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Microvascular Dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#1
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314758/immune-checkpoint-dysfunction-in-medium-and-large-vessel-vasculitis
#2
Ryu Watanabe, Hui Zhang, Gerald Berry, Jorg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous vasculitis of the aorta and its medium-sized branch vessels. CD4 T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells build granulomatous infiltrates that injure the vessel wall and elicit a maladaptive response-to-injury. Pathologic consequences include fragmentation of elastic membranes, destruction of the medial layer, microvascular neoangiogenesis, massive outgrowth of myofibroblasts, and lumen-occlusive intimal hyperplasia. Antigens have been suspected to drive the local activation of vasculitogenic CD4 T-cells, but recent data suggest a more generalized defect in the threshold setting of such T-cells, rendering them hyperreactive...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295341/exercise-training-reverses-age-induced-diastolic-dysfunction-and-restores-coronary-microvascular-function
#3
Kazuki Hotta, Bei Chen, Bradley J Behnke, Payal Ghosh, John N Stabley, Jeremy A Bramy, Jaime L Sepulveda, Michael D Delp, Judy M Muller-Delp
The risk for diastolic dysfunction increases with advancing age. Regular exercise training ameliorates age-related diastolic dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. We investigated whether 1) microvascular dysfunction contributes to the development of age-related diastolic dysfunction, and 2) initiation of late-life exercise training reverses age-related diastolic and microvascular dysfunction. Young and old rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training or remained as sedentary, cage-controls...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294401/endothelial-progenitor-cell-mobilization-in-preterm-infants-with-sepsis-is-associated-with-improved-survival
#4
Vahid Siavashi, Simin Asadian, Masoud Taheri-Asl, Samaneh Keshavarz, Mohamad Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri
Microvascular dysfunction plays a key role in the pathology of sepsis, leading to multi-organ failure and death. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) are critically involved in the maintenance of the vascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathological contexts. In this study, concentration of cEPCs in preterm infants with sepsis was determined to recognize whether the EPC mobilization would affect the clinical outcome of infantile sepsis. 133 preterm infants (81 with sepsis and 52 without sepsis) were enrolled in this study...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293857/effect-of-cilostazol-in-treating-diabetes-associated-microvascular-complications
#5
REVIEW
Nicole J Asal, Karolina A Wojciak
PURPOSE: Cilostazol (Pletal), a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor, was approved in the United States in 1999 to reduce symptoms of intermittent claudication. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels increase from inhibition of phosphodiesterase resulting in anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilatory effects. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes endothelial and platelet dysfunction leading to both microvascular and macrovascular complications. This mini-review highlights the emerging evidence suggesting benefits of using cilostazol in treating microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus...
March 14, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289007/ischemia-and-no-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-inoca-developing-evidence-based-therapies-and-research-agenda-for-the-next-decade
#6
REVIEW
C Noel Bairey Merz, Carl J Pepine, Mary Norine Walsh, Jerome L Fleg
The Cardiovascular Disease in Women Committee of the American College of Cardiology, in conjunction with interested parties (from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, American Heart Association, and European Society of Cardiology), convened a working group to develop a consensus on the syndrome of myocardial ischemia with no obstructive coronary arteries. In general, these patients have elevated risk for a cardiovascular event (including acute coronary syndrome, heart failure hospitalization, stroke, and repeat cardiovascular procedures) compared with reference subjects and appear to be at higher risk for development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction...
March 14, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287157/neurovascular-microcirculatory-vasodilation-mediated-by-c-fibers-and-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-type-1-channels-trpv-1-is-impaired-in-type-1-diabetes
#7
P Marche, S Dubois, P Abraham, E Parot-Schinkel, L Gascoin, A Humeau-Heurtier, P H Ducluzeau, G Mahe
Microvascular dysfunction may have an early onset in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and can precede major complications. Our objectives were to assess the endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh; and post-occlusive hyperemia, PORH), non-endothelial-dependent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) and neurovascular-dependent (local heating, LH and current induced vasodilation, CIV) microcirculatory vasodilation in T1D patients compared with matched control subjects using a laser speckle contrast imager. Seventeen T1D patients - matched with 17 subjects according to age, gender, Body-Mass-Index, and smoking status - underwent macro- and microvascular investigations...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286377/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-critical-issue-for-clinicians-and-forensic-pathologists
#8
REVIEW
Margherita Neri, Irene Riezzo, Natascha Pascale, Cristoforo Pomara, Emanuela Turillazzi
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Reperfusion strategies are the current standard therapy for AMI. However, they may result in paradoxical cardiomyocyte dysfunction, known as ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). Different forms of IRI are recognized, of which only the first two are reversible: reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, myocardial stunning, microvascular obstruction, and lethal myocardial reperfusion injury. Sudden death is the most common pattern for ischemia-induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias during AMI...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277456/resting-state-bold-mri-for-perfusion-and-ischemia
#9
Hannes Kroll, Greg Zaharchuk, Thomas Christen, Jeremy J Heit, Michael Iv
Advanced imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT) angiography, CT perfusion, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, MR with diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging, and, more recently, resting-state BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) functional MRI (rs-fMRI) are increasingly used to evaluate patients with acute ischemic stroke. Advanced imaging allows for identification of patients with ischemic stroke and determination of the size of infarcted and potentially salvageable tissue, all of which yield crucial information for proper stroke management...
March 8, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275848/-reliability-of-venous-blood-gas-analysis-and-radionuclide-angiography-in-post-traumatic-dystrophy
#10
A Scola, E Scola
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis "post-traumatic dystrophy" (PTD) was first defined with clinical and paraclinical criteria by Scola et al. in 2013. OBJECTIVES: The objectivity and reliability of the paraclinical criteria (venous blood gas analysis [vBGA], radionuclide angiography [RNA]), and recommendations for therapy should be assessed in a prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In five patients with clinical signs of post-traumatic nonbacterial inflammation of the hand, both diagnosis and a 3‑week hospital treatment were carried out in accordance with the publication mentioned above...
March 8, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275071/relations-of-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obesity-to-digital-vascular-function-in-three-community-based-cohorts-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Luisa C C Brant, Na Wang, Francisco M Ojeda, Michael LaValley, Sandhi M Barreto, Emelia J Benjamin, Gary F Mitchell, Ramachandran S Vasan, Joseph N Palmisano, Thomas Münzel, Stefan Blankenberg, Philipp S Wild, Tanja Zeller, Antonio L P Ribeiro, Renate B Schnabel, Naomi M Hamburg
BACKGROUND: Microvascular dysfunction is a marker of early vascular disease that predicts cardiovascular events. Whether metabolically healthy obese individuals have impaired microvascular function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of obesity phenotypes stratified by metabolic status to microvascular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We meta-analyzed aggregate data from 3 large cohorts (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Gutenberg Heart Study; n=16 830 participants, age range 19-90, 51...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274817/microvascular-nadph-oxidase-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Yao Li, Patrick J Pagano
The systemic and cerebral microcirculation contribute critically to regulation of local and global blood flow and perfusion pressure. Microvascular dysfunction, commonly seen in numerous cardiovascular pathologies, is associated with alterations in the oxidative environment including potentiated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of redox signaling pathways. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a primary source of ROS in the vascular system and play a central role in cardiovascular health and disease...
March 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272770/sex-differences-in-vascular-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-the-cardiac-endothelial-function-and-arterial-stiffness-in-esrd-ceres-study
#13
Isabella Guajardo, Amrita Ayer, Alexander D Johnson, Peter Ganz, Claire Mills, Catherine Donovan, Rebecca Scherzer, Sanjiv J Shah, Carmen A Peralta, Ruth F Dubin
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may have higher rates of mortality than men, but it is unknown whether sex differences in vascular function explain this disparity. The cardiac, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness in ESRD (CERES) study is an ongoing, prospective observational study designed to investigate vascular function, myocardial injury, and cardiovascular outcomes in ESRD. METHODS: Among 200 CERES participants (34% women), we evaluated arterial wave reflections as augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 (AIx75), arterial stiffness as pulse wave velocity, and macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction as flow-mediated dilation and velocity time integral (VTI)...
March 8, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269737/the-autodigestion-hypothesis-proteolytic-receptor-cleavage-in-rheological-and-cardiovascular-cell-dysfunction1
#14
Geert W Schmid-Schönbein
Transformation of circulating leukocytes from a dormant into an activated state with changing rheological properties leads to a major shift of their behavior in the microcirculation. Low levels of pseudopod formation or expression of adhesion molecules facilitate relatively free passage through microvessels while activated leukocytes with pseudopods and enhanced levels of adhesion membrane proteins become trapped in microvessels, attach to the endothelium and migrate into the tissue. The transformation of leukocytes into an activated state is seen in many diseases...
March 2, 2017: Biorheology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266999/combination-of-panaxadiol-and-panaxatriol-type-saponins-and-ophioponins-from-shenmai-formula-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-injury-in-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-by-blocking-nf-kappa-b-pathway
#15
Jinqiang Zhu, Yubin Liang, Shaoqian Yue, Guanwei Fan, Han Zhang, Meng Zhang
Vascular inflammatory injury leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction, thereby resulting in a variety of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Thus, attenuating vascular inflammatory injury has great significance for the prevention and treatment of CVDs. In China, Shenmai formula, a well-known ancient Chinese prescription, has been widely used to treat CVDs, such as coronary atherosclerosis and viral myocarditis. In vivo study has demonstrated that the optimal combination of 3 major active components from Shenmai formula, panaxadiol and panaxatriol type saponins and ophioponins, in a ratio of 1:2:2 might exert significant cardioprotective effects and anti-inflammatory activities...
March 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258906/association-between-subclinical-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-and-glycemic-control-in-asymptomatic-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-preserved-left-ventricular-function
#16
Giacomo Zoppini, Corinna Bergamini, Stefano Bonapace, Andrea Rossi, Maddalena Trombetta, Alessandro Mantovani, Anna Toffalini, Laura Lanzoni, Lorenzo Bertolini, Luciano Zenari, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, especially heart failure. Some studies have suggested that subclinical systolic dysfunction as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is already present in uncomplicated diabetic patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Considering the importance of this aspect, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and mean s' wave velocity (a reliable measure of early LV systolic dysfunction) in a cohort of type 2 diabetic outpatients with preserved LVEF and without ischemic heart disease...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258787/cerebrovascular-reactivity-and-intellectual-outcome-in-childhood-stroke-with-transient-cerebral-arteriopathy
#17
Nomazulu Dlamini, Ivanna Yau, Robyn Westmacott, Manohar Shroff, Derek Armstrong, William Logan, David Mikulis, Gabrielle deVeber, Andrea Kassner
BACKGROUND: Hypercapnic-challenge blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the regional perfusion response to altered carbon dioxide. CVR correlates with the tissue-level microvascular dysfunction and ischemic risk. Among children with arterial ischemic stroke, transient cerebral arteriopathy (TCA) is a frequent, nonprogressive unilateral intracranial arteriopathy, which typically results in basal ganglia infarction and chronic cerebral artery stenosis...
January 7, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253987/metabolic-syndrome-and-the-cellular-phase-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
S Pugazhenthi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and progressive neurodegeneration. The major hallmarks of AD pathology are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. However, AD often coexists with other brain microvascular lesions caused by comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. The risk factors for these comorbidities are collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Clinical AD is preceded by decades of prodromal cellular phase...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250575/inhibition-of-murine-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-promotes-recovery-of-barrier-function-under-septic-conditions
#19
Lefeng Wang, Sanjay Mehta, Michael Brock, Sean E Gill
Sepsis is characterized by injury of the pulmonary microvasculature and the pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC), leading to barrier dysfunction and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our recent work identified a strong correlation between PMVEC apoptosis and microvascular leak in septic mice in vivo, but the specific role of apoptosis in septic PMVEC barrier dysfunction remains unclear. Thus, we hypothesize that PMVEC apoptosis is likely required for PMVEC barrier dysfunction under septic conditions in vitro...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237964/vulnerability-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-of-primary-neurons-derived-from-tg2576-alzheimer-mice-role-of-intraneuronal-abeta-accumulation-and-astrocytes
#20
Vito Antonio Baldassarro, Alessandra Marchesini, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
Microvascular dysfunction is considered an integral part of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis, but the possible relationship between amyloid pathology, microvascular dysfunction and cell death is still unclear. In order to investigate the influence of intraneuronal Abeta (Aβ) accumulation on vulnerability to hypoxia, we isolated primary cortical neurons from Tg2576 (carrying the APPSwe mutation) and Wt fetal mice. We first demonstrated that neurons isolated from Tg2576 new-born mice show an increase in VEGFa mRNA expression and a decrease in the expression of the two VEGF receptors, i...
February 24, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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