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Microvascular Dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333218/impact-of-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-therapy-on-myocardial-function-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-female-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#1
Bong Joon Kim, In Suk Cho, Kyoung Im Cho
Background: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured group program that employs mindfulness meditation to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we investigate the impact of MBSR on left ventricular (LV) and endothelial function in female patients with microvascular angina. Methods: A total of 34 female patients (mean age 52.2 ± 13.8 years) diagnosed with microvascular angina underwent a MBSR program with anti-anginal medication for 8 weeks...
December 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331396/autophagy-in-ischemic-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Pei Wang, Bo-Zong Shao, Zhiqiang Deng, Shi Chen, Zhenyu Yue, Chao-Yu Miao
Autophagy is a self-eating cellular catabolic pathway, through which long-lived proteins, damaged organelles and misfolded proteins are degraded and recycled for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and normal cellular functions. Autophagy plays an important homeostatic role in the regulation of cell survival. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is activated in various cell types in the brain such as neurons, glia cells, and brain microvascular cells upon ischemic stroke. However, the exact role and molecular mechanisms of autophagy process that is implicated in ischemic stroke have yet to be elucidated...
January 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327719/the-histomorphological-spectrum-of-restrictive-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-and-implications-for-prognosis
#3
Jan H von der Thüsen, Elly Vandermeulen, Robin Vos, Birgit Weynand, Erik K Verbeken, Stijn E Verleden
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction continues to be the main contributor to poor long-term allograft survival after lung transplantation. The restrictive phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction carries a particularly poor prognosis. Little is known about the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction. In this study, we performed histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis of restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction lungs. Explant lung tissue from 21 restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction patients was collected and histopathologic patterns of rejection, fibrosis and vascular changes were scored after routine histochemical stains and additional immunohistochemistry for endothelial markers and C4d...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325551/relationship-between-cardiac-microvascular-dysfunction-measured-with-82rubidium-pet-and-albuminuria-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Louis Potier, Renata Chequer, Ronan Roussel, Kamel Mohammedi, Souad Sismail, Agnès Hartemann, Chloé Amouyal, Michel Marre, Dominique Le Guludec, Fabien Hyafil
BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is of one the strongest predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes. Diabetes is associated with cardiac microvascular dysfunction (CMD), a powerful, independent prognostic factor for cardiac mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CMD and microvascular complications in patients without known CVD. METHODS: In this monocentric study, myocardial flow reserve (MFR) was measured with cardiac 82Rubidium positron emission tomography (Rb-PET) in 311 patients referred to nuclear medicine department of Bichat University Hospital for screening of coronary artery disease from 2012 to 2014...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323186/combination-of-high-fat-high-fructose-diet-and-low-dose-streptozotocin-to-model-long-term-type-2-diabetes-complications
#5
David André Barrière, Christophe Noll, Geneviève Roussy, Farah Lizotte, Anissa Kessai, Karyn Kirby, Karine Belleville, Nicolas Beaudet, Jean-Michel Longpré, André C Carpentier, Pedro Geraldes, Philippe Sarret
The epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is fueled by added fructose consumption. Here, we thus combined high-fat/high-fructose diet, with multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin (HF/HF/Stz) to emulate the long-term complications of T2DM. HF/HF/Stz rats, monitored over 56 weeks, exhibited metabolic dysfunctions associated with the different stages of the T2DM disease progression in humans: an early prediabetic phase characterized by an hyperinsulinemic period with modest dysglycemia, followed by a late stage of T2DM with frank hyperglycemia, normalization of insulinemia, marked dyslipidemia, hepatic fibrosis and pancreatic β-cell failure...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321034/diagnostic-and-prognostic-utility-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-implications-for-clinical-trials
#6
Prathap Kanagala, Adrian S H Cheng, Anvesha Singh, John McAdam, Anna-Marie Marsh, Jayanth R Arnold, Iain B Squire, Leong L Ng, Gerry P McCann
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a poorly characterized condition. We aimed to phenotype patients with HFpEF using multiparametric stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and to assess the relationship to clinical outcomes. METHODS: One hundred and fifty four patients (51% male, mean age 72 ± 10 years) with a diagnosis of HFpEF underwent transthoracic echocardiography and CMR during a single study visit. The CMR protocol comprised cine, stress/rest perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement imaging on a 3T scanner...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315085/biopsy-confirmed-endothelial-cell-activation-in-patients-with-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction
#7
Hannes Lindemann, Ivana Petrovic, Stephan Hill, Anastasios Athanasiadis, Heiko Mahrholdt, Tim Schäufele, Karin Klingel, Udo Sechtem, Peter Ong
BACKGROUND: Patients with angina yet having unobstructed coronaries are found in ∼50% of cases undergoing invasive angiography. Coronary spasm and microvascular dysfunction can be responsible for the clinical presentation in ∼60% of cases. However, little is known about structural changes in the myocardium. The aim of this study was to describe findings in endomyocardial biopsies of symptomatic patients with unobstructed coronaries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 1416 consecutive patients who underwent endomyocardial biopsy sampling and coronary angiography between 2002 and 2016 for various clinical indications...
January 8, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314204/telmisartan-ameliorates-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-coronary-slow-flow-phenomenon-csfp
#8
Zhe Jin, Qindong Tan, Bei Sun
Coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary microvascular disorder with an increasing morbidity, and currently, available therapies are of limited clinical value for its cure. Hence, it is urgent to find a novel approach to CSFP treatment. Several studies show that endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the aetiology of CSFP. Telmisartan (TMST) is a clinically available anti-hypertensive medicine and has shown its potential properties for improving vascular endothelial function. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of TMST on endothelial dysfunction in CSFP, Endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation, serum levels of nitric oxide, adiponectin, and endothelin-1 were surveyed before and after 3 months of TMST treatment...
January 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313304/essential-hypertension-and-functional-microvascular-ageing
#9
REVIEW
Rosa Maria Bruno, Stefano Masi, Marco Taddei, Stefano Taddei, Agostino Virdis
In healthy conditions, the endothelium plays a pivotal role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, mainly by the production of the relaxing factor nitric oxide (NO), which protects the vessel wall from those mechanisms favouring the development of vascular atherosclerosis. Aging is a powerful cardiovascular risk factors associated with endothelial dysfunction. In details, an alteration in the NO substrate L-arginine is the major factor responsible for endothelial dysfunction with advancing age, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) excess generation, which in turn reduce NO availability, plays a role in oldest individuals only...
January 9, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307093/vasodilator-function-worsens-after-cessation-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-inhibitor-therapy-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-only-if-a-flare-occurs
#10
Gerard A Rongen, Iris van Ingen, Marc Kok, Harald Vonkeman, Matthijs Janssen, Tim L Jansen
Vasodilator function is reported to be reduced in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and is considered an early sign of vascular dysfunction, which is normalised by TNF inhibitors (TNFi). To optimise cost-effectiveness, tapering or interruption of TNFi therapy in established RA patients is advocated. We explored whether cessation of TNFi results in impaired vasodilator function and whether this relates to the development of a Disease Activity Score (DAS28)-based flare. Forty-one patients were assessed for eligibility as RA with at least 12 months of low disease activity (based on 28 joint counts); 35 enrolled into the randomised study: 8 were randomised to continue, 27 to stopping TNFi...
January 7, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305560/heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-controversies-challenges-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Rosita Zakeri, Martin R Cowie
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) comprises almost half of the population burden of HF. Because HFpEF likely includes a range of cardiac and non-cardiac abnormalities, typically in elderly patients, obtaining an accurate diagnosis may be challenging, not least due to the existence of multiple HFpEF mimics and a newly identified subset of patients with HFpEF and normal plasma natriuretic peptide concentrations. The lack of effective treatment for these patients represents a major unmet clinical need...
January 5, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295950/endothelin-type-b-etb-receptors-friend-or-foe-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pre-eclampsia-and-future-cardiovascular-disease-cvd-risk
#12
Katrina M Mirabito Colafella
In a recent issue of Clinical Science, Stanhewicz et al. investigated persistent microvascular dysfunction in women up to 16 months postpartum. The authors found sensitivity to the pressor effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) was enhanced when compared with women who had a normotensive pregnancy. Importantly, the authors demonstrated that this effect was mediated via the endothelin type B (ETB) receptors. Therefore, the present study highlights the possibility that alterations in the localization of the ETB receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286092/2-3-5-4-%C3%A2-tetrahydroxystilbene%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-d%C3%A2-glucoside-inhibits-septic-serum%C3%A2-induced-inflammatory-injury-via-interfering-with-the-ros%C3%A2-mapk%C3%A2-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-pulmonary-aortic-endothelial-cells
#13
Wenqiang Li, Ruifang Sun, Sumei Zhou, Jinluan Ma, Yingguang Xie, Bingcan Xu, Huibao Long, Keqin Luo, Kuaifa Fang
Sepsis is characterized by injury to the microvasculature and the microvascular endothelial cells, leading to barrier dysfunction. However, the specific role of injury in septic endothelial barrier dysfunction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was hypothesized that endothelial cell inflammatory injury is likely required for barrier dysfunction under septic conditions in vitro. 2,3,5,4'‑Tetrahydroxystilbene‑2‑O‑β‑D‑glucoside (TSG), a compound extracted from Chinese herbs, is able to inhibit the inflammatory injury of septic‑serum in endothelial cells...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283444/vasodilator-dysfunction-and-oligodendrocyte-dysmaturation-in-aging-white-matter
#14
Zsolt Bagi, Dieter D Brandner, Phuong Le, David W McNeal, Xi Gong, Huijuan Dou, David J Fulton, Allison Beller, Thuan Ngyuen, Eric B Larson, Thomas J Montine, C Dirk Keene, Stephen A Back
OBJECTIVE: Microvascular brain injury (mVBI) is a common pathologic correlate of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) that leads to white matter injury (WMI). VCID appears to arise from chronic recurrent white matter ischemia that triggers oxidative stress and an increase in total oligodendrocyte lineage cells. We hypothesized that mVBI involves vasodilator dysfunction of white matter penetrating arterioles and aberrant oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) responses to WMI...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280463/cavernous-nerve-injury-by-radiation-therapy-may-potentiate-erectile-dysfunction-in-rats
#15
Javed Mahmood, Caroline Q Connors, Allen A Alexander, Radmila Pavlovic, Santanu Samanta, Sandrine Soman, Hotaka Matsui, Nikolai A Sopko, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Daniel Weinreich, Cheng-Ying Ho, John Eley, Amit Sawant, Isabel L Jackson, Zeljko Vujaskovic
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Radiation-induced erectile-dysfunction (RiED) is one of the most common side effects of radiation therapy (RT) and significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients. Approximately 50% of prostate cancer patients experience RiED within 3 to 5 years after completion of RT. A series of vascular, muscular, and neurogenic injuries after prostate RT lead to RiED; however, the precise role of RT-induced neurogenic injury in RiED has not been fully established...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273917/recent-advances-in-the-pathogenetic-mechanisms-of-sepsis-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#16
REVIEW
Filippo Fani, Giuseppe Regolisti, Marco Delsante, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Giuseppe Castellano, Loreto Gesualdo, Gianluca Villa, Enrico Fiaccadori
Sepsis is a serious medical condition that can lead to multi-organ failure and shock, and it is associated with increased mortality. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of sepsis in critically ill patients, and often requires renal replacement therapy. The pathophysiology of AKI in sepsis has not yet been fully defined. In the past, classic theories were mainly focused on systemic hemodynamic derangements, underscoring the key role of whole kidney hypoperfusion due to reduced renal blood flow...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273789/widespread-coronary-dysfunction-in-the-absence-of-hdl-receptor-sr-b1-in-an-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-mouse-model
#17
James T Pearson, Misa Yoshimoto, Yi Ching Chen, Rohullah Sultani, Amanda J Edgley, Hajime Nakaoka, Makoto Nishida, Keiji Umetani, Mark T Waddingham, Hui-Ling Jin, Yuan Zhang, Darren J Kelly, Daryl O Schwenke, Tadakatsu Inagaki, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Issei Komuro, Shizuya Yamashita, Mikiyasu Shirai
Reduced clearance of lipoproteins by HDL scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1) plays an important role in occlusive coronary artery disease. However, it is not clear how much microvascular dysfunction contributes to ischemic cardiomyopathy. Our aim was to determine the distribution of vascular dysfunction in vivo in the coronary circulation of male mice after brief exposure to Paigen high fat diet, and whether this vasomotor dysfunction involved nitric oxide (NO) and or endothelium derived hyperpolarization factors (EDHF)...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273521/the-pathology-and-pathophysiology-of-vascular-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Raj N Kalaria
Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event...
December 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251519/impairment-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-alpha-processing-in-cerebral-microvessels-of-type-1-diabetic-mice
#19
Tongrong He, Ruohan Sun, Anantha Vr Santhanam, Livius V d'Uscio, Tong Lu, Zvonimir S Katusic
The mechanisms underlying dysfunction of cerebral microvasculature induced by type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not fully understood. We hypothesized that in cerebral microvascular endothelium, α-processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is impaired by T1D. In cerebral microvessels derived from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D mice protein levels of APP and its α-processing enzyme, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) were significantly decreased, along with down-regulation of adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) and enhanced production of thromboxane A2 (TXA2)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249167/comparison-of-ultrasound-shear-wave-elastography-with-magnetic-resonance-elastography-and-renal-microvascular-flow-in-the-assessment-of-chronic-renal-allograft-dysfunction
#20
Stephan R Marticorena Garcia, Jing Guo, Michael Dürr, Timm Denecke, Bernd Hamm, Ingolf Sack, Thomas Fischer
Background Monitoring of renal allograft function is essential for early identification of dysfunction and improvement of kidney transplant (KTX) outcome. Purpose To non-invasively assess renal stiffness in KTX recipients using ultrasound shear wave elastography (USE) in correlation with multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), renal allograft function, and renal microvascular flow determined using a novel ultrasound microvascular imaging technique. Material and Methods This prospective study investigated 25 KTXs (functional KTX [FCT], n = 14; chronic KTX insufficiency [DYS], n = 11) in 20 KTX recipients (mean age = 43 ± 14 years)...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
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