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Carbohydrate intolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420148/differential-effect-of-sucrose-and-fructose-in-combination-with-a-high-fat-diet-on-intestinal-microbiota-and-kidney-oxidative-stress
#1
Adriana Rosas-Villegas, Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Azalia Avila-Nava, Victoria Ramírez, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres
There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota and renal oxidative stress. Rats were fed for four months with either high-fat + sucrose (HFS) or high-fat + fructose (HFF) or a control diet (C). Half of the HFS or HFF groups were maintained with the same diet and the other half were switched to the consumption of C. HFS and HFF groups increased 51% and 19% body weight, respectively, compared with the C group...
April 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405073/benign-pancreatic-hyperenzymemia-gullo-syndrome-histamine-intolerance-and-carbohydrate-malabsorption
#2
Wolfgang J Schnedl, Dietmar Enko, Harald Mangge, Michael Schenk, Sonja Lackner, Sandra J Holasek
Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (Gullo syndrome) is characterized by a more than threefold increase of the pancreatic enzymes lipase and amylase in the absence of a pancreatic disease over a period of more than 1 year, with elevations and significant undulations of pancreatic enzyme serum concentrations occurring on a day-to-day basis for 5 consecutive days. Nonspecific abdominal complaints may be caused by carbohydrate and/or protein malabsorption. We report a patient with benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia with lactose and histamine malabsorption; the symptoms of gastrointestinal malabsorption were treated successfully with an individually tailored lactose- and histamine-free diet...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400260/prevention-of-the-adverse-effects-of-olanzapine-on-lipid-metabolism-with-the-antiepileptic-zonisamide
#3
Aneta Stefanidis, Matthew J Watt, Michael A Cowley, Brian J Oldfield
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotic drugs, particularly olanzapine, represent a mainstay in the treatment of psychoses; however, their use is commonly associated with weight gain and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether combined administration of olanzapine and zonisamide can be used to prevent olanzapine-induced metabolic disturbances. METHODS AND RESULTS: These experiments involved female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6-8/group) that were administered olanzapine, either acutely (6 mg/kg, s...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368361/inborn-errors-of-fructose-metabolism-what-can-we-learn-from-them
#4
REVIEW
Christel Tran
Fructose is one of the main sweetening agents in the human diet and its ingestion is increasing globally. Dietary sugar has particular effects on those whose capacity to metabolize fructose is limited. If intolerance to carbohydrates is a frequent finding in children, inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are rare conditions. Three inborn errors are known in the pathway of fructose metabolism; (1) essential or benign fructosuria due to fructokinase deficiency; (2) hereditary fructose intolerance; and (3) fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency...
April 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359772/gck-gckr-fads1-dgkb-tmem195-and-cdkal1-gene-polymorphisms-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#5
Maciej Tarnowski, Damian Malinowski, Katarzyna Pawlak, Violetta Dziedziejko, Krzysztof Safranow, Andrzej Pawlik
OBJECTIVES: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the carbohydrate intolerance that can occur in pregnancy. Genetic polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes could be considered as genetic determinants of GDM. The aim of this study was to examine the association between GCK, GCKR, FADS1, DGKB/TMEM195 and CDKAL1 gene polymorphisms and the development of gestational diabetes. These genetic polymorphisms are involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and are associated with increased risk for diabetes type 2...
March 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352942/long-term-dietary-nitrite-and-nitrate-deficiency-causes-the-metabolic-syndrome-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-death-in-mice
#6
Mika Kina-Tanada, Mayuko Sakanashi, Akihide Tanimoto, Tadashi Kaname, Toshihiro Matsuzaki, Katsuhiko Noguchi, Taro Uchida, Junko Nakasone, Chisayo Kozuka, Masayoshi Ishida, Haruaki Kubota, Yuji Taira, Yuichi Totsuka, Shin-Ichiro Kina, Hajime Sunakawa, Junichi Omura, Kimio Satoh, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Nobuyuki Yanagihara, Shiro Maeda, Yusuke Ohya, Masayuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Akira Arasaki, Masato Tsutsui
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, but whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency would induce the metabolic syndrome in mice. METHODS: To this end, we prepared a low-nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low-nitrite/nitrate chow, in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water...
March 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337215/root-adaptive-responses-to-aluminum-treatment-revealed-by-rna-seq-in-two-citrus-species-with-different-aluminum-tolerance
#7
Peng Guo, Yi-Ping Qi, Lin-Tong Yang, Ning-Wei Lai, Xin Ye, Yi Yang, Li-Song Chen
Seedlings of aluminum (Al)-tolerant Citrus sinensis and Al-intolerant Citrus grandis were fertigated daily with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.0 mM AlCl3●6H2O for 18 weeks. The Al-induced decreases of biomass and root total soluble proteins only occurred in C. grandis, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al-tolerance than C. grandis. Under Al-treatment, C. sinensis roots secreted more citrate and malate than C. grandis ones; less Al was accumulated in C. sinenis than in C. grandis leaves. The Al-induced reduction of phosphorus was lesser in C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337034/exposure-to-an-acute-hypoxic-stimulus-during-early-life-affects-the-expression-of-glucose-metabolism-related-genes-at-first-feeding-in-trout
#8
Jingwei Liu, Elisabeth Plagnes-Juan, Inge Geurden, Stéphane Panserat, Lucie Marandel
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered a "glucose-intolerant" species. With the aim of programming trout to improve their metabolic use of dietary carbohydrates, we hypothesised that a hypoxic stimulus applied during embryogenesis could later affect glucose metabolism at the first-feeding stage. An acute hypoxic stimulus (2.5 or 5.0 mg·L(-1) O2) was applied for 24 h to non-hatched embryos or early hatched alevins followed by a challenge test with a high carbohydrate diet at first-feeding. The effectiveness of the early hypoxic stimulus was confirmed by the induction of oxygen-sensitive markers such as egln3...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303040/assessment-of-maillard-reaction-evolution-prebiotic-carbohydrates-antioxidant-activity-and-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibition-in-pulse-flours
#9
Nadia Moussou, Marta Corzo-Martínez, María Luz Sanz, Farid Zaidi, Antonia Montilla, Mar Villamiel
In this paper, the quality of bean, chickpea, fava beans, lentil and pea flours from Algeria has been evaluated. Maillard reaction (MR) indicators, modifications in the carbohydrate and protein fractions, antioxidant activity and α-amylase inhibitor of raw, toasted and stored samples were evaluated. Fava beans, beans and peas showed higher content of raffinose family oligosaccharides while chickpeas and lentils showed higher polyol content. Toasting and storage caused slightly change in pulse quality; MR showed slight losses of lysine but increased antioxidant activity...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217496/a-study-of-bone-turnover-markers-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, Abhijit Girish Borse, Anjum Pervez, Shaheen Anjum
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia of variable severity with the first recognition during pregnancy. Established risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are maternal age, obesity, family history of diabetes, etc. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and various other hormones are known for their function in maintaining calcium and phosphorous homeostatic. Furthermore, Vitamin D, PTH serum ionized calcium, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been reported to be altered with glucose homeostasis...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199417/physical-activity-prevents-alterations-in-mitochondrial-ultrastructure-and-glucometabolic-parameters-in-a-high-sugar-diet-model
#11
Karina Barbosa de Queiroz, Kinulpe Honorato-Sampaio, Joamyr Victor Rossoni Júnior, Diego Andrade Leal, Angélica Barbosa G Pinto, Lenice Kappes-Becker, Elisio Alberto Evangelista, Renata Guerra-Sá
Endurance exercise is a remarkable intervention for the treatment of many diseases. Mitochondrial changes on skeletal muscle are likely important for many of the benefits provided by exercise. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects that a regular physical activity (swimming without workload) has on mitochondrial morphological alterations and glucometabolic parameters induced by a high-sugar diet (HSD). Weaned male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet or a HSD (68% carbohydrate) were subjected to 60 minutes of regular physical activity by swimming (without workload) for four- (20 sessions) or eight-week (40 sessions) periods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190645/pgm1-deficiency-substrate-use-during-exercise-and-effect-of-treatment-with-galactose
#12
N C Voermans, N Preisler, K L Madsen, M C H Janssen, B Kusters, N Abu Bakar, F Conte, V M L Lamberti, F Nusman, B G van Engelen, M van Scherpenzeel, J Vissing, D J Lefeber
Mutations in PGM1 (phosphoglucomutase 1) cause Glycogen Storage Disease type XIV, which is also a congenital disorder of protein N-glycosylation. It presents throughout life as myopathy with additional systemic symptoms. We report the effect of oral galactose treatment during five months in a patient with biochemically and genetically confirmed PGM1 deficiency. The 12-minute-walking distance increased by 225 m (65%) and transferrin glycosylation was restored to near-normal levels. The exercise assessments showed a severe exercise intolerance due to a block in skeletal muscle glycogenolytic capacity and that galactose treatment tended to normalize skeletal muscle substrate use from fat to carbohydrates during exercise...
January 19, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149017/malabsorption-orocecal-transit-time-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-connection
#13
S V Rana, Aastha Malik, Sanjay K Bhadada, Naresh Sachdeva, Rajesh Kumar Morya, Gaurav Sharma
Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic patients report significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from oral cavity to large bowel and anorectal region. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and most fluids are absorbed in small intestine. Malabsorption may occurs when proper absorption of nutrients does not take place due to bacterial overgrowth or altered gut motility...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110175/ketogenic-diet-therapy-for-epilepsy-during-pregnancy-a-case-series
#14
Elles J T M van der Louw, Tanya J Williams, Bobbie J Henry-Barron, Joanne F Olieman, Johannes J Duvekot, Marijn J Vermeulen, Natalja Bannink, Monique Williams, Rinze F Neuteboom, Eric H Kossoff, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Mackenzie C Cervenka
PURPOSE: Evaluation of ketogenic diet (KD) therapies for seizure control during pregnancy when safety and appropriate management become considerations. Until now, no information has been available on seizure reduction and human pregnancy related outcomes in women treated with KD therapies. METHOD: We describe two cases of pregnant women with epilepsy treated with KD therapy either as monotherapy (Case 1) or as adjunctive therapy (Case 2). RESULTS: Case 1: A 27 year old woman, gravida1, started the classic KD with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsion and 75g carbohydrate-restriction, later reduced to 47g...
February 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093504/a-model-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-guinea-pig-using-sequential-diet-induced-glucose-intolerance-and-streptozotocin-treatment
#15
Brendan K Podell, David F Ackart, Michael A Richardson, James E DiLisio, Bruce Pulford, Randall J Basaraba
Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among noncommunicable diseases, and additional animal models that more closely replicate the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes in guinea pigs, in which diet-induced glucose intolerance precedes β-cell cytotoxicity, two processes that are crucial to the development of human type 2 diabetes. Guinea pigs developed impaired glucose tolerance after 8 weeks of feeding on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, as determined by oral glucose challenge...
February 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093310/effects-of-glucose-and-insulin-administration-on-glucose-transporter-expression-in-the-north-pacific-spiny-dogfish-squalus-suckleyi
#16
Courtney A Deck, W Gary Anderson, Patrick J Walsh
Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) are a primarily carnivorous group of fish, consuming few carbohydrates. Further, they tend to exhibit delayed responses to glucose and insulin administration in vivo relative to mammals, leading to a presumption of glucose-intolerance. To investigate the glucoregulatory capabilities of the spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), plasma glucose concentration, muscle and liver glycogen content, and glucose transporter (glut1 and 4) mRNA levels were measured following intra-arterial administration of bovine insulin (10 ng kg(-1)) or an approximate doubling of fasting plasma glucose concentration...
January 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079868/cdc123-camk1d-gene-rs12779790-polymorphism-and-rs10811661-polymorphism-upstream-of-the-cdkn2a-2b-gene-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#17
M Tarnowski, D Malinowski, K Safranow, V Dziedziejko, A Pawlik
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance occurring in pregnant women. CDC123/CAMK1D and CDKN2A/2B are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and may affect pancreatic beta cell function. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CDKN2A/2B rs10811661 and CDC123/CAMK1D rs12779790 gene polymorphisms and GDM. STUDY DESIGN: This study included 411 pregnant women. The diagnosis of GDM was based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria...
April 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992582/dietary-macronutrient-composition-directs-chrebp-isoform-expression-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice
#18
Tara Jois, Victor Howard, Kristina Youngs, Michael A Cowley, Mark W Sleeman
Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a lipogenic transcription factor that is thought to be involved in the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Increased ChREBP expression in liver results in increased hepatic steatosis, and the isoform ChREBPβ in adipose tissue can predict insulin sensitivity in obese humans. As ChREBP is activated by glucose, it was postulated that the composition of diet would regulate ChREBP isoform expression in metabolically relevant tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990089/metabolic-and-carbohydrate-characteristics-of-different-phenotypes-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
Ebru Çelik, Ilgın Türkçüoğlu, Barış Ata, Abdullah Karaer, Pınar Kırıcı, Sevil Eraslan, Çağatay Taşkapan, Bülent Berker
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of various metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and insulin resistance between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with or without hyperandrogenism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study involving women with PCOS as diagnosed according to the Androgen Excess (AE) Society definition (n=504) and women with normoandrogenemic PCOS (n=183). Anthropometrics, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and reproductive hormone levels were evaluated...
2016: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919710/the-transcription-factor-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-chrebp-a-possible-link-between-metabolic-disease-and-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP) has been identified as a transcription factor that binds to carbohydrate response element in the promoter of pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cells. ChREBP is activated by metabolites derived from glucose and suppressed by adenosine monophosphate (AMP), ketone bodies and cyclic cAMP. ChREBP regulates gene transcription related to glucose and lipid metabolism. Findings from knockout mice and human subjects suggest that ChREBP helps to induce hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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