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Glucoamylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910937/biohydrogen-production-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-food-waste-in-batch-and-continuous-systems
#1
Wei Han, Yingting Yan, Yiwen Shi, Jingjing Gu, Junhong Tang, Hongting Zhao
In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889341/facile-synthesis-of-glucoamylase-embedded-metal-organic-frameworks-glucoamylase-mof-with-enhanced-stability
#2
Shamraja S Nadar, Virendra K Rathod
The self-assembled glucoamylase metal-organic framework (glucoamylase-MOF) was synthesized by facile one-step method within 20min by simply mixing aqueous solution of 2-methylimidazole (160mM), glucoamylase (5mg/mL) and zinc acetate (40mM) at room temperature (28±2°C). The prepared glucoamylase-MOF was characterized by using FT-IR, confocal scanning laser microscopy, XRD and SEM. The robustness and thermal stability of glucoamylase embedded MOF was evaluated in terms of half-life (in the range of 60-80°C) which showed 6 folds increment as against free form...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800014/dry-grind-processing-using-amylase-corn-and-superior-yeast-to-reduce-the-exogenous-enzyme-requirements-in-bioethanol-production
#3
Deepak Kumar, Vijay Singh
BACKGROUND: Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790066/taxonomic-characterization-evaluation-of-toxigenicity-and-saccharification-capability-of-aspergillus-section-flavi-isolates-from-korean-traditional-wheat-based-fermentation-starter-nuruk
#4
Jyotiranjan Bal, Suk-Hyun Yun, Jeesun Chun, Beom-Tae Kim, Dae-Hyuk Kim
The most economically important species used in a wide range of fermentation industries throughout Asia belong to Aspergillus section Flavi, which are morphologically and phylogenetically indistinguishable, with a few being toxigenic and therefore a major concern. They are frequently isolated from Korean fermentation starters, such as nuruk and meju. The growing popularity of traditional Korean alcoholic beverages has led to a demand for their quality enhancement, therefore requiring selection of efficient non-toxigenic strains to assist effective fermentation...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777618/efficient-hydrolysis-of-raw-starch-and-ethanol-fermentation-a-novel-raw-starch-digesting-glucoamylase-from-penicillium-oxalicum
#5
Qiang-Sheng Xu, Yu-Si Yan, Jia-Xun Feng
BACKGROUND: Starch is a very abundant and renewable carbohydrate and is an important feedstock for industrial applications. The conventional starch liquefaction and saccharification processes are energy-intensive, complicated, and not environmentally friendly. Raw starch-digesting glucoamylases are capable of directly hydrolyzing raw starch to glucose at low temperatures, which significantly simplifies processing and reduces the cost of producing starch-based products. RESULTS: A novel raw starch-digesting glucoamylase PoGA15A with high enzymatic activity was purified from Penicillium oxalicum GXU20 and biochemically characterized...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770860/marine-microbial-amylases-properties-and-applications
#6
J Suriya, S Bharathiraja, M Krishnan, P Manivasagan, S-K Kim
Amylases are crucial enzymes which hydrolyze internal glycosidic linkages in starch and produce as primary products dextrins and oligosaccharides. Amylases are classified into α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase based on their three-dimensional structures, reaction mechanisms, and amino acid sequences. Amylases have innumerable applications in clinical, medical, and analytical chemistries as well as in food, detergent, textile, brewing, and distilling industries. Amylases can be produced from plants, animals, and microbial sources...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696371/comprehensive-reconstruction-and-in-silico-analysis-of-aspergillus-niger-genome-scale-metabolic-network-model-that-accounts-for-1210-orfs
#7
Hongzhong Lu, Weiqiang Cao, Liming Ouyang, Jianye Xia, Mingzhi Huang, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang, Henk Noorman
Aspergillus niger is one of the most important cell factories for industrial enzymes and organic acids production. A comprehensive genome-scale metabolic network model (GSMM) with high quality is crucial for efficient strain improvement and process optimization. The lack of accurate reaction equations and gene-protein-reaction associations (GPRs) in the current best model of A. niger named GSMM iMA871, however, limits its application scope. To overcome these limitations, we updated the A. niger GSMM by combining the latest genome annotation and literature mining technology...
October 3, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693337/immobilization-of-glucoamylase-on-triazine-functionalized-fe3o4-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite-improved-stability-and-reusability
#8
Mahkameh Amirbandeh, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani
Immobilization of an enzyme can enhance its catalytic activity, depending on the properties of the enzyme and the matrix. Graphene oxide is a nontoxic material and selective modulator for enzyme activity and is also a thermostable molecule that is important in large-scale nanostructure sheet applications. Herein, we have successfully developed a strategy for preparing a nanocomposite for enzyme immobilization model with high loading capacity. Nanostructures of hybrid graphene oxide-Fe3O4-cyanuric chloride (GO/MNP-CC) have adjustable surface chemistry that is an excellent candidate for covalent immobilization of enzymes...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663705/effect-of-organic-loading-rate-on-dark-fermentative-hydrogen-production-in-the-continuous-stirred-tank-reactor-and-continuous-mixed-immobilized-sludge-reactor-from-waste-pastry-hydrolysate
#9
Wei Han, Yunyi Hu, Shiyi Li, Qiulin Nie, Hongting Zhao, Junhong Tang
Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m(3)d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m(3)d) and 32kgCOD/(m(3)d), respectively...
September 20, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651751/intestinal-adaptations-to-a-combination-of-different-diets-with-and-without-endurance-exercise
#10
Janice L Daniels, Richard J Bloomer, Marie van der Merwe, Samantha L Davis, Karyl K Buddington, Randal K Buddington
BACKGROUND: Endurance athletes search for diet regimens that will improve performance and decrease gastrointestinal disturbances during training and events. Although the intestine can adapt to changes in the amount and composition of dietary inputs, the responses to the combination of endurance exercise and diet are poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated small intestinal dimensions and mucosal architecture and calculated the capacities of the entire small intestine to digest maltose and maltodextrin and absorb glucose in response to two different diet types; a western human diet and the Daniel Fast, a vegan style diet, and with moderate intensity endurance training or a no-exercise sedentary lifestyle for a 13 week period (n = 7 per group)...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637875/glnr-and-phop-directly-regulate-the-transcription-of-genes-encoding-starch-degrading-amylolytic-enzymes-in-saccharopolyspora-erythraea
#11
Ya Xu, Cheng-Heng Liao, Li-Li Yao, Xu Ye, Bang-Ce Ye
Starch-degrading enzymes hydrolyze starch- and starch-derived oligosaccharides to yield glucose. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding starch-degrading enzymes in the industrial actinobacteria Saccharopolyspora erythraea We observed that most genes encoding amylolytic enzymes (one α-amylase, one glucoamylase and four α-glucosidases) were regulated by GlnR and PhoP, which are global regulators of nitrogen and phosphate metabolism, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that GlnR and PhoP directly interact with their promoter regions, and collaboratively or competitively activate their transcription...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628927/crea-is-directly-involved-in-pullulan-biosynthesis-and-regulation-of-aureobasidium-melanogenum-p16
#12
Qin-Qing Wang, Yi Lu, Zi-Yan Ren, Zhe Chi, Guang-Lei Liu, Zhen-Ming Chi
Aureobasidium melanogenum P16 is a high pullulan-producing yeast. However, glucose repression on its pullulan biosynthesis must be relieved. After the gene encoding a glucose repressor was cloned, characterized and analyzed, it was found that the repressor belonged to one member of the CreA in filamentous fungi, not to one member of the Mig1 in yeasts. After the CREA gene was fully removed from the yeast strain P16, the glucose repression in the disruptant DG41 was relieved. At the same time, the pullulan production by the disruptant DG41 was enhanced compared to that by its wild-type strain P16, and the transcriptional levels of the gene encoding a glucosyltransferase, three genes encoding glucose transporters, the gene encoding a 6-P-glucose kinase and the genes encoding α-amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase in the disruptant DG41 were also promoted...
September 15, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611472/magnetic-bead-liposome-hybrids-enable-sensitive-and-portable-detection-of-dna-methyltransferase-activity-using-personal-glucose-meter
#13
Youna Zhang, Qingwang Xue, Jifeng Liu, Huaisheng Wang
DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays a critical role in maintaining genome methylation patterns, which has a close relationship to cancer and bacterial diseases. This encouraged the need to develop highly sensitive, simple, and robust assays for DNA MTase detection and inhibitor screening. Herein, a simple, sensitive, and specific DNA MTase activity assay was developed based on magnetic beads-liposome hybrids combined with personal glucose meter (PGM) for quantitative detection of DNA MTase and inhibitor screening...
August 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600763/static-and-dynamic-half-life-and-lifetime-molecular-turnover-of-enzymes
#14
Osato Miyawaki, Tsukasa Kanazawa, Chika Maruyama, Michiko Dozen
The static half-life of an enzyme is the half-life of a free enzyme not working without substrate and the dynamic half-life is that of an active enzyme working with plenty amount of substrate. These two half-lives were measured and compared for glucoamylase (GA) and β-galactosidase (BG). The dynamic half-life was much longer than the static half-life by one to three orders of magnitude for both enzymes. For BG, the half-life of the enzyme physically entrapped in a membrane reactor was also measured. In this case also, the half-life of BG in the membrane reactor was much longer than the free enzyme without substrate...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588040/lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-and-other-oxidative-enzymes-are-abundantly-secreted-by-aspergillus-nidulans-grown-on-different-starches
#15
Laura Nekiunaite, Magnus Ø Arntzen, Birte Svensson, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad, Maher Abou Hachem
BACKGROUND: Starch is the second most abundant plant-derived biomass and a major feedstock in non-food industrial applications and first generation biofuel production. In contrast to lignocellulose, detailed insight into fungal degradation of starch is currently lacking. This study explores the secretomes of Aspergillus nidulans grown on cereal starches from wheat and high-amylose (HA) maize, as well as legume starch from pea for 5 days. RESULTS: Aspergillus nidulans grew efficiently on cereal starches, whereas growth on pea starch was poor...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540378/environmental-factors-affecting-microbiota-dynamics-during-traditional-solid-state-fermentation-of-chinese-daqu-starter
#16
Pan Li, Weifeng Lin, Xiong Liu, Xiaowen Wang, Lixin Luo
In this study, we investigated the microbiota dynamics during two industrial-scale traditional solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes of Daqu starters. Similar evolution profiles of environmental parameters, enzymatic activities, microbial amounts, and communities were observed during the medium temperature SSF (MTSSF) and low temperature SSF (LTSSF) processes. Orders of Rickettsiales and Streptophyta only dominated the initial 2 days, and Eurotiales only predominated from days 10 to 24, however, phylotypes of Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, Saccharomycetales, and Mucorales both prevailed throughout the MTSSF and LTSSF processes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513684/sensitive-detection-of-maltose-and-glucose-based-on-dual-enzyme-displayed-bacteria-electrochemical-biosensor
#17
Aihua Liu, Qiaolin Lang, Bo Liang, Jianguo Shi
Glucoamylase-displayed bacteria (GA-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase-displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were co-immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to construct GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor. The biosensor was developed by optimizing the loading amount and the ratio of GA-bacteria to GDH-bacteria. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 0.2-10mM and a low detection limit of 0.1mM maltose (S/N=3). The biosensor also had a linear response to glucose in the range of 0...
July 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504454/heterologous-expression-and-characterization-of-thermostable-glucoamylase-derived-from-aspergillus-flavus-nsh9-in-pichia-pastoris
#18
Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Ahmad Husaini, Md Anowar Hossain, Ngieng Ngui Sing, Fazia Mohd Sinang, Mohd Hasnain Md Hussain, Hairul Azman Roslan
A novel thermostable glucoamylase cDNA without starch binding domain (SBD) of Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was successfully identified, isolated, and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The complete open reading frame of glucoamylase from Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was identified by employing PCR that encodes 493 amino acids lacking in the SBD. The first 17 amino acids were presumed to be a signal peptide. The cDNA was cloned into Pichia pastoris and the highest expression of recombinant glucoamylase (rGA) was observed after 8 days of incubation period with 1% methanol...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416509/biohydrogen-production-in-the-suspended-and-attached-microbial-growth-systems-from-waste-pastry-hydrolysate
#19
Wei Han, Yunyi Hu, Shiyi Li, Feifei Li, Junhong Tang
Waste pastry was hydrolyzed by glucoamylase and protease which were obtained from solid state fermentation of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae to produce waste pastry hydrolysate. Then, the effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (4-12h) on hydrogen production rate (HPR) in the suspended microbial growth system (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and attached microbial growth system (continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor, CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate were investigated. The maximum HPRs of CSTR (201...
October 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395794/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-green-nano-support-for-the-covalent-immobilization-of-glucoamylase-from-neurospora-sitophila
#20
Fatima Syed, Khurshid Ali, Muhammad Javaid Asad, Muhammad Gul Fraz, Zahid Khan, Muhammad Imran, Raheela Taj, Aftab Ahmad
The preparation of green nano supports for the covalent immobilization of enzymes is of special interest both from the economic and environmental point of view. In this contribution, we report on the synthesis of phytochemicals coated silver nanoparticles, which were used as a novel green support for the covalent immobilization of glucoamylase isolated from Neurospora sitophila. The aqueous extract of Fagonia indica was used as a source of reducing and capping agents for the reduction of silver ions into silver nanoparticles...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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