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Glucoamylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637248/expression-and-comparison-of-codon-optimised-aspergillus-tubingensis-amylase-variants-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Rosemary A Cripwell, Shaunita H Rose, Willem H van Zyl
The expression of codon optimised genes is a popular genetic engineering approach for the production of industrially relevant proteins. This study investigates and compares the expression of codon optimised and codon adapted amylase variants. The Aspergillus tubingensis raw starch hydrolysing α-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) encoding genes were redesigned using synonymous codons and expressed in S. cerevisiae Y294. Codon optimisation to favour S. cerevisiae codon bias resulted in a decrease in extracellular enzyme activity of 72% (30...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568243/rethinking-the-starch-digestion-hypothesis-for-amy1-copy-number-variation-in-humans
#2
EDITORIAL
Catalina I Fernández, Andrea S Wiley
Alpha-amylase exists across taxonomic kingdoms with a deep evolutionary history of gene duplications that resulted in several α-amylase paralogs. Copy number variation (CNV) in the salivary α-amylase gene (AMY1) exists in many taxa, but among primates, humans appear to have higher average AMY1 copies than nonhuman primates. Additionally, AMY1 CNV in humans has been associated with starch content of diets, and one known function of α-amylase is its involvement in starch digestion. Thus high AMY1 CNV is considered to result from selection favoring more efficient starch digestion in the Homo lineage...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527863/over-production-of-fermentable-sugar-for-bioethanol-production-from-carbohydrate-rich-malaysian-food-waste-via-sequential-acid-enzymatic-hydrolysis-pretreatment
#3
Halimatun Saadiah Hafid, Abdul Rahman Nor 'Aini, Mohd Noriznan Mokhtar, Ahmad Tarmezee Talib, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Md Shah Umi Kalsom
In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation...
May 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514399/-disaccharidase-deficiency-and-functional-bowel-diseases
#4
A I Parfenov, O V Akhmadullina, E A Sabelnikova, N I Belostotsky, M V Kirova, S G Khomeriki, S V Bykova
AIM: To elucidate the role of intestinal carbohydrases (glucoamylase, maltase, sucrose, and lactase) in the etiology and pathogenesis of functional bowel diseases (FBD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 74 patients (36 men and 38 women) aged 18 to 50 years with FBD were examined. According to Rome IV criteria (2016), there was diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in 21 patients, functional diarrhea (FD) in 33, constipation-predominant IBS in 6, functional constipation (FC) in 4, and mixed IBS in 10...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483534/comparative-secretomic-analysis-of-lignocellulose-degradation-by-lentinula-edodes-grown-on-microcrystalline-cellulose-lignosulfonate-and-glucose
#5
Yingli Cai, Yuhua Gong, Wei Liu, Yue Hu, Lianfu Chen, Lianlian Yan, Yan Zhou, Yinbing Bian
Lentinula edodes has the potential to degrade woody and nonwoody lignocellulosic biomass. However, the mechanism of lignocellulose degradation by L. edodes is unclear. The aim of this work is to explore the profiling of soluble secreted proteins involved in lignocellulose degradation in L. edodes. For that, we compared the secretomes of L. edodes grown on microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose with lignosulfonate and glucose. Based on nanoliquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry of whole-protein hydrolysate, 230 proteins were identified...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481023/dynamic-modulation-of-enzyme-activity-by-near-infrared-light
#6
Changping Wang, Qiang Zhang, Xinyu Wang, Hong Chang, Sanjun Zhang, Yuankai Tang, Jianhua Xu, Ruijuan Qi, Yiyun Cheng
Engineering near-infrared (NIR) light-sensitive enzymes remains a huge challenge. A photothermal effect-associated method is developed for tailoring the enzymatic activity of enzymes by exposure to NIR light. An ultrasmall platinum nanoparticle was anchored in an enzyme to generate local heating upon NIR irradiation, which enhanced the enzyme activity without increasing bulk temperature. Following NIR irradiation, the enzyme activity was tailored rapidly and reversibly, and was modulated by varying laser power density and irradiation time...
May 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465177/simultaneous-production-of-both-high-molecular-weight-pullulan-and-oligosaccharides-by-aureobasdium-melanogenum-p16-isolated-from-a-mangrove-ecosystem
#7
Nan-Nan Liu, Zhe Chi, Qin-Qing Wang, Jiang Hong, Guang-Lei Liu, Zhong Hu, Zhen-Ming Chi
After the compositional change of a pullulan production medium, a molecular weight (Mw) of the pullulan produced by Aureobasidium melanogenum P16 was 2.32×10(6) and a pullulan titer was 44.4g/L while a Mw of the pullulan produced by A. melanogenum P16 grown in the initial medium was only 3.47×10(5) and a pullulan titer was 65.3g/L. The increased Mw of the pullulan was due to the decreased activities of α-amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase while the decreased pullulan titer was related to the decreased transcriptional levels of the genes encoding 6-P-glucose kinase, glucosyltransferase, α-phosphoglucose mutase, UDPG-pyrophosphorylase and pullulan synthetase...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464820/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-cold-adapted-fungal-glucoamylase
#8
Mario Carrasco, Jennifer Alcaíno, Víctor Cifuentes, Marcelo Baeza
BACKGROUND: Amylases are used in various industrial processes and a key requirement for the efficiency of these processes is the use of enzymes with high catalytic activity at ambient temperature. Unfortunately, most amylases isolated from bacteria and filamentous fungi have optimal activity above 45 °C and low pH. For example, the most commonly used industrial glucoamylases, a type of amylase that degrades starch to glucose, are produced by Aspergillus strains displaying optimal activities at 45-60 °C...
May 2, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455587/comprehensive-analysis-of-fungal-diversity-and-enzyme-activity-in-nuruk-a-korean-fermenting-starter-for-acquiring-useful-fungi
#9
Emily Carroll, Tran Ngoc Trinh, Hokyoung Son, Yin-Won Lee, Jeong-Ah Seo
Nuruk is a fermenting starter that is involved in the production of alcoholic beverages, and has been used in South Korea for a very long time. To analyze the fungal diversity, we collected a total of 59 nuruk samples from several companies and persons in 2013 to 2014, and obtained 364 isolates. All of the single isolated fungi were identified, both morphologically and molecularly, based on the sequences of ribosomal RNA gene [18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, and 26S (D1/D2 region)]. In 46 nuruk samples out of 59 (78%), Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, a dimorphic yeast, was most frequently isolated...
May 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443839/phenolic-compounds-increase-the-transcription-of-mouse-intestinal-maltase-glucoamylase-and-sucrase-isomaltase
#10
Meric Simsek, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Buford L Nichols, Bruce R Hamaker
Diverse natural phenolic compounds show inhibition activity of intestinal α-glucosidases, which may constitute the molecular basis for their ability to control systemic glycemia. Additionally, phenolics can modify mRNA expression for proteins involved in nutritional, metabolic or immune processes. To explore the possibility that phenolics can regulate the mRNA expression, enzymatic activity, and protein synthesis/processing of intestinal Maltase-Glucoamylase (MGAM) and Sucrase-Isomaltase (SI), small intestinal explants from Balb/c mice were cultured for 24 h in the presence or absence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, and (+)-catechin at 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412339/purification-and-functional-properties-of-a-novel-glucoamylase-activated-by-manganese-and-lead-produced-by-aspergillus-japonicus
#11
Thiago Machado Pasin, Vivian Machado Benassi, Paulo Ricardo Heinen, André Ricardo de Lima Damasio, Mariana Cereia, João Atílio Jorge, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli
Microbial amylases are used to produce ethanol, glucose and can be applied in textiles products, detergents and other industries. This study aimed to determine the best carbon source concentration to induce the amylase production by A. japonicus, and its purification and biochemical characterization. For that, this fungus was cultivated in Khanna medium, pH 5.5, for 4 days, at 25°C, in static condition, supplemented with potato starch and maltose in different concentrations. The fungal crude enzymatic extract was purified in a unique elution in DEAE-cellulose column and the molecular mass was determined as 72kDa...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389849/high-efficient-production-of-citric-acid-by-aspergillus-niger-from-high-concentration-of-substrate-based-on-the-staged-addition-glucoamylase-strategy
#12
Baoshi Wang, Hua Li, Linghuan Zhu, Fengling Tan, Youran Li, Liang Zhang, Zhongyang Ding, Guiyang Shi
Citric acid (CA), an important platform-compound, has attracted much attention because of its broad applications and huge market demand. To solve high residual sugar at the fermentation end, we put forwarded strategy of pre-saccharification and then fermentation. Results showed that the residual total sugar decreased by 10.4% and the productivity increased by 4.0% and initially high glucose inhibited cell growth. Furthermore, commercial glucoamylase with high low-pH stability was proposed to staged-add in the fermentation process, which timely compensated enzyme loss, ensuring the glucose supply rate...
April 7, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371716/bacillus-licheniformis-affects-the-microbial-community-and-metabolic-profile-in-the-spontaneous-fermentation-of-daqu-starter-for-chinese-liquor-making
#13
Peng Wang, Qun Wu, Xuejian Jiang, Zhiqiang Wang, Jingli Tang, Yan Xu
Chinese liquor is produced from spontaneous fermentation starter (Daqu) that provides the microbes, enzymes and flavors for liquor fermentation. To improve the flavor character of Daqu, we inoculated Bacillus licheniformis and studied the effect of this strain on the community structure and metabolic profile in Daqu fermentation. The microbial relative abundance changed after the inoculation, including the increase in Bacillus, Clavispora and Aspergillus, and the decrease in Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and some other genera...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339792/interference-of-age-and-supplementation-of-direct-fed-microbial-and-essential-oil-in-the-activity-of-digestive-enzymes-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-transport-and-digestion-of-carbohydrates-and-proteins-in-the-small-intestine-of-broilers
#14
M F Fernandez-Alarcon, N Trottier, J P Steibel, R Lunedo, D M B Campos, A M Santana, J M Pizauro, R L Furlan, L R Furlan
The objectives of this study were to describe alterations that age and dietary inclusion of direct-fed microbial (DFM) Bacillus subtilis (BS) and a specific essential oil (EO) blend (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cineol, and pepper extract) causes in the activity of digestive enzymes (maltase: MALT; aminopeptidase-N: APN; intestinal alkaline phosphate: IAP) and expression patterns of genes related to transport (oligopeptide transporter gene: SLC15A1; Na+-dependent glucose and galactose transporter gene: SLC5A1; Na+-independent glucose, galactose, and fructose transporter gene: SLC2A2; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting gene: ATP1A1) and digestion (aminopeptidase-N gene: ANPEP; maltase-glucoamylase gene: MGAM; Sucrase-isomaltase gene: SI) of carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine of broilers...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321889/antihyperglycaemic-activity-of-the-methanol-extract-from-leaves-of-eremophila-maculata-scrophulariaceae-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Sherif S Ebada, Mansour Sobeh, Hesham A El-Beshbishy, Abdel Nasser Singab, Michael Wink
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the methanol leaf extract of Eremophila maculata (EMM) both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The antihyperglycaemic activity was assessed in vitro using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas in-vivo effect was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chemical profiling of EMM was done using LC-ESI-MS techniques. Molecular modelling experiments of the identified compounds were performed using C-Docker protocol...
June 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267073/improved-starch-digestion-of-sucrase-deficient-shrews-treated-with-oral-glucoamylase-enzyme-supplements
#16
Buford L Nichols, Stephen E Avery, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Shadi B Kilani, Amy Hui-Mei Lin, Douglas G Burrin, Benjamin E Hodges, Shaji K Chacko, Antone R Opekun, Marwa El Hindawy, Bruce R Hamaker, Sen-Ichi Oda
Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with Congenital Sucrase-isomaltase Deficiency (CSID). BACKGROUND: Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, two α-amylases (Amy) and four mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265700/starch-biorefinery-enzymes
#17
Albrecht Läufer
Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251851/development-and-application-of-cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing-mutant-enzyme-which-hydrolyzes-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cd-selectively
#18
Ye-Seul Koo, Dam-Seul Ko, Da-Woon Jeong, Jae-Hoon Shim
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are produced from starch by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), which has cyclization activity. Specifically, α-CD is an important biomolecule, as it is a molecular carrier and soluble dietary fiber used in the food industry. Upon inspection of the conserved regions of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 13 family amylases, the amino acids K232 and H233 of CGTase were identified as playing an important role in enzyme reaction specificity. A novel CD hydrolyzing enzyme, cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGTase)-alpha, was developed using site-directed mutagenesis at these positions...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238910/engineering-a-chimeric-acid-stable-%C3%AE-amylase-glucoamylase-amy-glu-for-one-step-starch-saccharification
#19
Deepak Parashar, T Satyanarayana
For saccharifying starch in one step, a chimeric biocatalyst (Amy-Glu) was generated from engineered α-amylase (Ba-Gt-amy) of Bacillus acidicola and glucoamylase (Glu) gene of Aspergillus niger. In order to join two enzymes, a linker peptide of 25 amino acids was used. Chimeric Amy-Glu was expressed in E. coli. Glu is of 75kDa, while Amy-Glu is of 145kDa. Both Amy-Glu and Glu displayed similar pH profile with good activity in the acidic pH range like that of Ba-Gt-amy with optimum at pH 4.0. All three enzymes (Ba-Gt-amy, Amy-Glu and glucoamylase) exhibited activity in the temperature range between 40 and 70°C with optimum at 60°C...
June 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238000/restoration-of-traditional-korean-nuruk-and-analysis-of-the-brewing-characteristics
#20
Jang-Eun Lee, Ae Ran Lee, HyeRyun Kim, Eunjung Lee, Tae Wan Kim, Woo Chang Shin, Jae Ho Kim
In this study, a total of 58 different kinds of nuruk (a traditional Korean fermentation starter) were prepared, including 46 kinds of restored nuruk from ancient documents. Each nuruk was evaluated by analysis of its saccharification power, and the enzyme activities of glucoamylase, α-amylase, β-amylase, protease, and β-glucanase. The range of saccharification power (sp) of the restored nuruk ranged between 85 and 565 sp. The diastatic enzymes, α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase, were significantly correlated to the saccharification power value; conversely, β-glucanase and protease did not have a correlative relationship with saccarification power...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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