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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792305/sensory-analysis-of-characterising-flavours-evaluating-tobacco-product-odours-using-an-expert-panel
#1
Erna J Z Krüsemann, Marlou P Lasschuijt, C de Graaf, René A de Wijk, Pieter H Punter, Loes van Tiel, Johannes W J M Cremers, Suzanne van de Nobelen, Sanne Boesveldt, Reinskje Talhout
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco […]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling...
May 23, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791259/a-pragmatic-trial-of-e-cigarettes-incentives-and-drugs-for-smoking-cessation
#2
Scott D Halpern, Michael O Harhay, Kathryn Saulsgiver, Christine Brophy, Andrea B Troxel, Kevin G Volpp
Background Whether financial incentives, pharmacologic therapies, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) promote smoking cessation among unselected smokers is unknown. Methods We randomly assigned smokers employed by 54 companies to one of four smoking-cessation interventions or to usual care. Usual care consisted of access to information regarding the benefits of smoking cessation and to a motivational text-messaging service. The four interventions consisted of usual care plus one of the following: free cessation aids (nicotine-replacement therapy or pharmacotherapy, with e-cigarettes if standard therapies failed); free e-cigarettes, without a requirement that standard therapies had been tried; free cessation aids plus $600 in rewards for sustained abstinence; or free cessation aids plus $600 in redeemable funds, deposited in a separate account for each participant, with money removed from the account if cessation milestones were not met...
May 23, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789311/fda-tackles-underage-e-cigarette-use
#3
(no author information available yet)
In recent weeks, the FDA has taken steps to address underage use of e-cigarettes: The agency has identified and warned retailers selling to minors, issued warning letters to companies selling e-cigarette cartridges in adolescent-appealing packaging, and requested information from e-cigarette companies. The steps are part of the FDA's ongoing effort to prevent middle- and high-school students from using e-cigarette products.
May 22, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788802/acute-effects-of-inhaled-menthol-on-the-rewarding-effects-of-intravenous-nicotine-in-smokers
#4
Gerald W Valentine, Elise E DeVito, Peter I Jatlow, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Mehmet Sofuoglu
OBJECTIVE: This double-blind, placebo controlled study examined whether menthol inhaled from an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) would change subjective and withdrawal alleviating effects of intravenous nicotine in young adult smokers. METHODS: A total of 32 menthol-preferring smokers and 25 non-menthol-preferring smokers participated in the study that consisted of a random sequence of three different inhaled menthol conditions (0.0%, 0.5%, and 3.2%) across three test sessions (a single menthol condition per session)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788484/an-e-liquid-flavor-wheel-a-shared-vocabulary-based-on-systematically-reviewing-e-liquid-flavor-classifications-in-literature
#5
Erna Johanna Zegerina Krüsemann, Sanne Boesveldt, Kees de Graaf, Reinskje Talhout
Introduction: E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors related to e-cigarette use, to investigate how e-liquid flavors have been classified in research, and propose an e-liquid flavor wheel to classify e-liquids based on marketing descriptions...
May 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788463/e-cigarette-science-and-its-relevance-for-regulatory-actions-and-policy
#6
Ray Niaura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788415/association-of-e-cigarette-use-with-oral-health-a-population-based-cross-sectional-questionnaire-study
#7
Priyanka Huilgol, Surya P Bhatt, Niranjan Biligowda, Nicole C Wright, J Michael Wells
Background: The impact of daily or intermittent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on oral health is unknown. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. Poor oral health was determined by the number of permanent teeth removed due to non-traumatic causes, and e-cigarette use determined by daily or intermittent use within 30 days prior to survey administration. We performed logistic regression analysis to test associations between e-cigarette use and oral health with adjustment for factors associated with poor oral health, survey clustering, strata and weight...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788314/patterns-of-e-cigarette-use-among-youth-and-young-adults-review-of-the-impact-of-e-cigarettes-on-cigarette-smoking
#8
Allison Glasser, Haneen Abudayyeh, Jennifer Cantrell, Raymond Niaura
The present article provides a review of the impact of e-cigarette use on subsequent cigarette smoking among youth and YAs. Studies presented here suggest that e-cigarette use among non-smokers is associated with subsequent cigarette smoking, but study designs are subject to numerous limitations. Future research should focus on addressing the characteristics that put youth and YAs at risk of using either product and how appeal and accessibility of these products are related to product use in order to inform future policy-making...
May 17, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773665/hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-from-e-cigarette-use
#9
Casey G Sommerfeld, Daniel J Weiner, Andrew Nowalk, Allyson Larkin
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or "vaping," is gaining widespread popularity as an alternative to conventional cigarettes among adolescents. Little is known of the health risks of e-cigarette use, especially in children and adolescents. We present a Case Report of a previously healthy 18-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain after e-cigarette use. She developed respiratory failure with hypoxia and was intubated, and ultimately met diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772812/change-and-continuity-in-vaping-and-smoking-by-young-people-a-qualitative-case-study-of-a-friendship-group
#10
Neil McKeganey, Marina Barnard
This paper reports a qualitative case study of a small friendship group ( n = 8) in Glasgow, Scotland. Interviewed twice at six months apart, these 16 to 17 year olds reported a substantial change in their use of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes and tobacco. At time 1, vaping generated much excitement and interest, with six out of eight individuals having their own vape device. At time 2, only two young people still vaped, with the others no longer professing any interest in continued vaping. The two regular smokers, who had been smoking before they first vaped, now only vaped privately and to reduce their tobacco intake...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767777/prison-staff-and-prisoner-views-on-a-prison-smoking-ban-evidence-from-the-tobacco-in-prisons-study
#11
Ashley Brown, Helen Sweeting, Greig Logan, Evangelia Demou, Kate Hunt
Introduction: In jurisdictions permitting prisoner smoking, rates are high (c75%), with smoking embedded in prison culture, leading to secondhand smoke exposures among staff and prisoners and challenges for smoking cessation. Momentum is building to ban smoking in prisons, but research on staff and prisoner views is lacking. We address this gap, providing evidence on staff and prisoner views throughout all Scottish prisons. Methods: Data were collected prior to announcement of a (November 2018) prison smoking ban throughout Scotland...
May 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765089/e-cigarettes-can-emit-formaldehyde-at-high-levels-under-conditions-that-have-been-reported-to-be-non-averse-to-users
#12
James C Salamanca, Jiries Meehan-Atrash, Shawna Vreeke, Jorge O Escobedo, David H Peyton, Robert M Strongin
E-cigarette aerosol emission studies typically focus on benchmarking toxicant levels versus those of cigarettes. However, such studies do not fully account for the distinct chemical makeup of e-liquids and their unique properties. These approaches often conclude that there are fewer and lower levels of toxins produced by e-cigarettes than by cigarettes. In 2015, we reported the discovery of new hemiacetals derived from the reaction of formaldehyde and the e-liquid solvents. The main finding was that they constituted a significant proportion of potentially undetected formaldehyde...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764355/regulating-e-cigarettes-in-australia-implications-for-tobacco-use-by-young-people
#13
Colin P Mendelsohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763848/prevalence-and-correlates-of-adolescents-e-cigarette-use-frequency-and-dependence
#14
Erin A Vogel, Danielle E Ramo, Mark L Rubinstein
BACKGROUND: Understanding predictors of e-cigarette use among adolescents in the context of wide availability and extreme popularity of these products is important for prevention and treatment. This study identifies correlates of e-cigarette use frequency and dependence among adolescent users. METHODS: Adolescent e-cigarette users (N = 173) were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants reported demographic and psychosocial characteristics, e-cigarette use behaviors, and cigarette use...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763683/sexual-and-gender-minority-cigarette-smoking-disparities-an-analysis-of-2016-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-data
#15
Leah Hoffman, Janine Delahanty, Sarah E Johnson, Xiaoquan Zhao
We examined the association between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identity, cigarette and e-cigarette use, and potential risk factors in the United States. Using data from 198,057 adults in 26 states in the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we estimated the prevalence of cigarette use, e-cigarette use, and potential risk factors by gender identity and sexual identity. Overall and sex-stratified bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions examined whether the relationship between sexual and gender identity and cigarette and e-cigarette use persisted after adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status, and other unhealthy behaviors...
May 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755639/pilot-experiment-the-effect-of-added-flavorants-on-the-taste-and-pleasantness-of-mixtures-of-glycerol-and-propylene-glycol
#16
Pradnya D Rao, Husile Nanding, Andrew A Strasser, Paul M Wise
Introduction: The US Food and Drug Administration banned most "sweet" flavorants for use in cigarettes due to the concern that sweet flavors appeal to young, beginning smokers. However, many of the same flavors, including fruity and confection-associated aromas (e.g. vanilla) are still used in e-cigarettes. Sweet flavors may have a number of effects, including enhancement of the taste of other ingredients. The current work focused on the impact of model flavorants on the taste of a mixture of propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine, solvents used in most e-cigarettes and related products...
April 2018: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754582/altered-lung-biology-of-healthy-never-smokers-following-acute-inhalation-of-e-cigarettes
#17
Michelle R Staudt, Jacqueline Salit, Robert J Kaner, Charleen Hollmann, Ronald G Crystal
BACKGROUND: Little is known about health risks associated with electronic cigarette (EC) use although EC are rising in popularity and have been advocated as a means to quit smoking cigarettes. METHODS: Ten never-smokers, without exposure history to tobacco products or EC, were assessed at baseline with questionnaire, chest X-ray, lung function, plasma levels of endothelial microparticles (EMP), and bronchoscopy to obtain small airway epithelium (SAE) and alveolar macrophages (AM)...
May 14, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753155/assessing-nicotine-dependence-in-adolescent-e-cigarette-users-the-4-item-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-promis-nicotine-dependence-item-bank-for-electronic-cigarettes
#18
Meghan E Morean, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms...
April 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751076/tobacco-specific-nitrosamines-a-literature-review
#19
Evangelia Konstantinou, Foteini Fotopoulou, Athanasios Drosos, Nektaria Dimakopoulou, Zoi Zagoriti, Athanasios Niarchos, Dimitra Makrynioti, Dimitrios Kouretas, George Lagoumintzis, Konstantinos Poulas
Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of chemicals, including several tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). Most TSNA are formed in tobacco during the post-harvest period, while a number are produced when a cigarette is burned. Considerable evidence supports the role of TSNA important causative factors for cancers of the lung, pancreas, esophagus, and oral cavity in people who use tobacco products. Of the known TSNA, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are the most carcinogenic...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744375/counterfeit-electronic-cigarette-products-with-mislabeled-nicotine-concentrations
#20
Esther E Omaiye, Iliana Cordova, Barbara Davis, Prue Talbot
Objectives: We compared nicotine concentrations in one brand of refill fluids that were purchased in 4 countries and labeled 0 mg of nicotine/mL. We then identified counterfeit e-cigarette products from these countries. Methods: Overall, 125 e-cigarette refill fluids were purchased in Nigeria, the United States (US), England, and China. Nicotine concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and compared to labeled concentrations. Refill fluids were examined to identify physical differences and grouped into authentic and counterfeit products...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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