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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328685/whole-blood-transfusion-closest-to-the-point-of-injury-during-french-remote-military-operations
#1
Yann Daniel, Anne Sailliol, Thomas Pouget, Sébastien Peyrefitte, Sylvain Ausset, Christophe Martinaud
To improve the survival of combat casualties, interest in the earliest resort to whole blood (WB) transfusion on the battlefield has been emphasized. Providing volume, coagulation factors, plasma and oxygenation capacity, WB appears actually as an ideal product severe trauma management. WB can be collected in advance, and stored for subsequent utilization, or can be drawn, directly on the battlefield, once a soldier is wounded, from an uninjured companion and immediately transfused.Such concepts require a great control of risks at each step, especially regarding ABO mismatches, and transfusion transmitted diseases...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319855/microbial-bioreporters-of-trace-explosives
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin Shemer, Ori Koshet, Sharon Yagur-Kroll, Shimshon Belkin
Since its introduction as an explosive in the late 19th century, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), along with other explosive compounds, has left numerous environmental marks. One of these is widespread soil and water pollution by trace explosives in military proving grounds, manufacturing facilities, or actual battlefields. Another dramatic impact is that exerted by the millions of landmines and other explosive devices buried in large parts of the world, causing extensive loss of life, injuries, and economical damage...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318991/bleeding-control-using-hemostatic-dressings-lessons-learned
#3
REVIEW
Brad L Bennett
Based on lessons learned, many military battlefield trauma advances ultimately transition to enhance civilian trauma care. However, even with major strides to enhance battlefield hemorrhage control, it is unclear how effectively these techniques and products are being translated to civilian trauma. The purpose of this brief review is to present the evidence of current hemostatic product effectiveness, determine the evidence for transitioning of this technology to prehospital civilian application, and provide recommendations about potential use in the wilderness/austere setting...
March 16, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291503/regenerative-and-antibacterial-properties-of-acellular-fish-skin-grafts-and-human-amnion-chorion-membrane-implications-for-tissue-preservation-in-combat-casualty-care
#4
Skuli Magnusson, Baldur Tumi Baldursson, Hilmar Kjartansson, Ottar Rolfsson, Gudmundur Fertram Sigurjonsson
BACKGROUND: Improvised explosive devices and new directed energy weapons are changing warfare injuries from penetrating wounds to large surface area thermal and blast injuries. Acellular fish skin is used for tissue repair and during manufacturing subjected to gentle processing compared to biologic materials derived from mammals. This is due to the absence of viral and prion disease transmission risk, preserving natural structure and composition of the fish skin graft. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess properties of acellular fish skin relevant for severe battlefield injuries and to compare those properties with those of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291495/an-assessment-of-national-emt-certification-among-enlisted-military-medics
#5
Stephen Harper, Remle Crowe, Melissa Bentley, Chetan Kharod, Benjamin Walrath
BACKGROUND: Navy Hospital Corpsmen (HMs) are the Navy equivalent to Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) both in-garrison and on the battlefield. In 2000, the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Education Agenda for the Future highlighted the need for a single certification agency to provide consistent evaluation of entry level competence for each nationally recognized EMS provider level. Administered by the National Registry of EMTs (NREMT), National EMT Certification is currently utilized by 46 states, the District of Columbia, four territories, and six federal organizations as part of their processes for granting licensure...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291458/wearable-pulse-oximetry-measurements-on-the-torso-arms-and-legs-a-proof-of-concept
#6
Marcus Kramer, Aaron Lobbestael, Emily Barten, John Eian, Gregory Rausch
For decades pulse oximeters designed for use on the head, hands, or feet have provided invaluable estimates of oxygen saturation to medical personal attending to combat casualties. However, traditional placement sites are not ideal for the relatively new paradigm of continuous battlefield telemonitoring. To assess the feasibility of oximetry on nontraditional body sites, 42 healthy volunteers were enrolled, consented, and underwent an industry standard induced-hypoxia study. During the study volunteers used prototype wearable oximeters, designed for the torso, arms, and legs...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291449/the-afghan-theater-a-review-of-military-medical-doctrine-from-2008-to-2014
#7
Ian Lane, Zsolt Stockinger, Samual Sauer, Mark Ervin, Michael Wirt, Stephen Bree, Kirby Gross, Jeffrey Bailey, Brig Timothy Hodgetts, Elizabeth Mann-Salinas
This article forms part of a series that will explore the effect that Role 2 (R2) medical treatment facilities (MTFs) had on casualty care during the military campaign in Afghanistan and how we should interpret this to inform the capabilities in, and training for future R2 MTFs. Key aspects of doctrine which influence the effectiveness of R2 MTFs include timelines to care, patient movement capabilities, and MTF capabilities. The focus of this analysis was to review allied doctrine from the United States, United Kingdom, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to identify similarities and differences regarding employment of R2 related medical assets in the Afghan Theater, specifically for trauma care...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290958/comparative-assessment-of-three-approaches-of-teaching-nonmedically-trained-persons-in-the-handling-of-supraglottic-airways-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Mario Hensel, Willi Schmidbauer, Michael Benker, Paula Schmieder, Thoralf Kerner
BACKGROUND: The use of supraglottic airways has been recommended in combat trauma airway management. To ensure an adequate airway management on the battlefield, suitable training concepts are sought to efficiently teach as many soldiers as possible. Our aim was to compare three approaches of teaching laypersons in the handling of supraglottic airways in a mannequin model. METHODS: In this prospective randomized blinded study, 285 military service men without any medical background were divided into three groups and trained in the use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMA) and the Laryngeal Tube Disposable (LT-D)...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290957/oral-maxillofacial-injury-surveillance-of-u-s-military-personnel-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-2001-to-2014
#9
Timothy A Mitchener, Rodney Chan, John W Simecek
BACKGROUND: Cranial and oral-maxillofacial injuries accounted for 33% of military visits to in-theater (Level III) military treatment facilities for battle injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Even after years of conflict, the size and scope of oral-maxillofacial injuries in military armed conflict is still not fully understood. This study reports U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) rates of oral-maxillofacial injuries that can be used for further surveillance and research...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290930/medical-effects-of-a-transuranic-dirty-bomb
#10
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290925/two-decades-of-saving-lives-on-the-battlefield-tactical-combat-casualty-care-turns-20
#11
Frank K Butler
BACKGROUND: Twenty years ago, the original Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) article was published in this journal. Since TCCC is essentially a set of best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield, the presence of a journal with a specific focus on military medicine was a profound benefit to the initial presentation of TCCC to the U.S. Military. METHODS: In the two ensuing decades, which included the longest continuous period of armed conflict in our nation's history, TCCC steadily evolved as the prehospital trauma care evidence base was augmented and as feedback from user medics, corpsmen, and pararescuemen was obtained...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285483/a-perspective-on-the-potential-for-battlefield-resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta
#12
Ryan M Knight
Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has a place in civilian trauma centers in the United States, and British physicians performed the first prehospital REBOA, proving the concept viable for civilian emergency medical service. Can this translate into battlefield REBOA to stop junctional hemorrhage and extend "golden hour" rings in combat? If yes, at what level is this procedure best suited and what does it entail? This author's perspective, after treating patients on the battlefield and during rotary wing evacuation, is that REBOA may have a place in prehospital resuscitation but patient and provider selection are paramount...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285480/pediatric-trauma-management-from-an-austere-prospective
#13
Joycelynn Gray, Derek R Linklater, James Johnston, Benjamin Donham
Pediatric trauma represents a notable proportion of casualties encountered by Combat medics, physician assistants, and physicians while in the deployed setting. Most of these resuscitation teams receive limited pediatric- specific training and suffer subsequent emotional stress due the perceived high-stakes nature of caring for gravely wounded children. Even when children survive long enough to arrive at combat support hospitals, there remain high risks for morbidity and mortality for many of them. There are numerous reports of the epidemiological characteristics of these pediatric patients, the common mechanisms of injury, the hospital lengths of stay, and calls for pediatric-specific equipment and specialist presence in-theatre...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284484/tactical-combat-casualty-care-transitioning-battlefield-lessons-learned-to-other-austere-environments
#14
EDITORIAL
Brad Bennett, Ian Wedmore, Frank Butler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284483/tactical-combat-casualty-care-beginnings
#15
REVIEW
Frank K Butler
Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a set of evidence-based, best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield. The origins of TCCC were nontraditional. The TCCC program began as a Naval Special Warfare biomedical research effort launched after the realization that extremity hemorrhage, a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield, was not being treated with a readily available and highly effective intervention: the tourniquet. This insight prompted a systematic reevaluation of all aspects of battlefield trauma care that was conducted from 1993 to 1996 as a joint effort by special operations medical personnel and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences...
March 8, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254598/management-of-war-related-ballistic-craniocerebral-injuries-in-a-french-role-3-hospital-during-the-afghan-campaign
#16
Arnaud Dagain, Olivier Aoun, Julien Bordes, Cédric Roqueplo, Christophe Joubert, Pierre Esnault, Aurore Sellier, Jean-Marc Delmas, Nicolas Desse, Mathilde Fouet, Philippe Pernot, Renaud Dulou
INTRODUCTION: France deployed to Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014 within the International Security and Assistance Force. A French role 3 hospital was built in 2009 in the vicinity of Kabul International Airport (KaIA). The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology, management and outcome of war-related craniocerebral injuries during the Afghan campaign in a French role 3 hospital. METHODS: From March 1, 2010 to September 30, 2012, we conducted a retrospective descriptive study in Kabul, Afghanistan...
February 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230629/point-of-injury-tourniquet-application-during-operation-protective-edge-what-de-we-learn
#17
Amir Shlaifer, Avraham Yitzhak, Erez N Baruch, Avi Shina, Alexandra Satanovsky, Amiram Shovali, Ofer Almog, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Timely tourniquet application to massively bleeding extremity wounds is critical for casualty survival albeit with reported adverse effects to extremity integrity. The aim of this study was to describe the immediate and short term outcomes of point of injury (POI) tourniquet applications during 'Operation Protective Edge' (OPE). METHODS: A case series study regarding tourniquet application at the POI during OPE was collected...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225742/review-of-military-and-civilian-trauma-registries-does-consensus-matter
#18
Thijs T C F van Dongen, Johan de Graaf, Eelco P Huizinga, Howard R Champion, Rigo Hoencamp, Luke P H Leenen
BACKGROUND: Structural collection of data from combat injuries is important to improve provided care and the outcome of (combat) casualties. Trauma registries are used in civilian and military health care systems for systematic administration of injury data. However, these registries often use different methods of data management, compromising international comparison of trauma systems. The aim of this review is to aid in reaching international (coalition-wide) consensus for compatible data collection methods with uniform definitions, which is needed for transnational research and subsequent improvement of medical support organizations...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209807/blast-injury-of-the-ear-by-massive-explosion-a-review-of-41-cases
#19
Stanislas Ballivet de Régloix, A Crambert, O Maurin, Q Lisan, S Marty, Y Pons
BACKGROUND: Blast injuries in modern warfare are common, and the ear is often affected as it is an effective pressure transducer. This study aimed to evaluate military blast injuries of the ear. METHODS: From May 2002 to October 2014, all patients referred to two military hospitals near Paris, France following exposure to massive explosions were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 41 patients (82 ears), 36 of them reported tinnitus, 25 hearing loss, 14 earache and 8 vertigo...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205089/-margaret-cavendish-vs-robert-hooke-an-impossible-duel
#20
Frédérique Aït-Touati
In 1665, Robert Hooke published his major work in microscopy, Micrographia, a defense of experimental philosophy. The following year, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, published at her own expense a treatise and a novel that undermined the basis of this new science. The dispute broke out at the initiative of the Duchess, in the context of a vast controversy about the legitimacy and the efficiency of optical instruments in natural philosophy. All the figures of the dual are used, except one: the counterattack...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
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