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Robotic, retina

Berk Gonenc, Nhat Tran, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita, Berk Gonenc, Nhat Tran, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita, Nhat Tran, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita, Berk Gonenc, Peter Gehlbach
Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure where therapeutic agents are injected into occluded retina veins. The feasibility of this treatment is limited due to challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining it throughout the drug delivery period. In this study, we integrate a force-sensing microneedle with two distinct robotic systems: the handheld micromanipulator Micron, and the cooperatively controlled Steady-Hand Eye Robot (SHER). The sensed tool-to-tissue interaction forces are used to detect venous puncture and extend the robots' standard control schemes with a new position holding mode (PHM) that assists the operator hold the needle position fixed and maintain cannulation for a longer time with less trauma on the vasculature...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Egidio Falotico, Lorenzo Vannucci, Alessandro Ambrosano, Ugo Albanese, Stefan Ulbrich, Juan Camilo Vasquez Tieck, Georg Hinkel, Jacques Kaiser, Igor Peric, Oliver Denninger, Nino Cauli, Murat Kirtay, Arne Roennau, Gudrun Klinker, Axel Von Arnim, Luc Guyot, Daniel Peppicelli, Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Eduardo Ros, Patrick Maier, Sandro Weber, Manuel Huber, David Plecher, Florian Röhrbein, Stefan Deser, Alina Roitberg, Patrick van der Smagt, Rüdiger Dillman, Paul Levi, Cecilia Laschi, Alois C Knoll, Marc-Oliver Gewaltig
Combined efforts in the fields of neuroscience, computer science, and biology allowed to design biologically realistic models of the brain based on spiking neural networks. For a proper validation of these models, an embodiment in a dynamic and rich sensory environment, where the model is exposed to a realistic sensory-motor task, is needed. Due to the complexity of these brain models that, at the current stage, cannot deal with real-time constraints, it is not possible to embed them into a real-world task...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Qian Liu, Garibaldi Pineda-García, Evangelos Stromatias, Teresa Serrano-Gotarredona, Steve B Furber
Today, increasing attention is being paid to research into spike-based neural computation both to gain a better understanding of the brain and to explore biologically-inspired computation. Within this field, the primate visual pathway and its hierarchical organization have been extensively studied. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), inspired by the understanding of observed biological structure and function, have been successfully applied to visual recognition and classification tasks. In addition, implementations on neuromorphic hardware have enabled large-scale networks to run in (or even faster than) real time, making spike-based neural vision processing accessible on mobile robots...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hrishikesh M Rao, Juan San Juan, Fred Y Shen, Jennifer E Villa, Kimia S Rafie, Marc A Sommer
As we look around a scene, we perceive it as continuous and stable even though each saccadic eye movement changes the visual input to the retinas. How the brain achieves this perceptual stabilization is unknown, but a major hypothesis is that it relies on presaccadic remapping, a process in which neurons shift their visual sensitivity to a new location in the scene just before each saccade. This hypothesis is difficult to test in vivo because complete, selective inactivation of remapping is currently intractable...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Dominic Béliveau-Nadeau, Sonia Callejo, David Roberge
Radiotherapy has a long history in the organ-sparing management of choroidal melanoma. Joining plaque radiotherapy and proton irradiation, stereotactic robotic photon irradiation is a new tool in the radiation oncologist's armamentarium for ocular tumors. The non-coplanar fields with steep dose gradients are well suited to spare uninvolved retina, anterior chamber, and the optic nerve. In our practice, it is the preferred treatment for melanomas that are non-amenable to standard plaque brachytherapy. Since late 2010, we have treated more than 40 patients with our robotic linear accelerator...
2016: Curēus
Berk Gonenc, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
In retinal microsurgery, membrane peeling is a standard procedure requiring the delamination of a thin fibrous membrane adherent to the retina surface by applying very small forces. Robotic devices with combined force-sensing instruments have significant potential to assist this procedure by facilitating membrane delamination through induced micro-vibrations. However, defining the optimal frequency and amplitude for generating such vibrations, and updating these parameters during the procedure is not trivial...
September 2015: Proceedings of the ... IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
Terrence C Stewart, Ashley Kleinhans, Andrew Mundy, Jörg Conradt
We demonstrate a hybrid neuromorphic learning paradigm that learns complex sensorimotor mappings based on a small set of hard-coded reflex behaviors. A mobile robot is first controlled by a basic set of reflexive hand-designed behaviors. All sensor data is provided via a spike-based silicon retina camera (eDVS), and all control is implemented via spiking neurons simulated on neuromorphic hardware (SpiNNaker). Given this control system, the robot is capable of simple obstacle avoidance and random exploration...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Łukasz Farian, Juan Antonio Leñero-Bardallo, Philipp Häfliger
This article investigates the potential of a bio-inspired vision sensor with pixels that detect transients between three primary colors. The in-pixel color processing is inspired by the retinal color opponency that are found in mammalian retinas. Color transitions in a pixel are represented by voltage spikes, which are akin to a neuron's action potential. These spikes are conveyed off-chip by the Address Event Representation (AER) protocol. To achieve sensitivity to three different color spectra within the visual spectrum, each pixel has three stacked photodiodes at different depths in the silicon substrate...
October 2015: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yukako Taketani, Chihiro Mayama, Noriyuki Suzuki, Akiko Wada, Tatsuhiro Oka, Kazuya Inamochi, Yohei Nomoto
BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure for prostate cancer. During RALP, the patient must be in a steep Trendelenburg (head-down) position, which leads to a significant increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). The association of RALP with visual field sensitivity, however, has not been prospectively studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the visual field, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and optic disc morphology in 50 normal eyes of 25 male patients that underwent RALP...
2015: PloS One
Shih-Chii Liu, MinHao Yang, Andreas Steiner, Rico Moeckel, Tobi Delbruck
Optical flow sensors have been a long running theme in neuromorphic vision sensors which include circuits that implement the local background intensity adaptation mechanism seen in biological retinas. This paper reports a bio-inspired optical motion sensor aimed towards miniature robotic and aerial platforms. It combines a 20 × 20 continuous-time CMOS silicon retina vision sensor with a DSP microcontroller. The retina sensor has pixels that have local gain control and adapt to background lighting. The system allows the user to validate various motion algorithms without building dedicated custom solutions...
April 2015: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Haoran Yu, Jin-Hui Shen, Rohan J Shah, Nabil Simaan, Karen M Joos
Real-time intraocular optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualization of tissues with surgical feedback can enhance retinal surgery. An intraocular 23-gauge B-mode forward-imaging co-planar OCT-forceps, coupling connectors and algorithms were developed to form a unique ophthalmic surgical robotic system. Approach to the surface of a phantom or goat retina by a manual or robotic-controlled forceps, with and without real-time OCT guidance, was performed. Efficiency of lifting phantom membranes was examined. Placing the co-planar OCT imaging probe internal to the surgical tool reduced instrument shadowing and permitted constant tracking...
February 1, 2015: Biomedical Optics Express
Berk Gonenc, Ellen Feldman, Peter Gehlbach, James Handa, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
In vitreoretinal practice, controlled tremor-free motion and limitation of applied forces to the retina are two highly desired features. This study addresses both requirements with a new integrated system: a force-sensing motorized micro-forceps combined with an active tremor-canceling handheld micromanipulator, known as Micron. The micro-forceps is a 20 Ga instrument that is mechanically decoupled from its handle and senses the transverse forces at its tip with an accuracy of 0.3 mN. Membrane peeling trials on a bandage phantom revealed a 60-95% reduction in the 2-20 Hz band in both the tip force and position spectra, while peeling forces remained below the set safety threshold...
May 2014: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA: [proceedings]
Xingchi He, Marcin Balicki, Peter Gehlbach, James Handa, Russell Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
Robotic systems have the potential to assist vitreoretinal surgeons in extremely difficult surgical tasks inside the human eye. In addition to reducing hand tremor and improving tool positioning, a robotic assistant can provide assistive motion guidance using virtual fixtures, and incorporate real-time feedback from intraocular force sensing ophthalmic instruments to present tissue manipulation forces, that are otherwise physically imperceptible to the surgeon. This paper presents the design of an FBG-based, multi-function instrument that is capable of measuring mN-level forces at the instrument tip located inside the eye, and also the sclera contact location on the instrument shaft and the corresponding contact force...
May 2014: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA: [proceedings]
Brian C Becker, Sungwook Yang, Robert A Maclachlan, Cameron N Riviere
Injecting clot-busting drugs such as t-PA into tiny vessels thinner than a human hair in the eye is a challenging procedure, especially since the vessels lie directly on top of the delicate and easily damaged retina. Various robotic aids have been proposed with the goal of increasing safety by removing tremor and increasing precision with motion scaling. We have developed a fully handheld micromanipulator, Micron, that has demonstrated reduced tremor when cannulating porcine retinal veins in an "open sky" scenario...
December 31, 2012: Proceedings of the ... IEEE/RAS-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics
Tobi Delbruck, Manuel Lang
Conventional vision-based robotic systems that must operate quickly require high video frame rates and consequently high computational costs. Visual response latencies are lower-bound by the frame period, e.g., 20 ms for 50 Hz frame rate. This paper shows how an asynchronous neuromorphic dynamic vision sensor (DVS) silicon retina is used to build a fast self-calibrating robotic goalie, which offers high update rates and low latency at low CPU load. Independent and asynchronous per pixel illumination change events from the DVS signify moving objects and are used in software to track multiple balls...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fernando Perez-Peña, Arturo Morgado-Estevez, Alejandro Linares-Barranco, Angel Jimenez-Fernandez, Francisco Gomez-Rodriguez, Gabriel Jimenez-Moreno, Juan Lopez-Coronado
In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina) to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE) that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM)...
2013: Sensors
Berk Gonenc, Marcin A Balicki, James Handa, Peter Gehlbach, Cameron N Riviere, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
Highly accurate positioning is fundamental to the performance of vitreoretinal microsurgery. Of vitreoretinal procedures, membrane peeling is among the most prone to complications since extremely delicate manipulation of retinal tissue is required. Associated tool-to-tissue interaction forces are usually below the threshold of human perception, and the surgical tools are moved very slowly, within the 0.1-0.5 mm/s range. During the procedure, unintentional tool motion and excessive forces can easily give rise to vision loss or irreversible damage to the retina...
December 20, 2012: Proceedings of the ... IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
Ismail Kuru, Berk Gonenc, Marcin Balicki, James Handa, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
Membrane peeling is a standard vitreoretinal procedure, where the surgeon delaminates a very thin membrane from retina surface using surgical picks and forceps. This requires extremely delicate manipulation of the retinal tissue. Applying excessive forces during the surgery can cause serious complications leading to vision loss. For successful membrane peeling, most of the applied forces need to be very small, well below the human tactile sensation threshold. In this paper, we present a robotic system that combines a force sensing forceps tool and a cooperatively-controlled surgical robot...
2012: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Rogério Richa, Balázs Vágvölgyi, Marcin Balicki, Gregory D Hager, Russell H Taylor
Current technical limitations in retinal surgery hinder the ability of surgeons to identify and localize surgical targets, increasing operating times and risks of surgical error. In this paper we present a hybrid tracking and mosaicking method for augmented reality in retinal surgery. The system is a combination of direct and feature-based tracking methods. A novel extension for direct visual tracking using a robust image similarity measure in color images is also proposed. Several experiments conducted on phantom, in vivo rabbit and human images attest the ability of the method to cope with the challenging retinal surgery scenario...
2012: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
Vincent Yue-Sek Chan, Craig T Jin, André van Schaik
This paper presents the first robotic system featuring audio-visual (AV) sensor fusion with neuromorphic sensors. We combine a pair of silicon cochleae and a silicon retina on a robotic platform to allow the robot to learn sound localization through self motion and visual feedback, using an adaptive ITD-based sound localization algorithm. After training, the robot can localize sound sources (white or pink noise) in a reverberant environment with an RMS error of 4-5° in azimuth. We also investigate the AV source binding problem and an experiment is conducted to test the effectiveness of matching an audio event with a corresponding visual event based on their onset time...
2012: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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