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Carbohydrate intolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768504/sarcopoterium-spinosum-extract-improved-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice-models-of-glucose-intolerance-and-diabetes
#1
Konstantin Rozenberg, Tovit Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: The glucose lowering properties of Sarcopoterium spinosum, a traditional medicinal plant, were previously validated by us using KK-Ay mice as a genetic model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effects of Sarcopoterium spinosum extract (SSE) on diet-induced glucose intolerance and to investigate SSE effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in target tissues of both high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed and KK-Ay mice. RESULTS: Mice were given SSE (70 mg/day) for 6 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762378/history-of-acquired-monosaccharide-intolerance-in-houston-texas
#2
William J Klish
It is appropriate that we begin the clinical part of this conference with a discussion of acquired monosaccharide intolerance. This disease is the most severe form of carbohydrate malabsorption and maldigestion that can afflict an infant. The following article describes the pathophysiology of the disease, as well as its treatment, much of which was based on studies done by the Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition at Baylor College of Medicine. Acquired monosaccharide intolerance has almost disappeared from the United States but remains a problem in the developing world where it is included as part of the diagnosis of environmental enteropathy...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762371/posttranslational-processing-and-function-of-mucosal-maltases
#3
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
The final step of carbohydrate digestion in the intestine is performed by 2 major α-glucosidases of the intestinal mucosa, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase. Both of these enzymes are type II membrane glycoproteins, which share a significant level of homology in gene and protein structures and yet have differences in the posttranslational processing, substrate specificity and functional capacity. Insufficient activity of these disaccharidases particularly SI as a result of genetic mutations or secondary intestinal pathologies is associated with carbohydrate maldigestion and gastrointestinal intolerances...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747732/gestational-diabetes-underpinning-principles-surveillance-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Denney, Kristen H Quinn
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia with onset during pregnancy. The article aims to provide clinicians with a working framework to minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. Landmark historical and recent data are reviewed and presented to provide clinicians with a quick, easy reference for recognition and management of GDM. Data presented tie in insights with underlying pathophysiologic processes leading to GDM. Screening and diagnostic thresholds are discussed along with management upon diagnosis...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743495/chronic-stress-of-high-dietary-carbohydrate-level-causes-inflammation-and-influences-glucose-transport-through-socs3-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#5
Kangyu Deng, Mingzhu Pan, Jiahuan Liu, Mengxi Yang, Zhixiang Gu, Yue Zhang, Guangxia Liu, Dong Liu, Wenbing Zhang, Kangsen Mai
Carnivorous fish is thought to be high-glucose intolerance. But the reasons were still unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of high level of dietary carbohydrate on the survival, growth and immune responses of Paralichthys olivaceus, and the underlying molecular mechanism related to the immune and glucose metabolism. P. olivaceus were fed with 8%, 16% and 24% of dietary carbohydrate for 10 weeks, respectively. After that, a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted. Results showed that excessive (24%) dietary carbohydrate significantly decreased the growth and glucose tolerance ability according to the GTT...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716943/hepatic-glucose-metabolic-responses-to-digestible-dietary-carbohydrates-in-two-isogenic-lines-of-rainbow-trout
#6
X Song, L Marandel, M Dupont-Nivet, E Quillet, I Geurden, S Panserat
Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) was recognized as typical "glucose-intolerant" fish and poor dietary carbohydrate user. Our first objective was to test the effect of dietary carbohydrates itself (without modification of dietary protein intake) on hepatic glucose gene expression (taking into account of the paralogs. The second aim was to research if two isogenic trout lines had different responds to carbohydrate intake, showing one with a better use dietary carbohydrates. Thus, we used two isogenic lines of rainbow trout (named A32h and AB1h) fed with either high carbohydrate diet or low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695963/the-effects-of-ppar-stimulation-on-cardiac-metabolic-pathways-in-barth-syndrome-mice
#7
Caitlin Schafer, Vicky Moore, Nupur Dasgupta, Sabzali Javadov, Jeanne F James, Alexander I Glukhov, Arnold W Strauss, Zaza Khuchua
Aim: Tafazzin knockdown (TazKD) in mice is widely used to create an experimental model of Barth syndrome (BTHS) that exhibits dilated cardiomyopathy and impaired exercise capacity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that play essential roles as transcription factors in the regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. We hypothesized that the activation of PPAR signaling with PPAR agonist bezafibrate (BF) may ameliorate impaired cardiac and skeletal muscle function in TazKD mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668472/obesity-in-childhood-and-adolescence-genetic-factors
#8
Marko Kostovski, Velibor Tasic, Nevena Laban, Momir Polenakovic, Dragan Danilovski, Zoran Gucev
Obesity and excess weight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. Childhood obesity is also widespread in Macedonia. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and carbohydrate intolerance are found in significant numbers. Parents and grandparents are often obese. Some of the children are either dysmorphic, or slightly retarded. We have already described patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome or WAGR syndrome...
December 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628462/-long-term-dietary-nitrite-and-nitrate-deficiency-causes-metabolic-syndrome-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-death-in-mice
#9
Mika Kina-Tanada, Mayuko Sakanashi, Akira Arasaki, Masato Tsutsui
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, however whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency induces metabolic syndrome (MetS) in mice. To this end, we prepared a low nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low nitrite/nitrate chow in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein, and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608977/ethnic-differences-in-antepartum-glucose-values-that-predict-postpartum-dysglycemia-and-neonatal-macrosomia
#10
Olubukola Ajala, Constance Chik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes (GDM) occurs more often in women from certain ethnic groups and is also associated with fetal macrosomia. In this study, we investigated the ability of a gestational diabetes screening test (GDS), the 2hour 75gram-Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in predicting postpartum dysglycemia and fetal macrosomia in women of Caucasian, Filipino, Chinese and South-Asian descent. METHODS: 848 women diagnosed with carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy who completed a 2hour 75g- OGTT within 6 months postpartum, were included in the study...
March 30, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546280/metabolic-inflexibility-is-an-early-marker-of-bed-rest-induced-glucose-intolerance-even-when-fat-mass-is-stable
#11
Floriane Rudwill, Donal O'Gorman, Etienne Lefai, Isabelle Chery, Alexandre Zahariev, Sylvie Normand, Allan F Pagano, Angèle Chopard, Anthony Damiot, Claire Laurens, Leanne Hodson, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Martina Heer, Petra Frings Meuthen, Judith Buehlmeier, Natalie Baecker, Laure Meiller, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stéphane Blanc, Chantal Simon, Audrey Bergouignan
Context: The effects of energy-balanced bed rest on metabolic flexibility have not been thoroughly examined. Objective: We investigated the effects of 21 days of bed rest, with and without whey protein supplementation, on metabolic flexibility while maintaining energy balance. We hypothesized that protein supplementation mitigates metabolic inflexibility by preventing muscle atrophy. Design and Setting: Randomized crossover longitudinal study conducted at the German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543920/the-relationship-between-ca-repeat-polymorphism-of-the-igf-1-gene-and-the-structure-of-motor-skills-in-young-athletes
#12
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2007-2009...
2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535949/maternal-and-perinatal-outcome-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-delhi
#13
Rajesh Kumari, Venus Dalal, Garima Kachhawa, Ipshita Sahoo, Rajesh Khadgawat, Reeta Mahey, Vidushi Kulshrestha, Perumal Vanamail, J B Sharma, Neerja Bhatla, Alka Kriplani
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy and may be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the maternal and perinatal outcome in GDM during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with GDM who got antenatal care and delivered in our hospital in previous 5 years...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522277/high-body-adiposity-drives-glucose-intolerance-and-increases-cardiovascular-risk-in-normoglycemic-subjects
#14
Belén Pérez-Pevida, Jesús Díaz-Gutiérrez, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Camilo Silva, Sonia Romero, Javier Salvador, Javier Escalada, Gema Frühbeck
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the utility of the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) value to discriminate between different cardiometabolic profiles and examine the role of body composition in predicting the associated increased risk for glucose impairment, beta-cell dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Subjects with normal fasting glucose completed a 2-hour OGTT and were categorized to the carbohydrate metabolism alterations (CMAs) or the control group based on a 2-hour glucose threshold of 7...
April 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510322/paradoxical-role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-on-metabolic-dysfunction-and-adipose-tissue-expansion-in-mice
#15
Laís Bhering Martins, Marina Chaves de Oliveira, Zélia Menezes-Garcia, Débora Fernandes Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pereira Lana, Leda Quercia Vieira, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira
OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a well-known cytokine that triggers insulin resistance during obesity development. On the other hand, it is also known that TNF induces a fat mass loss during acute diseases. However, whether TNF has a protective and physiological role to control adipose tissue expansion during obesity still needs to be verified. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ablation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) alters fat mass and insulin resistance induced by a highly refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet...
June 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406782/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-is-required-for-moderate-high-fat-diet-but-not-high-carbohydrate-diet-induced-weight-gain
#16
Ryuya Maekawa, Hidetada Ogata, Masatoshi Murase, Norio Harada, Kazuyo Suzuki, Erina Joo, Akiko Sankoda, Atsushi Iida, Takako Izumoto, Shin Tsunekawa, Yoji Hamada, Yutaka Oiso, Nobuya Inagaki, Hiroshi Arima, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Yusuke Seino
Both high fat diet and high carbohydrate diet are known to induce weight gain. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is secreted mainly from intestinal K-cells upon stimuli by nutrients such as fat and glucose, and it potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion. GIP is well-known to contribute to high fat diet-induced obesity. In this study, we analyzed the effect of high carbohydrate feeding on GIP secretion and metabolic parameters to explore the role of GIP in high carbohydrate-induced weight gain...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385050/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-selenocysteine-lyase-knockout-mouse
#17
Ashley N Ogawa-Wong, Ann C Hashimoto, Herena Ha, Matthew W Pitts, Lucia A Seale, Marla J Berry
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant properties and health benefits, attributed to its presence in selenoproteins as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenocysteine lyase (Scly) catalyzes hydrolysis of selenocysteine to selenide and alanine, facilitating re-utilization of Se for de novo selenoprotein synthesis. Previously, it was reported that male Scly-/- mice develop increased body weight and body fat composition, and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, compared to wild type mice...
January 31, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286159/maternal-chromium-restriction-induces-insulin-resistance-in-adult-mice-offspring-through-mirna
#18
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Increasing evidence suggests that undernutrition during the fetal period may lead to glucose intolerance, impair the insulin response and induce insulin resistance (IR). Considering the importance of chromium (Cr) in maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, the present study aimed to determine the effects of maternal low Cr (LC) on glucose metabolism in C57BL mice offspring, and the involved mechanisms. Weaned C57BL mice were born from mothers fed a control diet or LC diet, and were then fed a control or LC diet for 13 weeks...
March 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280369/characteristics-of-the-regional-human-milk-bank-in-poland-donors-recipients-and-nutritional-value-of-human-milk
#19
Olga Barbarska, Monika Zielińska, Beata Pawlus, Aleksandra Wesołowska
Background: In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants Objective: This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Material and methods: Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278834/sugar-sensing-by-chrebp-mondo-mlx-new-insight-into-downstream-regulatory-networks-and-integration-of-nutrient-derived-signals
#20
REVIEW
Essi Havula, Ville Hietakangas
Animals regulate their physiology with respect to nutrient status, which requires nutrient sensing pathways. Simple carbohydrates, sugars, are sensed by the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors ChREBP/Mondo, together with their heterodimerization partner Mlx, which are well-established activators of sugar-induced lipogenesis. Loss of ChREBP/Mondo-Mlx in mouse and Drosophila leads to sugar intolerance, that is, inability to survive on sugar containing diet. Recent evidence has revealed that ChREBP/Mondo-Mlx responds to sugar and fatty acid-derived metabolites through several mechanisms and cross-connects with other nutrient sensing pathways...
December 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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