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Glucoamylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267073/improved-starch-digestion-of-sucrase-deficient-shrews-treated-with-oral-glucoamylase-enzyme-supplements
#1
Buford L Nichols, Stephen E Avery, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Shadi B Kilani, Amy Hui-Mei Lin, Douglas G Burrin, Benjamin E Hodges, Shaji K Chacko, Antone R Opekun, Marwa El Hindawy, Bruce R Hamaker, Sen-Ichi Oda
Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with Congenital Sucrase-isomaltase Deficiency (CSID). BACKGROUND: Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, two α-amylases (Amy) and four mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265700/starch-biorefinery-enzymes
#2
Albrecht Läufer
Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251851/development-and-application-of-cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing-mutant-enzyme-which-hydrolyzes-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cd-selectively
#3
Ye-Seul Koo, Dam-Seul Ko, Da-Woon Jeong, Jae-Hoon Shim
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are produced from starch by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), which has cyclization activity. Specifically, α-CD is an important biomolecule, as it is a molecular carrier and soluble dietary fiber used in the food industry. Upon inspection of the conserved regions of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 13 family amylases, the amino acids K232 and H233 of CGTase were identified as playing an important role in enzyme reaction specificity. A novel CD hydrolyzing enzyme, cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGTase)-alpha, was developed using site-directed mutagenesis at these positions...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238910/engineering-a-chimeric-acid-stable-%C3%AE-amylase-glucoamylase-amy-glu-for-one-step-starch-saccharification
#4
Deepak Parashar, T Satyanarayana
For saccharifying starch in one step, a chimeric biocatalyst (Amy-Glu) was generated from engineered α-amylase (Ba-Gt-amy) of Bacillus acidicola and glucoamylase (Glu) gene of Aspergillus niger. In order to join two enzymes, a linker peptide of 25 amino acids was used. Chimeric Amy-Glu was expressed in E. coli. Glu is of 75kDa, while Amy-Glu is of 145kDa. Both Amy-Glu and Glu displayed similar pH profile with good activity in the acidic pH range like that of Ba-Gt-amy with optimum at pH 4.0. All three enzymes (Ba-Gt-amy, Amy-Glu and glucoamylase) exhibited activity in the temperature range between 40 and 70°C with optimum at 60°C...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238000/restoration-of-the-traditional-korean-nuruk-and-the-brewing-characteristics-analysis
#5
Jang-Eun Lee, Ae Ran Lee, HyeRyun Kim, Eunjung Lee, Tae Wan Kim, Woo Chang Shin, Jae Ho Kim
In this study, a total of 58 different kinds of traditional Nuruk were prepared, including 46 kinds of restored Nuruk from ancient documents. Each Nuruk was evaluated by analysis of saccharification power, and the enzyme activities of glucoamylase, α-amylase, β-amylase, protease, and β-glucanase. The range of saccharification power of the restored Nuruk ranged between was 85 and 565 sp. The diastatic enzymes, α-amylase, β-amylase and glucoamylase were significantly correlated to saccharification power value conversely β-glucanase and protease did not have a correlative relationship with saccarification power...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212656/using-a-vector-pool-containing-variable-strength-promoters-to-optimize-protein-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#6
Rémi Dulermo, François Brunel, Thierry Dulermo, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro, Jérémy Vion, Marion Trassaert, Stéphane Thomas, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Christophe Leplat
BACKGROUND: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an increasingly common biofactory. To enhance protein expression, several promoters have been developed, including the constitutive TEF promoter, the inducible POX2 promotor, and the hybrid hp4d promoter. Recently, new hp4d-inspired promoters have been created that couple various numbers of UAS1 tandem elements with the minimal LEU2 promoter or the TEF promoter. Three different protein-secretion signaling sequences can be used: preLip2, preXpr2, and preSuc2...
February 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138854/development-of-a-method-for-efficient-cost-effective-screening-of-aspergillus-niger-mutants-having-increased-production-of-glucoamylase
#7
Xudong Zhu, Bessembayev Arman, Ju Chu, Yonghong Wang, Yingping Zhuang
OBJECTIVES: To develop an efficient cost-effective screening process to improve production of glucoamylase in Aspergillus niger. RESULTS: The cultivation of A. niger was achieved with well-dispersed morphology in 48-deep-well microtiter plates, which increased the throughput of the samples compared to traditional flask cultivation. There was a close negative correlation between glucoamylase and its pH of the fermentation broth. A novel high-throughput analysis method using Methyl Orange was developed...
January 30, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137466/secondary-structural-alterations-in-glucoamylase-as-an-influence-of-protein-aggregation
#8
Minhal Abidi, Afshin Iram, Mohammad Furkan, Aabgeena Naeem
Glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3) from Aspergillus niger possesses 31% α-helix, 36% β structure and rest aperiodic structure. A transition of glucoamylase structure in the presence of varying concentrations of glyoxal (GO) and trifluoroethanol (TFE) was studied by using multi-methodological approaches. At 20% GO, glucoamylase exists as molten globule state as evident by high tryptophan and ANS fluorescence, retention of secondary structure and loss of native tertiary structure. This state precedes the onset of the aggregation process and maximum is achieved at the highest concentration i...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107425/using-an-inducible-promoter-of-a-gene-encoding-penicillium-verruculosum-glucoamylase-for-production-of-enzyme-preparations-with-enhanced-cellulase-performance
#9
Alexander G Bulakhov, Pavel V Volkov, Aleksandra M Rozhkova, Alexander V Gusakov, Vitaly A Nemashkalov, Aidar D Satrutdinov, Arkady P Sinitsyn
BACKGROUND: Penicillium verruculosum is an efficient producer of highly active cellulase multienzyme system. One of the approaches for enhancing cellulase performance in hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates is to enrich the reaction system with β -glucosidase and/or accessory enzymes, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) displaying a synergism with cellulases. RESULTS: Genes bglI, encoding β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger (AnBGL), and eglIV, encoding LPMO (formerly endoglucanase IV) from Trichoderma reesei (TrLPMO), were cloned and expressed by P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044224/improvement-of-glucoamylase-production-for-raw-starch-digestion-in-aspergillus-niger-f-01-by-maltose-stearic-acid-ester
#10
Haiyan Sun, Ming Peng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of maltose stearic acid ester (MSAE) for improving raw-starch-digesting glucoamylase (RSDG) production by Aspergillus niger F-01 and its regulatory mechanism. RESULTS: RSDG activity was enhanced 8.3-fold by adding 5 g MSAE to 1 l basal medium at the beginning of the culture. RSDG biosynthesis nearly ceased by adding 100 μg actinomycin D/ml or 50 μg cycloheximide/ml in a 48 h culture in the basal medium. RSDG biosynthesis was restarted by adding MSAE in the culture repressed by actinomycin D...
January 2, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942757/functional-dissection-of-the-n-terminal-sequence-of-clostridium-sp-g0005-glucoamylase-identification-of-components-critical-for-folding-the-catalytic-domain-and-for-constructing-the-active-site-structure
#11
Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yudai Matsushima, Yusuke Nagamine, Tomoki Matsuhashi, Shotaro Honda, Shoi Okuda, Misa Ohno, Yasusato Sugahara, Yongchol Shin, Fumitaka Oyama, Masao Kawakita
Clostridium sp. G0005 glucoamylase (CGA) is composed of a β-sandwich domain (BD), a linker, and a catalytic domain (CD). In the present study, CGA was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies when the N-terminal region (39 amino acid residues) of the BD was truncated. To further elucidate the role of the N-terminal region of the BD, we constructed N-terminally truncated proteins (Δ19, Δ24, Δ29, and Δ34) and assessed their solubility and activity. Although all evaluated proteins were soluble, their hydrolytic activities toward maltotriose as a substrate varied: Δ19 and Δ24 were almost as active as CGA, but the activity of Δ29 was substantially lower, and Δ34 exhibited little hydrolytic activity...
March 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910937/biohydrogen-production-from-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-food-waste-in-batch-and-continuous-systems
#12
Wei Han, Yingting Yan, Yiwen Shi, Jingjing Gu, Junhong Tang, Hongting Zhao
In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889341/facile-synthesis-of-glucoamylase-embedded-metal-organic-frameworks-glucoamylase-mof-with-enhanced-stability
#13
Shamraja S Nadar, Virendra K Rathod
The self-assembled glucoamylase metal-organic framework (glucoamylase-MOF) was synthesized by facile one-step method within 20min by simply mixing aqueous solution of 2-methylimidazole (160mM), glucoamylase (5mg/mL) and zinc acetate (40mM) at room temperature (28±2°C). The prepared glucoamylase-MOF was characterized by using FT-IR, confocal scanning laser microscopy, XRD and SEM. The robustness and thermal stability of glucoamylase embedded MOF was evaluated in terms of half-life (in the range of 60-80°C) which showed 6 folds increment as against free form...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800014/dry-grind-processing-using-amylase-corn-and-superior-yeast-to-reduce-the-exogenous-enzyme-requirements-in-bioethanol-production
#14
Deepak Kumar, Vijay Singh
BACKGROUND: Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790066/taxonomic-characterization-evaluation-of-toxigenicity-and-saccharification-capability-of-aspergillus-section-flavi-isolates-from-korean-traditional-wheat-based-fermentation-starter-nuruk
#15
Jyotiranjan Bal, Suk-Hyun Yun, Jeesun Chun, Beom-Tae Kim, Dae-Hyuk Kim
The most economically important species used in a wide range of fermentation industries throughout Asia belong to Aspergillus section Flavi, which are morphologically and phylogenetically indistinguishable, with a few being toxigenic and therefore a major concern. They are frequently isolated from Korean fermentation starters, such as nuruk and meju. The growing popularity of traditional Korean alcoholic beverages has led to a demand for their quality enhancement, therefore requiring selection of efficient non-toxigenic strains to assist effective fermentation...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777618/efficient-hydrolysis-of-raw-starch-and-ethanol-fermentation-a-novel-raw-starch-digesting-glucoamylase-from-penicillium-oxalicum
#16
Qiang-Sheng Xu, Yu-Si Yan, Jia-Xun Feng
BACKGROUND: Starch is a very abundant and renewable carbohydrate and is an important feedstock for industrial applications. The conventional starch liquefaction and saccharification processes are energy-intensive, complicated, and not environmentally friendly. Raw starch-digesting glucoamylases are capable of directly hydrolyzing raw starch to glucose at low temperatures, which significantly simplifies processing and reduces the cost of producing starch-based products. RESULTS: A novel raw starch-digesting glucoamylase PoGA15A with high enzymatic activity was purified from Penicillium oxalicum GXU20 and biochemically characterized...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770860/marine-microbial-amylases-properties-and-applications
#17
J Suriya, S Bharathiraja, M Krishnan, P Manivasagan, S-K Kim
Amylases are crucial enzymes which hydrolyze internal glycosidic linkages in starch and produce as primary products dextrins and oligosaccharides. Amylases are classified into α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase based on their three-dimensional structures, reaction mechanisms, and amino acid sequences. Amylases have innumerable applications in clinical, medical, and analytical chemistries as well as in food, detergent, textile, brewing, and distilling industries. Amylases can be produced from plants, animals, and microbial sources...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696371/comprehensive-reconstruction-and-in-silico-analysis-of-aspergillus-niger-genome-scale-metabolic-network-model-that-accounts-for-1210-orfs
#18
Hongzhong Lu, Weiqiang Cao, Liming Ouyang, Jianye Xia, Mingzhi Huang, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang, Henk Noorman
Aspergillus niger is one of the most important cell factories for industrial enzymes and organic acids production. A comprehensive genome-scale metabolic network model (GSMM) with high quality is crucial for efficient strain improvement and process optimization. The lack of accurate reaction equations and gene-protein-reaction associations (GPRs) in the current best model of A. niger named GSMM iMA871, however, limits its application scope. To overcome these limitations, we updated the A. niger GSMM by combining the latest genome annotation and literature mining technology...
October 3, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693337/immobilization-of-glucoamylase-on-triazine-functionalized-fe3o4-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite-improved-stability-and-reusability
#19
Mahkameh Amirbandeh, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani
Immobilization of an enzyme can enhance its catalytic activity, depending on the properties of the enzyme and the matrix. Graphene oxide is a nontoxic material and selective modulator for enzyme activity and is also a thermostable molecule that is important in large-scale nanostructure sheet applications. Herein, we have successfully developed a strategy for preparing a nanocomposite for enzyme immobilization model with high loading capacity. Nanostructures of hybrid graphene oxide-Fe3O4-cyanuric chloride (GO/MNP-CC) have adjustable surface chemistry that is an excellent candidate for covalent immobilization of enzymes...
December 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663705/effect-of-organic-loading-rate-on-dark-fermentative-hydrogen-production-in-the-continuous-stirred-tank-reactor-and-continuous-mixed-immobilized-sludge-reactor-from-waste-pastry-hydrolysate
#20
Wei Han, Yunyi Hu, Shiyi Li, Qiulin Nie, Hongting Zhao, Junhong Tang
Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m(3)d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m(3)d) and 32kgCOD/(m(3)d), respectively...
December 2016: Waste Management
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