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Carbohydrate intolerance

María Teresa Sánchez-Ávila, Karla Lorena Chávez Caraza, Adrián Marcelo González Gil, Jaime Javier Cantú Pompa, Edgar Moreno Medrano, Luis Alonso Morales-Garza
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen breath tests (HBT) are used to confirm the diagnosis of carbohydrate intolerance or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). OBJECTIVE: Determine the existence of a correlation between the presence and intensity of symptoms experimented by the patient after the ingestion of a carbohydrate load and the test result. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective and analytic study, in which all patients' files from year 2008 to 2014 containing a report of a HBT performed at Hospital San José TEC de Monterrey were revised...
July 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Maciej Tarnowski, Damian Malinowski, Krzysztof Safranow, Violetta Dziedziejko, Michał Czerewaty, Andrzej Pawlik
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder that occurs during pregnancy. HHEX and PROX1 are genetic loci associated with diabetes mellitus type 2. HHEX and PROX1 play significant roles in carbohydrate intolerance and diabetes because these transcription factors may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and in glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the association between HHEX (rs5015480) and PROX1 (rs340874) gene polymorphisms and GDM. This study included 204 pregnant women with GDM and 207 pregnant women with the normal glucose tolerance (NGT)...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Mi-Sung Kim, Sarah A Krawczyk, Ludivine Doridot, Alan J Fowler, Jennifer X Wang, Sunia A Trauger, Hye-Lim Noh, Hee Joon Kang, John K Meissen, Matthew Blatnik, Jason K Kim, Michelle Lai, Mark A Herman
Obese, insulin-resistant states are characterized by a paradoxical pathogenic condition in which the liver appears to be selectively insulin resistant. Specifically, insulin fails to suppress glucose production, yet successfully stimulates de novo lipogenesis. The mechanisms underlying this dysregulation remain controversial. Here, we hypothesized that carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), a transcriptional activator of glycolytic and lipogenic genes, plays a central role in this paradox...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xinfeng Yan, Bo Feng, Peicheng Li, Zhaosheng Tang, Lin Wang
Background. Emerging evidences have shown a close interplay between obesity, diabetes, and intestinal flora disturbance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exemplified by sitagliptin, is highly efficacious in treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM), yet little is known if sitagliptin exerts beneficial effects on microbiota associated with obesity and T2DM. We evaluated changes of gut microbiota following the induction of obesity and T2DM in a streptozotocin treated high fat/high carbohydrate fed (HF/HC-STZ) rat model and explored the effect of sitagliptin on gut microbiota for HF/HC-STZ rats...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Sonja Kilo, Thomas Göen, Hans Drexler
PURPOSE: There are still concerns regarding occupational exposure to hepatotoxic DMF. This study was designed to evaluate possible liver damaging effects of DMF under current workplace conditions in synthetic fibres industries. METHODS: Among other laboratory parameters, liver function parameters (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase), the mean corpuscular erythrocyte volume (MCV) and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) of the workforce of two companies present at the days of study were investigated...
November 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Antone R Opekun, Albert M Balesh, Harold T Shelby
Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Lucie Marandel, Olivier Lepais, Eva Arbenoits, Vincent Véron, Karine Dias, Marie Zion, Stéphane Panserat
The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a 'glucose-intolerant' phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases...
2016: Scientific Reports
James W Daily, Sunmin Park
OBJECTIVES: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of BDNF variants with type 2 diabetes and the interactions of different BDNF genotypes with dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes in middle-aged adults. METHODS: The study population included 8840 adults ages 40 to 65 y from the Ansan and Asung areas in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, a cross-sectional study of Korean adults, conducted from 2001 to 2002...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
Fabiana Zingone, Chiara Bartalini, Monica Siniscalchi, Monica Ruotolo, Cristina Bucci, Ivonne Morra, Paola Iovino, Carolina Ciacci
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is evidence that food components beyond gluten cause symptoms in patients with gluten sensitivity without celiac disease (nonceliac gluten sensitivity [NCGS]). We investigated the diets and nutritional characteristics of patients with NCGS. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of 29 patients with NCGS seen at the outpatient clinic for celiac disease and other food intolerances of the University of Salerno in Italy from September 2015 through April 2016...
August 21, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Teryn N Sapper, Eunice Mah, Jennifer Ahn-Jarvis, Joshua D McDonald, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Elizabeth J Reverri, Yael Vodovotz, Richard S Bruno
Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) increases cardiovascular disease risk regardless of glucose intolerance by transiently impairing vascular endothelial function (VEF) by limiting nitric oxide bioavailability in an oxidative stress-dependent manner. Preclinical studies show that green tea catechins attenuate PPH by inhibiting starch digestion. We hypothesized that a starch-based confection containing catechin-rich green tea extract (GTE) would limit PPH-mediated impairments in VEF in normoglycemic adults. We formulated a unique GTE confection and then conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study in healthy men (n = 15; 25...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Brianna D Harfmann, Elizabeth A Schroder, Maureen T Kachman, Brian A Hodge, Xiping Zhang, Karyn A Esser
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the USA, and disruption of circadian rhythms is gaining recognition as a contributing factor to disease prevalence. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. The skeletal muscle is a key insulin-sensitive metabolic tissue, taking up ~80 % of postprandial glucose. To address the role of the skeletal muscle molecular clock to insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, we generated an inducible skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 (-/-) mouse (iMSBmal1 (-/-))...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
Mohammad Zarei, Emma Barroso, Rosana Leiva, Marta Barniol-Xicota, Eugènia Pujol, Carmen Escolano, Santiago Vázquez, Xavier Palomer, Virginia Pardo, Águeda González-Rodríguez, Ángela M Valverde, Tania Quesada-López, Francesc Villarroya, Walter Wahli, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a peptide hormone with pleiotropic effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, is considered a target for the treatment of diabetes. We investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ deficiency in hepatic FGF21 regulation. Increased Fgf21 expression was observed in the livers of PPARβ/δ-null mice and in mouse primary hepatocytes when this receptor was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Increased Fgf21 was associated with enhanced protein levels in the heme-regulated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinase (HRI)...
October 2016: Diabetes
Kadry Sadek, Doha Beltagy, Ebeed Saleh, Reham Abouelkhair
The lack of studies regarding the mechanism of the protective effects of camel milk and bee honey against hepatotoxic compounds led us to perform this study. Thirty-six male rats were divided into two main groups. The first group (n = 9) comprised control non-cirrhotic rats. The rats of the second group (n = 27) were administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) by intraperitoneal injection to induce liver cirrhosis. The cirrhotic rats were then divided into three equal subgroups, each comprising nine animals, as follows: (i) cirrhotic rats, (ii) cirrhotic rats treated with camel milk, and (iii) cirrhotic rats treated with camel milk and bee honey...
May 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Andrew Collier, E Christie Abraham, Julie Armstrong, Jon Godwin, Kirsten Monteath, Robert Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as "carbohydrate intolerance of varying degrees of severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy" and is associated with increased foetal and maternal risks. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of GDM in Scotland over the 32 years (1981-2012), and using the data from 2012, to assess how GDM related to maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), maternal age, parity, smoking, Scottish index of multiple deprivation (SIMD), infant infant gender and macrosomia status...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Laura Morlacchi, Domenica Mallardi, Maria Lorella Giannì, Paola Roggero, Orsola Amato, Pasqua Piemontese, Dario Consonni, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: Fortifying human milk contributes to the prevention of postnatal growth failure in preterm infants. Because of the natural variability of human milk, targeted fortification of human milk has been advocated. However, data regarding the efficacy and safety of prolonged targeted fortification are scarce. We aimed to assess the safety of targeted fortification of human milk in preterm infants compared with standard fortification, as well as the effects on infant growth. METHODS: We conducted an interventional study during hospital stay in healthy very low birth weight preterm infants who were exclusively fed human milk...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Avila-Nava Azalia, Noriega Lg, Tovar Ar, Granados O, Perez-Cruz C, Pedraza-Chaverri José, Torres Nimbe
SCOPE: There is few information about the possible health effects of a food combination based on a prehispanic Mexican diet (PMD). This diet rich in fiber, polyphenols, a healthy ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids, and vegetable protein could improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and cognitive function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effect of a PMD in a sucrose enriched high-fat model. The PMD contains corn, beans, tomato, nopal, chia and pumpkin seeds in dehydrated form...
June 29, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Angélica Saraí Jiménez-Osorio, Adriana Monroy, Silvestre Alavez
Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), the main component of the Indian spice turmeric, has been used in traditional medicine to improve diabetes and its comorbidities. Since the last two decades, scientific research has shown that in addition to its antioxidant properties, curcumin could also work as protein homeostasis regulator and it is able to modulate other intracellular pathways. Curcumin supplementation has been proposed to improve insulin resistance (IR) through the activation of the insulin receptor and its downstream pathways in several experimental models, pointing out that its clinical use may be a good and innocuous strategy to improve IR-related diseases...
June 21, 2016: BioFactors
Flavia Fernandes-Lima, Thiago Luís Ribeiro Gomes Monte, Fernanda Amorim de Morais Nascimento, Bianca Martins Gregório
High-sucrose and high-fat diets induce deregulation in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates. This study aimed to detect the initial consequences on lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and insulin signaling in the livers of rodents fed high-fat and/or high-sucrose diets for a short period of time. Male mice received a standard chow (SC), high-fat (HF), high-sucrose (HSu) or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHSu) diet for 4 weeks. At euthanasia, blood was collected and the liver was removed for histomorphometrical and molecular analysis...
June 17, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Hendra Susanto, Ta-Yu Liu, Chang-Chiang Chen, Jerry D T Purnomo, Shu-Fan Chen, Chih-Hong Wang
Long-standing diabetes or glucose intolerance is recognized as a crucial event in the process of pancreatic cancer. Betatrophin, a novel liver-derived hormone, promotes β-cell proliferation and improves glucose intolerance. However, the relationship between betatrophin and PDAC-associated diabetes is not fully understood. To evaluate the serum betatrophin levels in PDAC-associated diabetes, a total 105 Taiwanese subjects including 15 healthy subjects, and 12 patients having PDAC with normal glucose tolerance (PDAC-NGT), 12 patients having PC with impaired glucose tolerance (PDAC-IGT), and 66 patients having PC with diabetes mellitus (PDAC-DM) were enrolled for this study...
June 3, 2016: Oncotarget
Oleg Varlamov
The evolutionary transition from hunting to farming was associated with introduction of carbohydrate-rich diets. Today, the increased consumption of simple sugars and high-fat food brought about by Western-style diet and physical inactivity are leading causes of the growing obesity epidemic in the Western society. The extension of human lifespan far beyond reproductive age increased the burden of metabolic disorders associated with overnutrition and age-related hypogonadism. Sex steroids are essential regulators of both reproductive function and energy metabolism, whereas their imbalance causes infertility, obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and increased appetite...
June 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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