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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324900/infant-guided-co-regulated-feeding-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-part-ii-interventions-to-promote-neuroprotection-and-safety
#1
Catherine S Shaker
Feeding skills of preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit are in an emergent phase of development and require careful support to minimize stress. The underpinnings that influence and enhance both neuroprotection and safety were discussed in Part I. An infant-guided, co-regulated approach to feeding can protect the vulnerable neonate's neurologic development, support the parent-infant relationship, and prevent feeding problems that may endure. Contingent interventions are used to maintain subsystem stability and enhance self-regulation, development, and coping skills...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324264/reverse-locked-in-syndrome
#2
Pooja Raibagkar, Ram V Chavali, Tamara B Kaplan, Jennifer A Kim, Meaghan V Nitka, Sherry H-Y Chou, Brian L Edlow
BACKGROUND: Basilar artery occlusion can cause locked-in syndrome, which is characterized by quadriplegia, anarthria, and limited communication via eye movements. Here, we describe an uncommon stroke syndrome associated with endovascular recanalization of the top of the basilar artery: "reverse locked-in syndrome." METHODS: We report the case of a patient with atypical neurological deficits caused by acute ischemic stroke of the midbrain tegmentum. We perform neuroanatomic localization of the patient's infarcts by mapping the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data onto a brainstem atlas...
March 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323720/neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest-in-the-light-of-targeted-temperature-management
#3
Mauro Oddo, Hans Friberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed awakening after targeted temperature management (TTM) and sedation is frequent among cardiac arrest patients. Differentiating between prolonged coma and irreversible cerebral damage can be challenging, therefore the utilization of a multimodal approach is recommended by international guidelines. Here, we discuss indications and advantages/disadvantages of available modalities for coma prognostication and describe new tools to improve our accuracy for outcome prediction...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320159/prevalence-of-peripheral-neuropathy-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-infected-patients
#4
Maria Luiza Areal Corrêa de Sá E Benevides, Sérgio Beduschi Filho, Rodrigo Debona, Eduardo Novaes Costa Bergamaschi, Jean Costa Nunes
The progress on HIV infection treatment has allowed a longer survival for HIV-infected patients. However, chronic comorbidities are emerging. Peripheral Neuropathy (PN) represents one of the most prevalent neurologic disorders among these patients, and comprehensive studies may contribute to a reduction in the morbidity of this condition. This is a cross-sectional analytic study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in southern Brazil. This study investigates the prevalence of PN among HIV-infected patients and associated demographic, clinical and laboratory variables...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320115/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-in-puerperium-a-prospective-study
#5
Gian Paolo Anzola, Renato Brighenti, Milena Cobelli, Alessia Giossi, Sara Mazzucco, Silvia Olivato, Elisa Pari, Maria Paola Piras, Alessandro Padovani, Fabrizio Rinaldi, Giulia Turri
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by severe "thunderclap" headache, with or without associated neurological symptoms and neuroimaging findings of reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. Puerperium is a recognized precipitant, but the incidence of puerperal RCVS is unknown. We conducted a prospective study to assess incidence, risk factors and clinical features of RCVS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Nine-hundred consecutive puerperae were prospectively enrolled within three days of delivery...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318966/structural-biology-of-the-zika-virus
#6
REVIEW
Yi Shi, George F Gao
Zika virus (ZIKV), a Flaviviridae family member transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, has emerged as a major health concern. ZIKV infections can cause serious neurological complications in adults, and infection in pregnant women can cause congenital malformations, including fetal and newborn microcephaly. In response to this emerging concern, the structural virology field was quick to explore the features of ZIKV. These efforts have provided significant insights into ZIKV pathogenesis, and have identified targets for drug design...
March 15, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318954/computed-tomography-perfusion-based-decision-making-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-missing-the-mismatch
#7
J A Molad, M Findler, E Auriel
The emerging use of mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke treatment focuses on the importance of patient selection. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is one of widely used techniques. However, the accuracy and reliability of this modality is in debate among vascular neurologists. We present a case of an 80-year-old man admitted because of acute ischemic stroke. CT angiography demonstrated left proximal M2 occlusion. As CTP demonstrated signs of large ischemic core with no significant penumbra, mechanical thrombectomy was not performed following tPA administration...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318729/acute-cerebellitis-in-paediatric-patients-our-experience
#8
J P García-Iñiguez, F J López-Pisón, P Madurga Revilla, I Montejo Gañán, M Domínguez Cajal, L Monge Galindo, S B Sánchez Marco, M C García Jiménez
INTRODUCTION: Acute cerebellitis is a rare inflammatory disease with a highly variable clinical course that ranges from benign self-limiting symptoms to a fulminant presentation associated with a high risk of death due to compression of the posterior fossa, acute hydrocephalus, and intracranial hypertension. METHODS: We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings from children diagnosed with acute cerebellitis between May 2007 and November 2016. We analysed treatments and clinical and radiological progression...
March 15, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318367/combinatorial-control-of-messenger-rnas-by-pumilio-nanos-and-brain-tumor-proteins
#9
René M Arvola, Chase A Weidmann, Traci M Tanaka Hall, Aaron C Goldstrohm
Eukaryotes possess a vast array of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that affect mRNAs in diverse ways to control protein expression. Combinatorial regulation of mRNAs by RBPs is emerging as the rule. No example illustrates this as vividly as the partnership of three Drosophila RBPs, Pumilio, Nanos and Brain Tumor, which have overlapping functions in development, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fertility and neurological processes. Here we synthesize thirty years of research with new insights into their molecular functions and mechanisms of action...
March 20, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317084/dietary-interventions-and-multiple-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Ghadah Altowaijri, Allison Fryman, Vijayshree Yadav
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling neurologic disease that has its onset in young adulthood. While the knowledge about underlying pathogenesis of MS has improved significantly over the last few decades, the exact cause still eludes us. Despite the availability of several United States Food and Drug Administration-approved disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for MS in the last two decades, the disease remains disabling for many. DMT use is limited by its partial effectiveness, significant side effects in many cases, and high cost that leads people with MS (PwMS) to look for alternative management options...
March 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314446/the-insula-an-underestimated-brain-area-in-clinical-neuroscience-psychiatry-and-neurology
#11
REVIEW
Ho Namkung, Sun-Hong Kim, Akira Sawa
Supported by recent human neuroimaging studies, the insula is re-emerging as an important brain area not only in the physiological understanding of the brain, but also in pathological contexts in clinical research. In this opinion article, we briefly introduce the anatomical and histological features of the human insula. We then summarize the physiological functions of the insula and underscore its pathological roles in psychiatric and neurological disorders that have long been underestimated. We finally propose possible strategies through which the role of the insula may be further understood for both basic and clinical neuroscience...
March 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306635/ocular-fundus-photography-with-a-smartphone-device-in-acute-hypertension
#12
M Lorenza Muiesan, Massimo Salvetti, Anna Paini, Michela Riviera, Clara Pintossi, Fabio Bertacchini, Efrem Colonetti, Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Maurizio Poli, Francesco Semeraro, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Andrea Russo
BACKGROUND: The ocular fundus examination is infrequently and poorly performed in the emergency department (ED) clinical settings, placing patients at risk for missed diagnosis of hypertensive emergencies. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the ocular fundus photography with a smartphone small optical device in an ED setting and to compare it with a traditional ocular fundus examination. METHODS: The study included 52 consecutive patients (mean age 69 ± 16 years, 50% women) presenting to a hospital ED with an acute increase in blood pressure (SBP > 180 and/or DBP > 100 mmHg)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306496/use-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-biopsy-of-a-vertebral-body-mass-to-diagnose-osteosarcoma-in-a-rottweiler
#13
Rebecca A Krimins, Jan Fritz, Larry A Gainsburg, Patrick R Gavin, Elizabeth A Ihms, David L Huso, Dara L Kraitchman
CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old spayed female Rottweiler with hind limb ataxia was examined because of anorexia and an acute onset of hind limb paresis. CLINICAL FINDINGS Neurologic evaluation revealed hind limb ataxia and symmetric paraparesis with bilaterally abnormal hind limb postural reactions including hopping, hemiwalking, hemistanding, and delayed proprioception, which were suggestive of a lesion somewhere in the T3-L3 segment of the spinal cord. Thoracolumbar radiography revealed an abnormal radiopacity suggestive of a mass at T11...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#14
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301770/imaging-and-optically-manipulating-neuronal-ensembles
#15
Luis Carrillo-Reid, Weijian Yang, Jae-Eun Kang Miller, Darcy S Peterka, Rafael Yuste
The neural code that relates the firing of neurons to the generation of behavior and mental states must be implemented by spatiotemporal patterns of activity across neuronal populations. These patterns engage selective groups of neurons, called neuronal ensembles, which are emergent building blocks of neural circuits. We review optical and computational methods, based on two-photon calcium imaging and two-photon optogenetics, to detect, characterize, and manipulate neuronal ensembles in three dimensions. We review data using these methods in the mammalian cortex that demonstrate the existence of neuronal ensembles in the spontaneous and evoked cortical activity in vitro and in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301267/hypotonic-hyporesponsive-episodes-after-administration-of-hexavalent-dtp-based-combination-vaccine-a-description-of-12-cases
#16
Alessandro Vigo, Giulia Costagliola, Elisa Ferrero, Silvia Noce
Hypotonic-hyporesponsive (HHE) episodes are known and recognized phenomena, which typically occur within 48 hours of immunisation..Our aim is to describe 12 cases of HHE brought to the Center of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, with attention to the clinical features of the episode and their follow-up. Medical charts of infants visited between 2005-2015 were reviewed. Twelve infants showed a HHE using HHE using Brighton Collaboration Criteria. All infants received a Hexavalent diphtheria -tetanus -pertussis acellular component -hepatitis B-,inactivated poliovirus- Haemophilus influenzae type-b conjugate vaccine...
February 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300636/perinatal-protein-malnutrition-alters-expression-of-mirna-biogenesis-genes-xpo5-and-ago2-in-mice-brain
#17
Bruno G Berardino, Estefanía A Fesser, Eduardo T Cánepa
Due to its widespread incidence, maternal malnutrition remains one of the major non-genetic factors affecting the development of newborn's brain. While all nutrients have certain influence on brain maturation, proteins appear to be the most critical for the development of neurological functions. An increasing number of studies point out that the effects of early-life nutritional inadequacy has long lasting effects on the brain and lead to permanent deficits in learning and behavior. Epigenetic mechanisms provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes...
March 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300224/short-term-air-pollution-exposure-aggravates-parkinson-s-disease-in-a-population-based-cohort
#18
Hyewon Lee, Woojae Myung, Doh Kwan Kim, Satbyul Estella Kim, Clara Tammy Kim, Ho Kim
Increasing experimental evidence has suggested air pollution as new risk factor for neurological disease. Although long-term exposure is reportedly related to neurological disease, information on association with short-term exposure is scarce. We examined the association of short-term exposure to particles <2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) with PD aggravation in Seoul from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, Korea during 2002-2013...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298579/computed-tomography-of-thoracolumbar-spine-trauma
#19
Teresa G Odle
Thoracolumbar spine trauma typically occurs when high-energy forces damage bony and ligamentous spinal structures and, in severe cases, the spinal cord. These injuries often cause considerable neurological deficits as a result of the damage. Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging method of choice for determining injury severity in most victims of multiple trauma. In addition to describing various types of thoracolumbar trauma, this article discusses the role of CT in emergency diagnosis and management of thoracolumbar injuries...
January 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298046/hypofractionated-stereotactic-radiosurgery-a-new-treatment-strategy-for-giant-cavernous-sinus-hemangiomas
#20
Xin Wang, Huaguang Zhu, Jonathan Knisely, Guanghai Mei, Xiaoxia Liu, Jiazhong Dai, Ying Mao, Li Pan, Zhiyong Qin, Enmin Wang
OBJECTIVE Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare benign vascular tumors that arise from the dural venous sinuses lateral to the sella. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a principal alternative to microresection for small- and medium-sized CSHs. Resection is a reasonable option for large (3-4 cm in diameter) and giant (> 4 cm in diameter) CSHs. However, management of giant CSHs remains a challenge for neurosurgeons because of the high rates of morbidity and even death that stem from uncontrollable and massive hemorrhage during surgery...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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