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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198733/clinical-relevance-of-sarcopenia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Ranjani N Moorthi, Keith G Avin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aim to present how definitions of sarcopenia from the general population may pertain to those with CKD, its assessment by clinicians and emerging therapies for sarcopenia in CKD. For this review, we limit our description and recommendations to patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. RECENT FINDINGS: Poorer parameters of lean mass, strength and physical function are associated with worsening patient-centered outcomes such as limiting mobility, falls and mortality in CKD; however, the magnitude of these associations are different in those with and without CKD...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191781/direct-isolation-and-characterization-of-human-nephron-progenitors
#2
Stefano Da Sacco, Matthew E Thornton, Astgik Petrosyan, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Sargis Sedrakyan, Brendan H Grubbs, Roger E De Filippo, Laura Perin
Mature nephrons originate from a small population of uninduced nephrogenic progenitor cells (NPs) within the cap mesenchyme. These cells are characterized by the coexpression of SIX2 and CITED1. Many studies on mouse models as well as on human pluripotent stem cells have advanced our knowledge of NPs, but very little is known about this population in humans, since it is exhausted before birth and strategies for its direct isolation are still limited. Here we report an efficient protocol for direct isolation of human NPs without genetic manipulation or stepwise induction procedures...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174670/challenges-for-production-of-human-transplantable-organ-grafts
#3
REVIEW
Eiji Kobayashi
The described research methods explain how you could generate a three-dimensional kidney, based on recent research results. The first method is to fabricate human organs in a pig body. The second is to transplant the so-called "organ bud" into a patient's body for further development. The third method is to regenerate organs by filling cells into the cytoskeleton as a scaffold. Research for the in vitro fabrication of organ buds has been elaborately accelerated. The organ bud transplantation has been confronted with issues of continuity with the original organs, so the development of technology for achieving continuity between a transplanted organ bud and the existing organs is progressing well...
January 8, 2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174253/vitamin-d-induces-myogenic-differentiation-in-skeletal-muscle-derived-stem-cells
#4
Melissa Braga, Zena Simmons, Keith C Norris, Monica G Ferrini, Jorge N Artaza
Skeletal muscle wasting is a serious disorder associated with health conditions such as aging, chronic kidney disease, and AIDS. Vitamin D is most widely recognized for its regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis in relation to bone development and maintenance. Recently, Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve muscle performance and reduce the risk of falls in Vitamin D deficient older adults. However, little is known of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) or the role it plays in myogenic differentiation...
February 7, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143791/kidney-and-innate-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Ying-Hui Wang, Yu-Gen Zhang
Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration...
January 28, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135283/the-spleen-is-an-ideal-site-for-inducing-transplanted-islet-graft-expansion-in-mice
#6
Takeshi Itoh, Hitomi Nishinakamura, Kenjiro Kumano, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Shohta Kodama
Alternative islet transplantation sites have the potential to reduce the marginal number of islets required to ameliorate hyperglycemia in recipients with diabetes. Previously, we reported that T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (Tlx1)+ stem cells in the spleen effectively regenerated into insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of non-obese diabetic mice with end-stage disease. Thus, we investigated the spleen as a potential alternative islet transplantation site. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice received syngeneic islets into the portal vein (PV), beneath the kidney capsule (KC), or into the spleen (SP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098745/effect-of-freeze-dried-allograft-bone-with-human-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-containing-a-collagen-binding-domain-from-clostridium-histolyticum-collagenase-on-bone-formation-after-lumbar-posterolateral-fusion-surgery-in-rats
#7
Gen Inoue, Kentaro Uchida, Osamu Matsushita, Hisako Fujimaki, Wataru Saito, Masayuki Miyagi, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Nozomu Nishi, Seiji Ohtori, Mizuki Yogoro, Masashi Takaso
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) fused with the polycystic kidney disease domain (PKD) and the collagen-biding domain (CBD) of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, for the acceleration of lumbar posterolateral fusion in rats. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Reports indicate bFGF is an effective growth factor with osteogenic potential for promoting bone regeneration, although its efficiency decreases rapidly following its diffusion in body fluid from the host site...
January 16, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096308/-re-building-a-kidney
#8
Leif Oxburgh, Thomas J Carroll, Ondine Cleaver, Daniel R Gossett, Deborah K Hoshizaki, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Benjamin D Humphreys, Sanjay Jain, Jan Jensen, David L Kaplan, Carl Kesselman, Christian J Ketchum, Melissa H Little, Andrew P McMahon, Stuart J Shankland, Jason R Spence, M Todd Valerius, Jason A Wertheim, Oliver Wessely, Ying Zheng, Iain A Drummond
(Re)Building a Kidney is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-led consortium to optimize approaches for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of appropriate kidney cell types and the integration of these cells into complex structures that replicate human kidney function. The ultimate goals of the consortium are two-fold: to develop and implement strategies for in vitro engineering of replacement kidney tissue, and to devise strategies to stimulate regeneration of nephrons in situ to restore failing kidney function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089754/stem-cell-therapy-an-emerging-modality-in-glomerular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Umang G Thakkar, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
The kidney has been considered a highly terminally differentiated organ with low proliferative potential and thus unlikely to undergo regeneration. Glomerular disease progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which requires dialysis or renal transplantation for better quality of life for patients with ESRD. Because of the shortage of implantable kidneys and complications such as immune rejection, septicemia and toxicity of immunosuppression, kidney transplantation remains a challenge. Therapeutic options available for glomerular disease include symptomatic treatment and strategies to delay progression...
January 12, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089670/in%C3%A2-vitro-propagation-and-branching-morphogenesis-from-single-ureteric-bud%C3%A2-cells
#10
Shunsuke Yuri, Masaki Nishikawa, Naomi Yanagawa, Oak D Jo, Norimoto Yanagawa
A method to maintain and rebuild ureteric bud (UB)-like structures from UB cells in vitro could provide a useful tool for kidney regeneration. We aimed in our present study to establish a serum-free culture system that enables the expansion of UB progenitor cells, i.e., UB tip cells, and reconstruction of UB-like structures. We found that fibroblast growth factors or retinoic acid (RA) was sufficient for the survival of UB cells in serum-free condition, while the proliferation and maintenance of UB tip cells required glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor together with signaling from either WNT-β-catenin pathway or RA...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089070/steric-exclusion-chromatography-for-purification-of-cell-culture-derived-influenza-a-virus-using-regenerated-cellulose-membranes-and-polyethylene-glycol
#11
Pavel Marichal-Gallardo, Michael M Pieler, Michael W Wolff, Udo Reichl
Steric exclusion chromatography has been used for the purification of proteins and bacteriophages using monoliths. The operation is carried out by mixing a crude sample containing the target species with a predetermined concentration and molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and loading it onto a non-reactive hydrophilic surface. Product capture occurs by the mutual steric exclusion of PEG between the product and the matrix. Selectivity is significantly influenced by target product size. Product elution is achieved by decreasing the PEG concentration...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078802/evaluation-of-pva-biodegradable-electric-conductive-membranes-for-nerve-regeneration-in-axonotmesis-injuries-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-animal-model
#12
J Ribeiro, A R Caseiro, T Pereira, Pas Armada-da-Silva, I Pires, J Prada, I Amorim, I Leal Reis, S Amado, J D Santos, S Bompasso, S Raimondo, Asp Varejão, S Geuna, A L Luís, A C Maurício
The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5±0.5x10(-6) S/m, 579±0.6x10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5±0.7 x10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070858/exosome-and-microvesicle-enriched-fractions-isolated-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-gradient-separation-showed-different-molecular-signatures-and-functions-on-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#13
Federica Collino, Margherita Pomatto, Stefania Bruno, Rafael Soares Lindoso, Marta Tapparo, Wen Sicheng, Peter Quesenberry, Giovanni Camussi
Several studies have suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may mediate MSC paracrine action on kidney regeneration. This activity has been, at least in part, ascribed to the transfer of proteins/transcription factors and different RNA species. Information on the RNA/protein content of different MSC EV subpopulations and the correlation with their biological activity is currently incomplete. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular composition and the functional properties on renal target cells of MSC EV sub-populations separated by gradient floatation...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069171/steric-exclusion-chromatography-for-purification-of-cell-culture-derived-influenza-a-virus-using-regenerated-cellulose-membranes-and-polyethylene-glycol
#14
Pavel Marichal-Gallardo, Michael M Pieler, Michael W Wolff, Udo Reichl
Steric exclusion chromatography has been used for the purification of proteins and bacteriophages using monoliths. The operation is carried out by mixing a crude sample containing the target species with a predetermined concentration and molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and loading it onto a non-reactive hydrophilic surface. Product capture occurs by the mutual steric exclusion of PEG between the product and the matrix. Selectivity is significantly influenced by target product size. Product elution is achieved by decreasing the PEG concentration...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068076/bioavailability-and-kidney-responses-to-diclofenac-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#15
Lisa K Bickley, Ronny van Aerle, A Ross Brown, Adam Hargreaves, Russell Huby, Victoria Cammack, Richard Jackson, Eduarda M Santos, Charles R Tyler
Diclofenac is one of the most widely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs worldwide. It is frequently detected in surface waters; however, whether this pharmaceutical poses a risk to aquatic organisms is debated. Here we quantified the uptake of diclofenac by the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following aqueous exposure (0.2-25.0 μg L(-1)) for 21 days, and evaluated the tissue and biomolecular responses in the kidney. Diclofenac accumulated in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the plasma of exposed fish...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063905/trichloroethylene-induced-formic-aciduria-in-the-male-c57-bl-6-mouse
#16
Edward A Lock, Paul Keane, Philip H Rowe, John R Foster, Daniel Antoine, Christopher M Morris
1, 1, 2-Trichloroethylene (TCE) is of environmental concern, due to evaporation while handling, chemical processing and leakage from chemical waste sites, leading to its contamination of ground water and air. For several decades there has been issues about possible long term health effects of TCE but recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency classified TCE as a human carcinogen. Links having been established between occupational exposures and kidney cancer and possible links to non-Hodgkin lymphoma and liver cancer, but there is more still more to learn...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042087/melatonin-as-a-promising-agent-of-regulating-stem-cell-biology-and-its-application-in-disease-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Shuo Zhang, Simon Chen, Yuan Li, Yu Liu
Stem cells have emerged as an important approach to repair and regenerate damaged tissues or organs and show great therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. However, the low survival of engrafted stem cells still remains a major challenge for stem cell therapy. As a major hormone from the pineal gland, melatonin has been shown to play an important role in regulating the physiological and pathological functions of stem cells, such as promoting proliferation, migration and differentiation. Thus, melatonin combined with stem cell transplantation displayed promising application potential in neurodegenerative diseases, liver cirrhosis, wound healing, myocardial infarction, kidney ischemia injury, osteoporosis, etc...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029153/cellular-senescence-in-renal-ageing-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ines Sturmlechner, Matej Durik, Cynthia J Sieben, Darren J Baker, Jan M van Deursen
The senescence programme is implicated in diverse biological processes, including embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and repair, tumorigenesis, and ageing. Although in vivo studies of senescence are in their infancy, evidence suggesting that senescent cells are a heterogeneous cell type is accumulating: senescence can be induced by different stressors, and senescent cells have varying degrees of genomic and epigenomic instability and different cell origins, contributing to their diversity. Two main classes of senescent cells have been identified: acute and chronic senescent cells...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017615/pharmacological-activation-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-via-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-induces-bone-anabolic-effect
#19
Monika Mittal, Subhashis Pal, Shyamsundar Pal China, Konica Porwal, Kapil Dev, Richa Shrivastava, Kanumuri Siva Rama Raju, Mamunur Rashid, Arun Kumar Trivedi, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Smrati Bhaduria, Rakesh Maurya, Naibedya Chattopadhyay
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes involved in detoxifying aldehydes. Previously, we reported that an ALDH inhibitor, disulfiram caused bone loss in rats and among ALDHs, osteoblast expressed only ALDH2. Loss-of-function mutation in ALDH2 gene is reported to cause bone loss in humans which suggested its importance in skeletal homeostasis. We thus studied whether activating ALDH2 by N-(1, 3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2, 6-dichlorobenzamide (alda-1) had osteogenic effect. We found that alda-1 increased and acetaldehyde decreased the differentiation of rat primary osteoblasts and expressions of ALDH2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)...
December 23, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011955/the-protective-effects-of-zinc-in-experimental-gentamicin-induced-acute-renal-failure-in-rats
#20
O Teslariu, A S Pasca, L Mititelu-Tartau, C E Schiriac, C Gales, P M Saftencu, M Nechifor
This study investigates the effects of zinc in acute kidney injury induced by gentamicin (Ge). We used Wistar male rats distributed in 4 groups of 12 animals each, treated intraperitoneally as follows: Group I (Control) treated with distilled water; Group II (Ge) with experimental induced acute renal failure with Ge; Group III (Ge + Zn) administration of ZnCl2 in animals with experimental induced renal failure with Ge, Group IV (Zn) treated with ZnCl2 as positive control. We measured serum levels of urea, creatinine, total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and urinary proteins before the nephrotoxicity induction (baseline) and 3, 7 and 10 days after Ge administration...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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