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Simon Brayford, Nicole S Bryce, Galina Schevzov, Elizabeth M Haynes, James E Bear, Edna C Hardeman, Peter W Gunning
At the leading edge of migrating cells, protrusion of the lamellipodium is driven by Arp2/3-mediated polymerization of actin filaments [1]. This dense, branched actin network is promoted and stabilized by cortactin [2, 3]. In order to drive filament turnover, Arp2/3 networks are remodeled by proteins such as GMF, which blocks the actin-Arp2/3 interaction [4, 5], and coronin 1B, which acts by directing SSH1L to the lamellipodium where it activates the actin-severing protein cofilin [6, 7]. It has been shown in vitro that cofilin-mediated severing of Arp2/3 actin networks results in the generation of new pointed ends to which the actin-stabilizing protein tropomyosin (Tpm) can bind [8]...
May 23, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Fengbo Tan, Hong Zhu, Yiming Tao, Nanhui Yu, Qian Pei, Heli Liu, Yuan Zhou, Haifan Xu, Xiangping Song, Yuqiang Li, Zhongyi Zhou, Xiao He, Xingwen Zhang, Haiping Pei
BACKGROUND: Neuron navigator 2 (NAV2) encodes a member of the neuron navigator gene family, which plays a role in tumorigenesis and cell migration. However, the prognostic value of NAV2 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and the potential pathway through which NAV2 promotes migration and invasion in CRC cell lines is poorly understood. METHODS: The expression level of NAV2 was detected in CRC tissues from two different CRC cohorts by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western blotting; the correlation between NAV2 expression and clinicopathological characters was analyzed, and the prognostic value of NAV2 expression was analyzed using a Cox regression model...
2015: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Yufeng Wang, Yasuhiro Kuramitsu, Takao Kitagawa, Byron Baron, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shin-Ichiro Maehara, Yoshihiko Maehara, Masaaki Oka, Kazuyuki Nakamura
Slingshot-1L (SSH1L), a cofilin-phosphatase, plays a role in actin dynamics and cell migration by reactivating cofilin-1. However, the expression of SSH1L in malignant diseases is poorly understood. The overexpression of SSH1L in cancerous tissue compared to the matched surrounding non-cancerous tissues from patients with late stages (III-IV) of PC was detected in 90% (9/10) of cases by western blotting. The expression of SSH1L was shown to be upregulated in tumor cells from 10.7% (11/102) of patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
May 1, 2015: Cancer Letters
Christoph Wille, Thomas Seufferlein, Tim Eiseler
Highly invasive pancreatic tumors are often recognized in late stages due to a lack of clear symptoms and pose major challenges for treatment and disease management. Broad-band Protein Kinase D (PKD) inhibitors have recently been proposed as additional treatment option for this disease. PKDs are implicated in the control of cancer cell motility, angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. In particular, PKD2 expression is elevated in pancreatic cancer, whereas PKD1 expression is comparably lower. In our recent study we report that both kinases control PDAC cell invasive properties in an isoform-specific, but opposing manner...
2014: Bioarchitecture
Heike Döppler, Ligia I Bastea, Sahra Borges, Samantha J Spratley, Sarah E Pearce, Peter Storz
BACKGROUND: Protein kinase D (PKD) enzymes regulate cofilin-driven actin reorganization and directed cell migration through both p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) and the phosphatase slingshot 1L (SSH1L). The relative contributions of different endogenous PKD isoforms to both signaling pathways have not been elucidated, sufficiently. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We here analyzed two cell lines (HeLa and MDA-MB-468) that express the subtypes protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3)...
2014: PloS One
Sunny Y Xiang, Kunfu Ouyang, Bryan S Yung, Shigeki Miyamoto, Alan V Smrcka, Ju Chen, Joan Heller Brown
Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase RhoA can promote cell survival in cultured cardiomyocytes and in the heart. We showed that the circulating lysophospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist, signaled through RhoA and phospholipase Cε (PLCε) to increase the phosphorylation and activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1). Genetic deletion of either PKD1 or its upstream regulator PLCε inhibited S1P-mediated cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury...
December 17, 2013: Science Signaling
Jian-Wu Zhao, Mu-Rui Zhang, Qiu-Ye Ji, Feng-Juan Xing, Ling-Jie Meng, Yan Wang
Adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) have very limited capacity to regenerate. Therefore, there is a great interest in developing strategies to treat infarcted CMs that are able to regenerate cardiac tissue and promote revascularization of infarcted zones in the heart. Recently, stem cell transplantation has been proposed to replace infarcted CMs and to restore the function of the affected tissue. This area of research has become very active in recent years due to the huge clinical need to improve the efficacy of currently available therapies...
2012: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Heike Döppler, Ligia I Bastea, Tim Eiseler, Peter Storz
Neuregulin (NRG; heregulin) is overexpressed in ∼30% of breast cancers and mediates various processes involved in tumor progression, including tumor cell migration and invasion. Here, we show that NRG mediates its effects on tumor cell migration via PKD1. Downstream of RhoA, PKD1 can prevent directed cell migration through phosphorylation of its substrate SSH1L. NRG exerts its inhibitory effects on PKD1 through Rac1/NADPH oxidase, leading to decreased PKD1 activation loop phosphorylation and decreased activity toward SSH1L...
January 4, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Manish K Rana, Rebecca A Worthylake
Although many mechanisms that activate ROCK are known, corresponding negative regulatory mechanisms required for cytoskeletal plasticity are poorly understood. We have discovered that Coronin1B is a novel attenuator of ROCK signaling. We initially identified Coronin1A in a proteomics screen for ROCK2-binding proteins, and here we demonstrate that Coronin1A/B bind directly to ROCK2 through its PH (Pleckstrin Homology) domain. The consequence of the ROCK2-Coronin1B interaction was tested and revealed that increased expression of Coronin1B inhibited, whereas knockdown of Coronin1B stimulated, phosphorylation of the ROCK substrate myosin light chain phosphatase and subsequently, myosin light chain...
June 22, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jian-Wu Zhao, Zhong-Li Gao, Qiu-Ye Ji, Hong Wang, Han-Yang Zhang, Yu-Dan Yang, Feng-juan Xing, Ling-jie Meng, Yan Wang
Cofilin promotes actin filament turnover by severing and depolymerizing actin filaments. Cofilin is inactivated by phosphorylation on Ser-3 by LIM-kinase1 (LIMK1) and is activated when protein phosphatase Slingshot-1L (SSH1L) dephosphorylates this residue. The authors have shown that Ca-induced cofilin dephosphorylation is mediated by calcineurin (Cn)-dependent activation of SSH1L. In this study, Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is shown to negatively regulate SSH1L activity and bind to SSH1L in a complex with 14-3-3...
December 2012: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Mithunan Maheswaranathan, Hope K A Gole, Isabel Fernandez, Bernard Lassègue, Kathy K Griendling, Alejandra San Martín
Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular pathology. PDGF induces VSMC migration by a Nox1-based NADPH oxidase mediated mechanism. We have previously shown that PDGF-induced migration in VSMCs requires Slingshot-1L (SSH1L) phosphatase activity. In the present work, the mechanism of SSH1L activation by PDGF is further investigated. We identified a 14-3-3 consensus binding motif encompassing Ser-834 in SSH1L that is constitutively phosphorylated. PDGF induces SSH1L auto-dephosphorylation at Ser-834 in wild type (wt), but not in Nox1(-/y) cells...
October 14, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jian-Wu Zhao, Zhong-Li Gao, Hong Mei, Yu-Lin Li, Yan Wang
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes. This critical balance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation plays a significant role in maintaining normal bone homeostasis. In osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease seen mainly in postmenopausal women because of estrogen deficiency, the concomitant occurrence of increased bone marrow adipocyte production with diminished production of osteoblasts, points to the potential role of estrogen in shifting the balance of MSC differentiation...
June 2011: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Anja C Nagel, Jens Schmid, Jasmin S Auer, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
The mammalian protein kinase D family is involved in manifold cellular processes including cell migration and motility. Recently it was shown that human PKD1 and PKD2 phosphorylate and thereby inhibit Slingshot 1 Like (SSH1L), a phosphatase which is central to the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics. We noted before that the overexpression of a constitutively active form of Drosophila PKD (PKD-SE) affects the fly retina and the resultant phenotypes suggest underlying defects in the actin cytoskeleton...
October 2010: Hereditas
Katsuhiro Kawaai, Keiko Tominaga-Yoshino, Tomoyoshi Urakubo, Naoko Taniguchi, Yasumitsu Kondoh, Hideo Tashiro, Akihiko Ogura, Tomoko Tashiro
We have previously shown that repetitive exposures to glutamate (100 muM, 3 min, three times at 24-hr intervals) induced a long-lasting synaptic enhancement accompanied by synaptogenesis in rat hippocampal slice cultures, a phenomenon termed RISE (for repetitive LTP-induced synaptic enhancement). To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying RISE, we first analyzed the time course of gene expression changes between 4 hr and 12 days after repetitive stimulation using an original oligonucleotide microarray: "synaptoarray...
October 2010: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Philipp Peterburs, Johanna Heering, Gisela Link, Klaus Pfizenmaier, Monilola A Olayioye, Angelika Hausser
Protein kinase D (PKD) has been identified as a negative regulator of epithelial cell migration; however, its molecular substrates and downstream signaling pathways that mediate this activity have remained elusive. In this study, we provide evidence that the cofilin phosphatase slingshot 1 like (SSH1L), an important regulator of the complex actin remodeling machinery, is a novel in vivo PKD substrate. PKD-mediated phosphorylation of serines 937 and 978 regulates SSH1L subcellular localization by binding of 14-3-3 proteins and thus impacts the control of local cofilin activation and actin remodeling during cell migration...
July 15, 2009: Cancer Research
Tim Eiseler, Heike Döppler, Irene K Yan, Kanae Kitatani, Kensaku Mizuno, Peter Storz
Dynamic actin remodelling processes at the leading edge of migrating tumour cells are concerted events controlled by a fine-tuned temporal and spatial interplay of kinases and phosphatases. Actin severing is regulated by actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, which regulates stimulus-induced lamellipodia protrusion and directed cell motility. Cofilin is activated by dephosphorylation through phosphatases of the slingshot (SSH) family. SSH activity is strongly increased by its binding to filamentous actin (F-actin); however, other upstream regulators remain unknown...
May 2009: Nature Cell Biology
Alejandra San Martín, Moo Yeol Lee, Holly C Williams, Kensaku Mizuno, Bernard Lassègue, Kathy K Griendling
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a central role in vascular healing, atherosclerosis, and restenosis, partly by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration. Migration requires rapid turnover of actin filaments, which is partially controlled by cofilin. Although cofilin is negatively regulated by Ser3 phosphorylation, the upstream signaling pathways have not been defined, nor has its role in VSMC migration been studied. We hypothesized that PDGF-induced migration of VSMCs involves cofilin activation and that this is regulated by the serine kinase LIM kinase (LIMK) and the novel phosphatase Slingshot (SSH)1L...
February 29, 2008: Circulation Research
Min-A Oh, Eun-Sil Kang, Sin-Ae Lee, Eun-Ok Lee, Yong-Bae Kim, Sung-Hoon Kim, Jung Weon Lee
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion transduces signaling activities for actin reorganization, which is crucially involved in cellular function and architectural integrity. In this study, we explored the possibility of whether cell-cell contacts might be regulated via integrin-alpha5beta1-mediated actin reorganization. Ectopic expression of integrin alpha5 in integrin-alpha5-null intestinal epithelial cells resulted in facilitated retraction, cell-cell contact loss, and wound healing depending on Src and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activities by a reagent that affects actin organization...
August 1, 2007: Journal of Cell Science
Liang Cai, Thomas W Marshall, Andrea C Uetrecht, Dorothy A Schafer, James E Bear
Actin filament formation and turnover within the treadmilling actin filament array at the leading edge of migrating cells are interdependent and coupled, but the mechanisms coordinating these two activities are not understood. We report that Coronin 1B interacts simultaneously with Arp2/3 complex and Slingshot (SSH1L) phosphatase, two regulators of actin filament formation and turnover, respectively. Coronin 1B inhibits filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex and this inhibition is attenuated by phosphorylation of Coronin 1B at Serine 2, a site targeted by SSH1L...
March 9, 2007: Cell
Masahiro Yamamoto, Kyoko Nagata-Ohashi, Yusaku Ohta, Kazumasa Ohashi, Kensaku Mizuno
Slingshot-1L (SSH1L) is a phosphatase that specifically dephosphorylates and activates cofilin, an actin-severing and -depolymerizing protein. SSH1L binds to and is activated by F-actin in vitro, and co-localizes with F-actin in cultured cells. We examined the F-actin-binding activity, F-actin-mediated phosphatase activation, and subcellular distribution of various mutants of SSH1L. We identified three sites involved in F-actin binding of SSH1L: Trp-458 close to the C-terminus of the phosphatase domain, an LHK motif in the N-terminal region, and an LKR motif in the C-terminal region...
March 20, 2006: FEBS Letters
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