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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662694/from-the-battlefield-to-the-bedroom-a-multilevel-analysis-of-the-links-between-political-conflict-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-liberia
#1
Jocelyn T D Kelly, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Courtland Robinson, Michele R Decker
Objectives: Assess the link between levels of armed conflict and postconflict intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by women in Liberia. Methods: Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project data were used to measure conflict-related fatalities in districts in Liberia during the country's civil war from 1999 to 2003. These data were linked to individual-level data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, including past-year IPV. Multilevel logistic models accounting for the clustering of women within districts evaluated the relationship of conflict fatalities with postconflict past-year IPV...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661281/acute-high-altitude-exposure-shortens-survival-after-uncontrolled-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#2
Jingxiang Zhao, Guoxing You, Yujing Yin, Yuha Zhang, Ying Wang, Gan Chen, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled hemorrhage (UH) remains the most common cause of death on the battlefield. This study examined the pathophysiological characteristics of UH in rats acutely exposed to high altitude. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats raised at sea level were randomly divided into two groups. Rats in the high-altitude group were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (simulating 4000 m above sea level) for 2 d and then were performed a hemorrhagic shock protocol in the hypobaric chamber...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648986/a-single-primary-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rodent-model-causes-cell-type-dependent-increase-in-nadph-oxidase-isoforms-in-vulnerable-brain-regions
#3
Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Stephanie Iring, Daniel Younger, Matthew Kuriakose, Maciej Skotak, Eren Alay, Raj K Gupta, Namas Chandra
Blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) is a leading cause of morbidity in soldiers on the battlefield and in the training sites with long-term neurological and psychological pathologies. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated activation of oxidative stress pathways following blast injury, but their distribution among different brain regions and their impact on the pathogenesis of bTBI have not been explored. The present study examined the protein expression of two isoforms: NADPH oxidase 1 and 2 (NOX1, NOX2), corresponding superoxide production, a downstream event of NOX activation, and the extent of lipid peroxidation adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) to a range of proteins...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627582/life-on-a-napoleonic-battlefield-a-bioarchaeological-analysis-of-soldiers-from-the-battle-of-aspern-austria
#4
Leslie Quade, Michaela Binder
On the 21st-22nd of May 1809, French and Austrian soldiers engaged in battle near the village of Aspern on the outskirts of Vienna. This battle, the first defeat of Napoleon's army on land, was one of the largest and deadliest encounters during the Napoleonic Wars (1798-1815). Salvage excavations between 2009 and 2016 have revealed several battlefield burial sites in Aspern. The remains of 30 individuals were evaluated for a series of pathological conditions which develop during childhood and adulthood to elucidate the impact of Napoleonic military conditions on health...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626144/safest-light-in-a-combat-area-while-performing-intravenous-access-in-the-dark
#5
Attila Aydin, S Bilge, M Eryilmaz
INTRODUCTION: Cannulation for the administration of intravenous fluids is integral to the prehospital management of injured military patients. However, this may be technically challenging to undertake during night-time conditions where the use of light to aid cannulation may give the tactical situation away to opponents. The aim of this study was to investigate the success and tactical safety of venepuncture under battlefield conditions with different colour light sources. METHOD: The procedure was carried out with naked eye in a bright room in the absence of a separate light source, with a naked eye in a dark room under red, white, blue and green light sources and under an infrared light source while wearing night vision goggles (NVGs)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626143/opioid-analgesia-on-the-battlefield-a-retrospective-review-of-data-from-operation-herrick
#6
Pip Lewis, C Wright, C Hooper
BACKGROUND: Acute pain secondary to trauma is commonly encountered on the battlefield. The use of morphine to manage pain during combat has been well established since the 19th century. Despite this, there is relatively little research on analgesia use in this environment. This study aims to review the use and complications of morphine and other opioids during Operation HERRICK. METHODS: A database search of the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was completed looking for all incidences of morphine, fentanyl or naloxone use from February 2007 to September 2014...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615933/dexamethasone-protects-against-tourniquet-induced-acute-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mouse-hindlimb
#7
Ryan M Corrick, Huiyin Tu, Dongze Zhang, Aaron N Barksdale, Robert L Muelleman, Michael C Wadman, Yu-Long Li
Extremity injuries with hemorrhage have been a significant cause of death in civilian medicine and on the battlefield. The use of a tourniquet as an intervention is necessary for treatment to an injured limb; however, the tourniquet and subsequent release results in serious acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Much evidence demonstrates that inflammation is an important factor to cause acute IR injury. To find effective therapeutic interventions for tourniquet-induced acute IR injuries, our current study investigated effect of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609973/the-burden-of-gunshot-wounding-of-uk-military-personnel-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-from-2003-14
#8
T Stevenson, D J Carr, J G Penn-Barwell, T J Ringrose, S A Stapley
INTRODUCTION: Gunshot wounding (GSW) is the second most common mechanism of injury in warfare after explosive injury. The aim of this study was to define the clinical burden of GSW placed on UK forces throughout the recent Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of data from the UK Military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR). A JTTR search identified records within the 12 year period of conflict between 19 Mar 2003 and 27 Oct 2014 of all UK military GSW casualties sustained during the complete timelines of both conflicts...
March 27, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606678/resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-a-bridge-to-flight-survival
#9
Carl Goforth, Matthew Bradley, Benilani Pineda, Suzanne See, Jason Pasley
Trauma endures as the leading cause of death worldwide, and most deaths occur in the first 24 hours after initial injury as a result of hemorrhage. Historically, about 90% of battlefield deaths occur before the injured person arrives at a theater hospital, and most are due to noncompressible hemorrhage of the torso. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta is an evolving technique to quickly place a balloon into the thoracic or abdominal aorta to efficiently block blood flow to distal circulation...
April 2018: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605726/civilian-prehospital-tourniquet-use-is-associated-with-improved-survival-in-patients-with-peripheral-vascular-injuries
#10
Pedro Gr Teixeira, Carlos Vr Brown, Brent Emigh, Michael Long, Michael Foreman, Brian Eastridge, Stephen Gale, Michael S Truitt, Sharmila Dissanaike, Therese Duane, John Holcomb, Alex Eastman, Justin Regner
BACKGROUND: Tourniquet use has been proven to reduce mortality on the battlefield. Although empirically transitioned to the civilian environment, data substantiating survival benefit attributable to civilian tourniquet use is lacking. We hypothesized that civilian prehospital tourniquet use is associated with reduced mortality in patients with peripheral vascular injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective review of all patients sustaining peripheral vascular injuries admitted to 11 Level I trauma centers (Jan/2011-Dec/2016)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604210/a-new-triage-method-for-burn-disasters-fast-triage-in-burns-ftb
#11
Agnieszka Surowiecka-Pastewka, Wojciech Witkowski, Marek Kawecki
BACKGROUND There are few triage methods based on patient age and extent of burn. However, in case of mass casualties, age might be hard to define. Burn segregation in mass-casualty accidents requires an easy, fast, and effective method. Triage in burns should also segregate casualties requiring treatment in burn centers. The aim of this study was to create a proprietary segregation algorithm dedicated to mass-casualty incidents. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 939 burned patients admitted to the Clinical Department of Burns, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Military Institute of Medicine (MIM) in Warsaw and to the Center for the Treatment of Burns (CTB) in Siemianowice Śląskie in 2012 and 2013 was performed...
March 31, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596477/using-support-vector-machines-on-photoplethysmographic-signals-to-discriminate-between-hypovolemia-and-euvolemia
#12
Natasa Reljin, Gary Zimmer, Yelena Malyuta, Kirk Shelley, Yitzhak Mendelson, David J Blehar, Chad E Darling, Ki H Chon
Identifying trauma patients at risk of imminent hemorrhagic shock is a challenging task in intraoperative and battlefield settings given the variability of traditional vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure, and their inability to detect blood loss at an early stage. To this end, we acquired N = 58 photoplethysmographic (PPG) recordings from both trauma patients with suspected hemorrhage admitted to the hospital, and healthy volunteers subjected to blood withdrawal of 0.9 L. We propose four features to characterize each recording: goodness of fit (r2), the slope of the trend line, percentage change, and the absolute change between amplitude estimates in the heart rate frequency range at the first and last time points...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590483/building-capacity-for-complementary-and-integrative-medicine-through-a-large-cross-agency-acupuncture-training-program-lessons-learned-from-a-military-health-system-and-veterans-health-administration-joint-initiative-project
#13
Richard Niemtzow, John Baxter, Rollin M Gallagher, Arnyce Pock, Kathryn Calabria, David Drake, Kevin Galloway, Joan Walter, Richard Petri, Thomas Piazza, Stephen Burns, Lew Hofmann, John Biery, Chester Buckenmaier
Introduction: Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) use in the USA continues to expand, including within the Military Health System (MHS) and Veterans Health Administration (VHA). To mitigate the opioid crisis and provide additional non-pharmacological pain management options, a large cross-agency collaborative project sought to develop and implement a systems-wide curriculum, entitled Acupuncture Training Across Clinical Settings (ATACS). Materials and Methods: ATACS curriculum content and structure were created and refined over the course of the project in response to consultations with Subject Matter Experts and provider feedback...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580329/jonathan-letterman-md-the-surgeon-soldier-his-reform-of-battlefield-medicine
#14
Hunter D D Witmer, Michael J Pucci, Charles J Yeo, Scott W Cowan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569679/the-success-of-endotracheal-intubation-with-a-modified-laryngoscope-using-night-vision-goggles
#15
Attila Aydın, Sedat Bilge, Cemile Aydın, Meltem Bilge, Erdem Çevik, Mehmet Eryılmaz
BACKGROUND: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) procedure in the combat area differs from prehospital trauma life support procedures because of the danger of gunfire and the dark environment. We aimed to determine the success, difficulty degree, and duration of ETI procedures with a classical laryngoscope (CL) in a bright room and with a modified laryngoscope (ML) model in a dark room. METHODS: All interventions were performed by a combatant medical staff of 10 members...
March 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565670/role-of-department-of-defense-policies-in-identifying-traumatic-brain-injuries-among-deployed-us-service-members-2001-2016
#16
Yll Agimi, Lemma Ebssa Regasa, Brian Ivins, Saafan Malik, Katherine Helmick, Donald Marion
OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of Department of Defense policies in identifying theater-sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 48 172 US military service members who sustained their first lifetime TBIs between 2001 and 2016 while deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq. We used multivariable negative binomial models to examine the changes in TBI incidence rates following the introduction of Department of Defense policies...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551449/mortality-risk-factors-in-war-related-pediatric-burns-a-comparative-study-among-two-distinct-populations
#17
Sevgi Buyukbese Sarsu, Aydin Budeyri
INTRODUCTION: Previously, the majority of wars were fought on remote battlefields between opposing armies due to conflicts preventing civilians from sustaining war-related burn injuries (WRBI). In recent years, WRBI has had a tremendous harmful impact on the pediatric population. This study aimed to investigate the demographics, causes, mechanisms of burns, surgical procedures, the major and minor risk factors affecting mortality, and outcomes of pediatric WRBI amidst the Syrian refugees and the Turkey neighborhood population, treated at our Burn Center...
March 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550099/battlefield-acupuncture-to-treat-low-back-pain-in-the-emergency-department
#18
Lindsay M Fox, Mikiko Murakami, Houman Danesh, Alex F Manini
INTRODUCTION: Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) is an ear acupuncture protocol used by the military for immediate pain relief. This is a pilot feasibility study of BFA as a treatment for acute low back pain (LBP) in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Thirty acute LBP patients that presented to ED were randomized to standard care plus BFA or standard care alone. In the BFA group, outcomes were assessed at the time of randomization, 5 min after intervention, and again within 1 h after intervention...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547998/damage-control-resuscitation-supplemented-with-vasopressin-in-a-severe-polytrauma-model-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-uncontrolled-internal-hemorrhage
#19
J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547968/biological-response-to-stress-during-battlefield-trauma-training-live-tissue-versus-high-fidelity-patient-simulator
#20
Henry T Peng, Catherine Tenn, Oshin Vartanian, Shawn G Rhind, Jerzy Jarmasz, Homer Tien, Andrew Beckett
Introduction: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training imposes psychophysiological stress on medics. It is unclear whether these stress levels vary with the training modalities selected. It is also unclear how stress levels could have an impact on medical performance and skill uptake. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to compare the effects of live tissue (LT) with a high-fidelity patient simulator (SIM) on the level of stress elicited, performance, and skill uptake during battlefield trauma training course in an operating room (OR) and in a simulated battlefield scenario (field)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
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