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Beta d glucan

Y-K Pang, M Ip, J H S You
Early initiation of antifungal treatment for invasive candidiasis is associated with change in mortality. Beta-D-glucan (BDG) is a fungal cell wall component and a serum diagnostic biomarker of fungal infection. Clinical findings suggested an association between reduced invasive candidiasis incidence in intensive care units (ICUs) and BDG-guided preemptive antifungal therapy. We evaluated the potential cost-effectiveness of active BDG surveillance with preemptive antifungal therapy in patients admitted to adult ICUs from the perspective of Hong Kong healthcare providers...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Yachun Su, Zhuqing Wang, Feng Liu, Zhu Li, Qiong Peng, Jinlong Guo, Liping Xu, Youxiong Que
Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC, commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181) from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
J T Ramos, L Francisco, Z Daoud
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised adults and children. The purpose of this review was to update the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic options in children, and to compare them with the adult population. Although there are important differences, the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for IFI have many similarities. Patient at risk include neutropenic hematology children, in whom Candida spp. y Aspergillus spp. predominate; primary immunodeficiencies, particularly chronic granulomatous disease with high susceptibility for Aspergillus spp...
September 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Kim Vigor, John Emerson, Robert Scott, Julia Cheek, Claire Barton, Heather J Bax, Debra H Josephs, Sophia N Karagiannis, James F Spicer, Heike Lentfer
The presence of impurities or contaminants in biological products such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb) could affect efficacy or cause adverse reactions in patients. ICH guidelines (Q6A and Q6B) are in place to regulate the level of impurities within clinical drug products. An impurity less often reported and, therefore, lacking regulatory guideline is beta-glucan. Beta-glucans are polysaccharides of d-glucose monomers linked by (1-3) beta-glycosidic bonds, and are produced by prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including plants...
September 7, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Mark K Farrugia, Evan P Fogha, Abdul R Miah, Joel Yednock, H Carl Palmer, John Guilfoose
A 44-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Her past medical history was significant for long-standing intravenous drug abuse. Shortly after admission, the patient became hypertensive and febrile, with fever as high as 38.8°C. The lumbar puncture profile supported an infectious process; however multiple cultures of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) did not initially show growth of organisms. Finally after 9 days of incubation, a CSF culture showed evidence of a few colonies of Candida albicans...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Thomas Lehrnbecher, Paula D Robinson, Brian T Fisher, Elio Castagnola, Andreas H Groll, William J Steinbach, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Zelalem F Negeri, Joseph Beyene, Bob Phillips, Lillian Sung
We systematically reviewed and analyzed the available data for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BG), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to detect invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with pediatric cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation when used as screening tools during immunosuppression or as diagnostic tests in patients presenting with symptoms such as fever during neutropenia (FN). Of 1532 studies screened, 25 studies reported on GM (n = 19), BG (n = 3), and PCR (n = 11)...
August 27, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
David A Stevens, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Pappagianis Demosthenes, Karl V Clemons, Martinez Marife
Diagnosing coccidioidal meningitis (CM) can be problematic owing to infrequency and/or delay of positivity of CSF culture or CSF antibody, particularly if primary coccidioidal infection is unrecognized. We tested 37 CSF specimens, 26 from confirmed CM and 11 from patients with suspected microbial meningitis without fungal diagnosis, for (1, 3)-beta glucan (BG). CM CSF specimens BG ranged from 18-3300 pg/ml, controls <3.9-103. Diagnostic performance was determined using 31 pg/ml cutoff (bottom of serum range per directions for commercial kit, though further serial dilutions of the standard indicated linearity to 3...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Gülçin Bölük, Esra Kazak, Fahir Özkalemkaş, Beyza Ener, Halis Akalin, Harun Ağca, Yıldız Okuturlar, Kürşad Keskin, Başak Burgazlioğlu, Rıdvan Ali
BACKGROUND/AIM: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a fatal infection that is difficult to diagnose in immunocompromised patients. In this study, Aspergillus-specific DNA was searched using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in serum samples. Galactomannan (GM) and/or beta-D-glucan (BDG) tests were previously performed on these samples for 70 neutropenic patients with hematological malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients were categorized according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG)...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
T Boch, B Spiess, O A Cornely, J J Vehreschild, P M Rath, J Steinmann, W J Heinz, J Hahn, S W Krause, M G Kiehl, G Egerer, T Liebregts, M Koldehoff, M Klein, F Nolte, M C Mueller, N Merker, S Will, M Mossner, H Popp, W-K Hofmann, M Reinwald, D Buchheidt
OBJECTIVES: High mortality rates of invasive fungal disease (IFD), especially invasive aspergillosis (IA), in immunocompromised hematological patients and current diagnostic limitations require improvement of detection of fungal pathogens by defining the optimal use of biomarkers and clinical samples. METHODS: Concurrent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood samples of 99 hematological patients with suspected IFD were investigated within a multicenter prospective study...
July 5, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ugur Sahin, Selami Kocak Toprak, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Erden Atilla, Taner Demirer
Infections are the most common and significant cause of mortality and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The presence of neutropenia and mucosal damage are the leading risk factors in the early pre-engraftment phase. In the early post-engraftment phase, graft versus host disease (GvHD) induced infection risk is increased in addition to catheter related infections. In the late phase, in which reconstitution of cellular and humoral immunity continues, as well as the pathogens seen during the early post-engraftment phase, varicella-zoster virus and encapsulated bacterial infections due to impaired opsonization are observed...
August 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Ryan R Simon, Trung D Vo, Robert Levine
Euglena gracilis is a microalga capable of synthesizing various nutrients of interest in human and animal nutrition. When cultivated aerobically in the dark, Euglena synthesize paramylon, a storage polysaccharide comprised of high molecular weight beta-1,3-D-glucose polymers organized in cytoplasmic granules. Beta-glucans have been shown to have immune modulation effects, including anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties, and metabolic effects, such as regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels...
October 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
M Mikulska, D R Giacobbe, E Furfaro, A Mesini, A Marchese, V Del Bono, C Viscoli
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and the levels of 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG) among patients with candidaemia due to different Candida species. Retrospective study of all patients who had a single-species candidaemia and BDG testing performed within 48 h from the onset of candidaemia during 2009-2015 was performed. Factors influencing the sensitivity of BDG, including the presence of a central venous catheter, antifungal therapy and Candida species, were analysed in univariate and multivariate models...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ingrid Sander, Anne Lotz, Eva Zahradnik, Monika Raulf
Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1)...
August 2016: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Blake Hanson, Yanjiao Zhou, Eddy J Bautista, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, Frances Silverman, Michael Muilenberg, Wanda Phipatanakul, George Weinstock, Erica Sodergren, Diane R Gold, Joanne E Sordillo
Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1 → 3-beta-d-glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of microbial communities present in home, school and outdoor air samples by amplifying and sequencing regions of rRNA genes from bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S and ITS)...
June 15, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Sabrina Goudjil, Christèle Chazal, François Moreau, André Leke, Guy Kongolo, Tayeb Chouaki
INTRODUCTION: Serum (1-3)-beta-d-glucan (BDG) assay has been proposed as an adjunct for the rapid diagnosis of invasive fungal infection (IFI). However, false-positive results have been reported following transfusion of blood products in adults. AIMS: To assess the relationship between blood product transfusion and elevated BDG in neonates. METHOD: Retrospective study including neonates ≤32 weeks, with no fungal colonization or infection, in whom BDG assay was performed for suspicion of IFI...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Tobias Lahmer, Sebastian Rasch, Christopher Schnappauf, Analena Beitz, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity/mortality in critically ill patients with hematological malignancies. New diagnosis strategies include the noninvasive biomarkers 1,3-beta-D-glucan (BDG) and serum galactomannan (GM). METHODS: For early detection of IPA, we compared BDG Fungitell assay with GM Platelia assay. RESULTS: Twenty-two out of 30 patients (74 %) had elevated BDG levels (mean 306 pg/ml) beyond the cutoff of 80 pg/ml...
August 2016: Mycopathologia
Kusmiati, F X Rizky Dhewantara
Glucans are present in fungi, plants, algae, and bacteria. β-Glucan, one of the major cell wall components of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been found to enhance immune functions. Glucans are glucose polymers with an α- or β-type glycosidic chain. The role of (1→3)-β-D-glucan is in the maintenance of yeast cell wall shape and rigidity. Studies reveal that soluble glucans can lower total cholesterol and LDL levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The important benefit of β-glucan is to improve the immune system and to decrease cholesterol levels in the blood...
2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Akihiko Morita, Masaki Ishihara, Michiko Konno
Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures...
April 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
F M J Reischies, J Prattes, A Woelfler, S Eigl, M Hoenigl
BACKGROUND: The polysaccharide cell wall component, 1,3-beta-D-glucan (BDG), is used as a serum biomarker for invasive fungal infection (IFI). Patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are considered a highly vulnerable group for IFI development. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of serum BDG screening in HSCT recipients. METHODS: HSCT recipients were prospectively enrolled in this study between September 2014 and August 2015. Routine serum BDG screening was performed 2-3 times weekly by using the Fungitell(®) assay...
June 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
T V de Araújo, E F Andrade, R V Lobato, D R Orlando, N F Gomes, R V de Sousa, M G Zangeronimo, L J Pereira
We investigated the effects of beta-glucans (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ingestion on metabolic parameters of Wistar rats receiving high-fat diet. The experimental period was divided into two stages: in the first one, the animals were divided into two groups containing 12 animals each. The first group received commercial feed and the second received high-fat diet containing 20% of pork fat during 60 days. At the end of this period, body weight, blood glucose and Lee index were assessed. In the second stage, those 24 animals were redivided into four groups: (C) - control diet; (CB) - control diet and treated with Beta-glucan (BG); (O) - obese animals and (OB) - obese animals treated with BG...
March 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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