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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966797/toward-monocular-camera-guided-retinal-vein-cannulation-with-an-actively-stabilized-handheld-robot
#1
Shohin Mukherjee, Sungwook Yang, Robert A MacLachlan, Louis A Lobes, Joseph N Martel, Cameron N Riviere
In this paper we describe work towards retinal vessel cannulation using an actively stabilized handheld robot, guided by monocular vision. We employ a previously developed monocular camera based surface reconstruction method using automated laser beam scanning over the retina. We use the reconstructed plane to find a coordinate transform between the 2D image plane coordinate system and the global 3D frame. Within a hemispherical region around the target, we use motion scaling for higher precision. The contribution of this work is the homography matrix estimation using monocular vision and application of the previously developed laser surface reconstruction to Micron guided vein cannulation...
May 2017: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795949/a-comprehensive-gaze-stabilization-controller-based-on-cerebellar-internal-models
#2
Lorenzo Vannucci, Egidio Falotico, Silvia Tolu, Vito Cacucciolo, Paolo Dario, Henrik Hautop Lund, Cecilia Laschi
Gaze stabilization is essential for clear vision; it is the combined effect of two reflexes relying on vestibular inputs: the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which stabilizes the visual axis to minimize retinal image motion. The VOR works in conjunction with the opto-kinetic reflex (OKR), which is a visual feedback mechanism that allows the eye to move at the same speed as the observed scene. Together they keep the image stationary on the retina...
October 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736508/3-dof-force-sensing-motorized-micro-forceps-for-robot-assisted-vitreoretinal-surgery
#3
Berk Gonenc, Alireza Chamani, James Handa, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
In vitreoretinal surgery, membrane peeling is a prototypical task where a layer of fibrous tissue is delaminated off the retina with a micro-forceps by applying very fine forces that are mostly imperceptible to the surgeon. Previously we developed sensitized ophthalmic surgery tools based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors, which were shown to precisely detect forces at the instrument's tip in two degrees of freedom perpendicular to the tool axis. This paper presents a new design that employs an additional sensor to capture also the tensile force along the tool axis...
June 1, 2017: IEEE Sensors Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719002/eyeslam-real-time-simultaneous-localization-and-mapping-of-retinal-vessels-during-intraocular-microsurgery
#4
Daniel Braun, Sungwook Yang, Joseph N Martel, Cameron N Riviere, Brian C Becker
BACKGROUND: Fast and accurate mapping and localization of the retinal vasculature is critical to increasing the effectiveness and clinical utility of robot-assisted intraocular microsurgery such as laser photocoagulation and retinal vessel cannulation. METHODS: The proposed EyeSLAM algorithm delivers 30 Hz real-time simultaneous localization and mapping of the human retina and vasculature during intraocular surgery, combining fast vessel detection with 2D scan-matching techniques to build and localize a probabilistic map of the vasculature...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569669/scaling-up-liquid-state-machines-to-predict-over-address-events-from-dynamic-vision-sensors
#5
Jacques Kaiser, Rainer Stal, Anand Subramoney, Arne Roennau, Rüdiger Dillmann
Short-term visual prediction is important both in biology and robotics. It allows us to anticipate upcoming states of the environment and therefore plan more efficiently. In theoretical neuroscience, liquid state machines have been proposed as a biologically inspired method to perform asynchronous prediction without a model. However, they have so far only been demonstrated in simulation or small scale pre-processed camera images. In this paper, we use a liquid state machine to predict over the whole 128x128 event stream provided by a real dynamic vision sensor (DVS, or silicon retina)...
June 1, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287484/time-of-travel-methods-for-measuring-optical-flow-on-board-a-micro-flying-robot
#6
Erik Vanhoutte, Stefano Mafrica, Franck Ruffier, Reinoud J Bootsma, Julien Serres
For use in autonomous micro air vehicles, visual sensors must not only be small, lightweight and insensitive to light variations; on-board autopilots also require fast and accurate optical flow measurements over a wide range of speeds. Using an auto-adaptive bio-inspired Michaelis-Menten Auto-adaptive Pixel (M 2 APix) analog silicon retina, in this article, we present comparative tests of two optical flow calculation algorithms operating under lighting conditions from 6 × 10 - 7 to 1 . 6 × 10 - 2 W·cm - 2 (i...
March 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269417/robot-assisted-retinal-vein-cannulation-with-force-based-puncture-detection-micron-vs-the-steady-hand-eye-robot
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Berk Gonenc, Nhat Tran, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure where therapeutic agents are injected into occluded retina veins. The feasibility of this treatment is limited due to challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining it throughout the drug delivery period. In this study, we integrate a force-sensing microneedle with two distinct robotic systems: the handheld micromanipulator Micron, and the cooperatively controlled Steady-Hand Eye Robot (SHER). The sensed tool-to-tissue interaction forces are used to detect venous puncture and extend the robots' standard control schemes with a new position holding mode (PHM) that assists the operator hold the needle position fixed and maintain cannulation for a longer time with less trauma on the vasculature...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227660/robot-assisted-retinal-vein-cannulation-with-force-based-puncture-detection-micron-vs-the-steady-hand-eye-robot
#8
Berk Gonenc, Nhat Tran, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita, Berk Gonenc, Nhat Tran, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita, Nhat Tran, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita, Berk Gonenc, Peter Gehlbach
Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure where therapeutic agents are injected into occluded retina veins. The feasibility of this treatment is limited due to challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining it throughout the drug delivery period. In this study, we integrate a force-sensing microneedle with two distinct robotic systems: the handheld micromanipulator Micron, and the cooperatively controlled Steady-Hand Eye Robot (SHER). The sensed tool-to-tissue interaction forces are used to detect venous puncture and extend the robots' standard control schemes with a new position holding mode (PHM) that assists the operator hold the needle position fixed and maintain cannulation for a longer time with less trauma on the vasculature...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179882/connecting-artificial-brains-to-robots-in-a-comprehensive-simulation-framework-the-neurorobotics-platform
#9
Egidio Falotico, Lorenzo Vannucci, Alessandro Ambrosano, Ugo Albanese, Stefan Ulbrich, Juan Camilo Vasquez Tieck, Georg Hinkel, Jacques Kaiser, Igor Peric, Oliver Denninger, Nino Cauli, Murat Kirtay, Arne Roennau, Gudrun Klinker, Axel Von Arnim, Luc Guyot, Daniel Peppicelli, Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Eduardo Ros, Patrick Maier, Sandro Weber, Manuel Huber, David Plecher, Florian Röhrbein, Stefan Deser, Alina Roitberg, Patrick van der Smagt, Rüdiger Dillman, Paul Levi, Cecilia Laschi, Alois C Knoll, Marc-Oliver Gewaltig
Combined efforts in the fields of neuroscience, computer science, and biology allowed to design biologically realistic models of the brain based on spiking neural networks. For a proper validation of these models, an embodiment in a dynamic and rich sensory environment, where the model is exposed to a realistic sensory-motor task, is needed. Due to the complexity of these brain models that, at the current stage, cannot deal with real-time constraints, it is not possible to embed them into a real-world task...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853419/benchmarking-spike-based-visual-recognition-a-dataset-and-evaluation
#10
Qian Liu, Garibaldi Pineda-García, Evangelos Stromatias, Teresa Serrano-Gotarredona, Steve B Furber
Today, increasing attention is being paid to research into spike-based neural computation both to gain a better understanding of the brain and to explore biologically-inspired computation. Within this field, the primate visual pathway and its hierarchical organization have been extensively studied. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), inspired by the understanding of observed biological structure and function, have been successfully applied to visual recognition and classification tasks. In addition, implementations on neuromorphic hardware have enabled large-scale networks to run in (or even faster than) real time, making spike-based neural vision processing accessible on mobile robots...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313528/neural-network-evidence-for-the-coupling-of-presaccadic-visual-remapping-to-predictive-eye-position-updating
#11
Hrishikesh M Rao, Juan San Juan, Fred Y Shen, Jennifer E Villa, Kimia S Rafie, Marc A Sommer
As we look around a scene, we perceive it as continuous and stable even though each saccadic eye movement changes the visual input to the retinas. How the brain achieves this perceptual stabilization is unknown, but a major hypothesis is that it relies on presaccadic remapping, a process in which neurons shift their visual sensitivity to a new location in the scene just before each saccade. This hypothesis is difficult to test in vivo because complete, selective inactivation of remapping is currently intractable...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226942/technique-for-robotic-stereotactic-irradiation-of-choroidal-melanoma
#12
Dominic Béliveau-Nadeau, Sonia Callejo, David Roberge
Radiotherapy has a long history in the organ-sparing management of choroidal melanoma. Joining plaque radiotherapy and proton irradiation, stereotactic robotic photon irradiation is a new tool in the radiation oncologist's armamentarium for ocular tumors. The non-coplanar fields with steep dose gradients are well suited to spare uninvolved retina, anterior chamber, and the optic nerve. In our practice, it is the preferred treatment for melanomas that are non-amenable to standard plaque brachytherapy. Since late 2010, we have treated more than 40 patients with our robotic linear accelerator...
2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110431/effects-of-micro-vibratory-modulation-during-robot-assisted-membrane-peeling
#13
Berk Gonenc, Peter Gehlbach, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
In retinal microsurgery, membrane peeling is a standard procedure requiring the delamination of a thin fibrous membrane adherent to the retina surface by applying very small forces. Robotic devices with combined force-sensing instruments have significant potential to assist this procedure by facilitating membrane delamination through induced micro-vibrations. However, defining the optimal frequency and amplitude for generating such vibrations, and updating these parameters during the procedure is not trivial...
September 2015: Proceedings of the ... IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913002/serendipitous-offline-learning-in-a-neuromorphic-robot
#14
Terrence C Stewart, Ashley Kleinhans, Andrew Mundy, Jörg Conradt
We demonstrate a hybrid neuromorphic learning paradigm that learns complex sensorimotor mappings based on a small set of hard-coded reflex behaviors. A mobile robot is first controlled by a basic set of reflexive hand-designed behaviors. All sensor data is provided via a spike-based silicon retina camera (eDVS), and all control is implemented via spiking neurons simulated on neuromorphic hardware (SpiNNaker). Given this control system, the robot is capable of simple obstacle avoidance and random exploration...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26540694/a-bio-inspired-aer-temporal-tri-color-differentiator-pixel-array
#15
Łukasz Farian, Juan Antonio Leñero-Bardallo, Philipp Häfliger
This article investigates the potential of a bio-inspired vision sensor with pixels that detect transients between three primary colors. The in-pixel color processing is inspired by the retinal color opponency that are found in mammalian retinas. Color transitions in a pixel are represented by voltage spikes, which are akin to a neuron's action potential. These spikes are conveyed off-chip by the Address Event Representation (AER) protocol. To achieve sensitivity to three different color spectra within the visual spectrum, each pixel has three stacked photodiodes at different depths in the silicon substrate...
October 2015: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25906167/transient-but-significant-visual-field-defects-after-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-radical-prostatectomy-in-deep-trendelenburg-position
#16
Yukako Taketani, Chihiro Mayama, Noriyuki Suzuki, Akiko Wada, Tatsuhiro Oka, Kazuya Inamochi, Yohei Nomoto
BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure for prostate cancer. During RALP, the patient must be in a steep Trendelenburg (head-down) position, which leads to a significant increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). The association of RALP with visual field sensitivity, however, has not been prospectively studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the visual field, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and optic disc morphology in 50 normal eyes of 25 male patients that underwent RALP...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25879969/1-khz-2d-visual-motion-sensor-using-20-%C3%A3-20-silicon-retina-optical-sensor-and-dsp-microcontroller
#17
Shih-Chii Liu, MinHao Yang, Andreas Steiner, Rico Moeckel, Tobi Delbruck
Optical flow sensors have been a long running theme in neuromorphic vision sensors which include circuits that implement the local background intensity adaptation mechanism seen in biological retinas. This paper reports a bio-inspired optical motion sensor aimed towards miniature robotic and aerial platforms. It combines a 20 × 20 continuous-time CMOS silicon retina vision sensor with a DSP microcontroller. The retina sensor has pixels that have local gain control and adapt to background lighting. The system allows the user to validate various motion algorithms without building dedicated custom solutions...
April 2015: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25780736/evaluation-of-microsurgical-tasks-with-oct-guided-and-or-robot-assisted-ophthalmic-forceps
#18
Haoran Yu, Jin-Hui Shen, Rohan J Shah, Nabil Simaan, Karen M Joos
Real-time intraocular optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualization of tissues with surgical feedback can enhance retinal surgery. An intraocular 23-gauge B-mode forward-imaging co-planar OCT-forceps, coupling connectors and algorithms were developed to form a unique ophthalmic surgical robotic system. Approach to the surface of a phantom or goat retina by a manual or robotic-controlled forceps, with and without real-time OCT guidance, was performed. Efficiency of lifting phantom membranes was examined. Placing the co-planar OCT imaging probe internal to the surgical tool reduced instrument shadowing and permitted constant tracking...
February 1, 2015: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25401003/towards-robot-assisted-vitreoretinal-surgery-force-sensing-micro-forceps-integrated-with-a-handheld-micromanipulator
#19
Berk Gonenc, Ellen Feldman, Peter Gehlbach, James Handa, Russell H Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
In vitreoretinal practice, controlled tremor-free motion and limitation of applied forces to the retina are two highly desired features. This study addresses both requirements with a new integrated system: a force-sensing motorized micro-forceps combined with an active tremor-canceling handheld micromanipulator, known as Micron. The micro-forceps is a 20 Ga instrument that is mechanically decoupled from its handle and senses the transverse forces at its tip with an accuracy of 0.3 mN. Membrane peeling trials on a bandage phantom revealed a 60-95% reduction in the 2-20 Hz band in both the tip force and position spectra, while peeling forces remained below the set safety threshold...
May 2014: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25383234/a-multi-function-force-sensing-instrument-for-variable-admittance-robot-control-in-retinal-microsurgery
#20
Xingchi He, Marcin Balicki, Peter Gehlbach, James Handa, Russell Taylor, Iulian Iordachita
Robotic systems have the potential to assist vitreoretinal surgeons in extremely difficult surgical tasks inside the human eye. In addition to reducing hand tremor and improving tool positioning, a robotic assistant can provide assistive motion guidance using virtual fixtures, and incorporate real-time feedback from intraocular force sensing ophthalmic instruments to present tissue manipulation forces, that are otherwise physically imperceptible to the surgeon. This paper presents the design of an FBG-based, multi-function instrument that is capable of measuring mN-level forces at the instrument tip located inside the eye, and also the sclera contact location on the instrument shaft and the corresponding contact force...
May 2014: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA: [proceedings]
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