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gut metabolome

Shiho Fujisaka, Julian Avila-Pacheco, Marion Soto, Aleksandar Kostic, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Hui Pan, Siegfried Ussar, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Lynn Bry, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Diet, genetics, and the gut microbiome are determinants of metabolic status, in part through production of metabolites by the gut microbiota. To understand the mechanisms linking these factors, we performed LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis of cecal contents and plasma from C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, and 129S6/SvEvTac mice on chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD-treated with vancomycin or metronidazole. Prediction of the functional metagenome of gut bacteria by PICRUSt analysis of 16S sequences revealed dramatic differences in microbial metabolism...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Laura-Isobel McCall, Anupriya Tripathi, Fernando Vargas, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein, Jair L Siqueira-Neto
Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are the causative agents of Chagas disease. These parasites infect cardiac and gastrointestinal tissues, leading to local inflammation and tissue damage. Digestive Chagas disease is associated with perturbations in food absorption, intestinal traffic and defecation. However, the impact of T. cruzi infection on the gut microbiota and metabolome have yet to be characterized. In this study, we applied mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and 16S rRNA sequencing to profile infection-associated alterations in fecal bacterial composition and fecal metabolome through the acute-stage and into the chronic stage of infection, in a murine model of Chagas disease...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shenhai Gong, Tian Lan, Liyan Zeng, Haihua Luo, Xiaoyu Yang, Na Li, Xiaojiao Chen, Zhanguo Liu, Rui Li, Sanda Win, Shuwen Liu, Hongwei Zhou, Bernd Schnabl, Yong Jiang, Neil Kaplowitz, Peng Chen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of acute liver failure worldwide. It is well established that the liver damage induced by acetaminophen exhibits diurnal variation. However, the detailed mechanism for the hepatotoxic variation is not clear. Here we aimed to determine the relative contributions of gut microbiota in modulating the diurnal variation of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP. METHODS: Male Balb/C mice were treated with or without antibiotics and orally administrated a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg) at ZT0 (when the light is on-start of resting period) and ZT12 (when the light is off-start of active period)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Dezhen Wang, Jin Yan, Miaomiao Teng, Sen Yan, Zhiqiang Zhou, Wentao Zhu
In this study, we investigated the effects of in utero and lactational exposure to BDE-47 on the progression of obesity and metabolic dysfunction in a diet-induced obesity model. Pregnant ICR mice were treated via oral gavage with low doses of BDE-47 (0, 0.002, and 0.2 mg/kg body weight) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day 21. After weaning, male offspring were fed an AIN93-based normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD: 60% calories from fat) for 14 weeks. We examined body weight, liver weight, histopathology, blood biochemistry, gene expression, and serum metabolic changes...
March 9, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Rajesh Dabur, Amey Shirolkar, Vijender Mishra, Baljeet Singh Yadav
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption damages the intestine and liver cells directly as well as through unbalancing the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to correlate the alcohol consumption and change in urinary metabolites profile linked with gut microbiota. METHOD: Non-alcoholic (control) healthy (n=22) and moderate alcoholic (n=26) males with an average age of 39.3±1.83 years subjected to alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) were considered for study...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ruey Leng Loo, Xin Zou, Lawrence J Appel, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes
Background: Interindividual variation in the response to diet is common, but the underlying mechanism for such variation is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to use a metabolic profiling approach to identify a panel of urinary metabolites representing individuals demonstrating typical (homogeneous) metabolic responses to healthy diets, and subsequently to define the association of these metabolites with improvement of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, I Jane Cox, Hiroshi Nittono, Hajime Takei, Melanie White, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Ho Chong Gilles, Phillip Hylemon, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Min Kim, Jin Xu, Roger Williams, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, William M Pandak, Patrick M Gillevet
Liver transplant (LT) improves daily function and ameliorates gut microbial composition. However, the effect of LT on microbial functionality, which can be related to overall patient benefit, is unclear and could affect the post-LT course. AIMS: To determine the effect of LT on gut microbial functionality focusing on endotoxemia, bile acid (BA), ammonia metabolism and lipidomics. METHOD: We enrolled outpatient cirrhotic patients on the LT list and followed them till 6 months post-LT...
March 3, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Surya N Mulukutla, Jean W Hsu, Ruchi Gaba, Kurt M Bohren, Anu Guthikonda, Dinakar Iyer, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Christiane S Hampe, Nalini Ram, Farook Jahoor, Ashok Balasubramanyam
Background: A-β + ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a subset of type 2 diabetes in which patients have severe but reversible β cell dysfunction of unknown etiology. Plasma metabolomic analysis indicates that abnormal arginine metabolism may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relation between gut microbiome and arginine metabolism and the relation between arginine availability and β cell function in KPD patients compared with control participants...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Fuyuan Wang, Jingjing Meng, Li Zhang, Timothy Johnson, Chi Chen, Sabita Roy
Opioid analgesics are frequently prescribed in the United States and worldwide. However, serious comorbidities, such as dependence, tolerance, immunosuppression and gastrointestinal disorders limit their long-term use. In the current study, a morphine-murine model was used to investigate the role of the gut microbiome and metabolome as a potential mechanism contributing to the negative consequences associated with opioid use. Results reveal a significant shift in the gut microbiome and metabolome within one day following morphine treatment compared to that observed after placebo...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Attia Anwar, Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo, Sabah Pasha, Kashif Rajpoot, Alessandra Bolotta, Alessandro Ghezzo, Marina Marini, Annio Posar, Paola Visconti, Paul J Thornalley, Naila Rabbani
Background: Clinical chemistry tests for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are currently unavailable. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic utility of proteotoxic biomarkers in plasma and urine, plasma protein glycation, oxidation, and nitration adducts, and related glycated, oxidized, and nitrated amino acids (free adducts), for the clinical diagnosis of ASD. Methods: Thirty-eight children with ASD (29 male, 9 female; age 7.6 ± 2.0 years) and 31 age-matched healthy controls (23 males, 8 females; 8...
2018: Molecular Autism
Concetta Panebianco, Kaarel Adamberg, Madis Jaagura, Massimiliano Copetti, Andrea Fontana, Signe Adamberg, Kaia Kolk, Raivo Vilu, Angelo Andriulli, Valerio Pazienza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of cancer-related death. We aimed to evaluate whether gemcitabine treatment shapes the gut microbiota in a model of PDAC xenografted mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to gemcitabine injection once per week for 3 weeks to assess the tumor volume as compared to control mice injected with normal saline solution. The composition of fecal microbiota, the activation of NF-kB pathway in cancer tissues and the serum metabolomics were further analyzed...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Shruti Nagaraja, Serge Ankri
During its life cycle, the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica is challenged by a wide variety of environmental stresses, such as fluctuation in glucose concentration, changes in gut microbiota composition, and the release of oxidative and nitrosative species from neutrophils and macrophages. The best mode of survival for this parasite is to continuously adapt itself to the dynamic environment of the host. Our ability to study the stress-induced responses and adaptive mechanisms of this parasite has been transformed through the development of genomics, proteomics or metabolomics (omics sciences)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
W Cheng, J Lu, W Lin, X Wei, H Li, X Zhao, A Jiang, J Yuan
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotics that positively affect the host's gut microbiota, which is important for the health of the host. Most previous studies focused on specific flora components (e.g. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus); very few have investigated the relationship between flora and metabolites. Here, we used 16S rRNA analysis and metabolomics to analyze the effect of GOS on microbiota and metabolites. Results show that the abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Oscillibacter decreased significantly in GOS-fed mice...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
Yang Zhou, Cheng Hu, Xinjie Zhao, Ping Luo, Jingyi Lu, Qing Li, Miao Chen, Dandan Yan, Xin Lu, Hongwei Kong, Weiping Jia, Guowang Xu
Sulfonylureas are one of the commonly used drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but with considerable incidence of monotherapy failure. However, the mechanism of patients' drug response is unclear, and suitability evaluation biomarkers are in urgent need for precision medicine. In this study, a pseudotargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was employed to investigate the serum metabolic profiling of 66 significant responders and 24 nonsignificant responders at baseline and 16 weeks after gliclazide modified-release (MR) monotherapy...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Erica E Alexeev, Jordi M Lanis, Daniel J Kao, Eric L Campbell, Caleb J Kelly, Kayla D Battista, Mark E Gerich, Brittany R Jenkins, Seth T Walk, Douglas J Kominsky, Sean P Colgan
Interactions between the gut microbiota and the host are important for health, where dysbiosis has emerged as a likely component of mucosal disease. The specific constituents of the microbiota that contribute to mucosal disease are not well defined. We sought to define microbial components that regulate homeostasis within the intestinal mucosa. Using an unbiased, metabolomic profiling approach, a selective depletion of indole and indole-derived metabolites was identified in murine and human colitis. Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) was selectively diminished in circulating serum from human subjects with active colitis and that IPA served as a biomarker of disease remission...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Precision nutrition aims to prevent and manage chronic diseases by tailoring dietary interventions or recommendations to one or a combination of an individual's genetic background, metabolic profile, and environmental exposures. Recent advances in genomics, metabolomics, and gut microbiome technologies have offered opportunities as well as challenges in the use of precision nutrition to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes. Nutrigenomics studies have identified genetic variants that influence intake and metabolism of specific nutrients and predict individuals' variability in response to dietary interventions...
February 9, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
M Q Wang, Y Li, C H Sun
The human gastro-intestinal tract is not only the habitat of gut microbiota, but also the main place that the body gets available nutrients. Therefore, the gut microbiota of human can be inseparable associated with the human nutrition. The common technologies used among gut microbiota research included metageonomic, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics. The research of gut microbiota based on above omics methods confirmed that diets were the main factors influencing the composition and expression of gut microbiota...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Liang Chi, Xiaoming Bian, Bei Gao, Pengcheng Tu, Yunjia Lai, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Although artificial sweeteners are widely used in food industry, their effects on human health remain a controversy. It is known that the gut microbiota plays a key role in human metabolism and recent studies indicated that some artificial sweeteners such as saccharin could perturb gut microbiome and further affect host health, such as inducing glucose intolerance. Neotame is a relatively new low-caloric and high-intensity artificial sweetener, approved by FDA in 2002. However, the specific effects of neotame on gut bacteria are still unknown...
February 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ana M Gil, Daniela Duarte, Joana Pinto, António S Barros
This nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics study compared the influence of two different central Portugal exposomes, one of which comprised an important source of pollutants (the Estarreja Chemical Complex, ECC), on the urinary metabolic trajectory of a cohort of healthy pregnant women (total n = 107). An exposome-independent description of pregnancy metabolism was found to comprise a set of 18 metabolites reflecting expected changes in branched-chain amino acid catabolism and hormone and lipid metabolisms...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Shannon Delaney, Mady Hornig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
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