hospital
#16
L Lisenda, Z A Linda, F P J Snyman, R D Kyte, M Lukhele
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour. There is a high incidence of late presentation in the developing world, posing additional challenges in the treatment of this aggressive disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with osteosarcoma at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH), a tertiary hospital in South Africa, and compare these with similar studies in the developing world. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 61 patients treated at CMJAH between 2007 and 2011, with a minimum follow-up of 1...
August 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874619/surgical-management-of-primary-and-recurrent-carcinoma-showing-thymous-like-elements-castle
#17
Federico Attene, Ilia Patrizia Pisano, Carlo Pala, Antonio Marrosu, Corrado Bozzo, Fabrizio Scognamillo
INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma showing thymous-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare tumor with only a few cases described in the scientific literature. The aim of the present review is to analyze the data available on the therapeutic options employed in CASTLE tumors and to outline the best surgical management to adopt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: English-language articles published from 1985 through November 2016, and related to CASTLE cases were retrieved using the Pubmed database and specific key-words...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871275/radiation-treatment-in-women-with-ovarian-cancer-past-present-and-future
#18
REVIEW
Emma C Fields, William P McGuire, Lilie Lin, Sarah M Temkin
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynecologic cancers, with 5-year survival rates less than 50%. Most women present with advanced stage disease as the pattern of spread is typically with dissemination of malignancy throughout the peritoneal cavity prior to development of any symptoms. Prior to the advent of platinum-based chemotherapy, radiotherapy was used as adjuvant therapy to sterilize micrometastatic disease. The evolution of radiotherapy is detailed in this review, which establishes radiotherapy as an effective therapy for women with micrometastatic disease in the peritoneal cavity after surgery, ovarian clear cell carcinoma, focal metastatic disease, and for palliation of advanced disease...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869198/-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-metastases-directed-treatment-in-patients-with-metastatic-prostate-cancer-using-stereotactic-body-irradiation-a-getug-afu-trial
#19
P Blanchard, S Foulon, G Louvel, M Habibian, K Fizazi
The goal of treatment of metastatic prostate cancer remains palliation. The oligometastatic state could be the right time to intensify therapy by introducing metastases directed treatments. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the benefit of radiotherapy to all macroscopic metastatic sites and to the primary disease in patients with hormone sensitive oligometastatic prostate cancer.
August 28, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868202/a-thoracic-vertebral-localization-of-a-metastasized-cutaneous-merkel-cell-carcinoma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Rosario Maugeri, Antonella Giugno, Roberto G Giammalva, Carlo Gulì, Luigi Basile, Francesca Graziano, Domenico G Iacopino
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine skin tumor, which may be related to sun exposure. It can metastasize to lungs, liver and bone, leading to severe morbidity and mortality. Vertebral metastases from MCC are rare. The authors report the tenth case in the literature, a 59-year-old patient with MCC, which was primarily localized in the scalp, and later provoked distant metastasis to the thoracic spinal column. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 59-year-old woman was admitted at our Unit of Neurosurgery with a 4-month history of progressive and severe dorsal back pain, without neurological signs...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
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